Music reworks modernity, in part, by constructing imaginary journeys to alternative places (heterotopia). A sense of transport is built into tonality which delimits borders in order to cross them and juxtaposes dynamic linear motion with static spatial fields. The rigid lines of the new transport (railways, steamships) were countered by music’s evocation of water voyages. The construction of musical landscapes paralleled the cultivation of the garden, park, and picturesque landscape as alternative aesthetic spaces, the counterweight to the metaphysical restlessness of modernity, embodied in the figure of Faust. Music’s re-enchantment of the world detunes its own rationalized order, as in Bartók’s ‘night music’, or the reversion of the French horn to its natural tuning in Britten and Ligeti. In the later twentieth century, electronic music reworks the Baroque idea of the echo as a transformation of the visual world in the elsewhere of the auditory.
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