The Ends of the “Russian” Civil Wars
This chapter seeks to establish that elements of the civil wars persisted long after the usually given terminal dates of 1921 or 1922. It surveys the Bolsheviks' establishment of the buffer state of the Far Eastern Republic and that entity's struggles against opponents in the Russian Far East (notably the forces of General M.K. Diterikhs) during 1920-22, down to the Whites' evacuation of Vladivostok in October 1922, and the suppression of the White uprising in Iakutia in 1922-23. The impact upon the civil wars of renegade White atamans in the east (especially B.V. Annenkov, G.M. Semenov and R.F. Ungern von Sternberg) is also explained, as is the leaching of the “Russian” Civil Wars into Mongolia and China in the early 1920s. The chapter concludes with an account of the development of the Red Army's campaigns against anti-Soviet Muslim rebels in Central Asia (the Basmachi) during the 1920s and of the Soviet government's fraught relationship with proponents of Jadidism in that region. It is concluded that the “Russian” Civil Wars only came to an end with the closure of the last active Red Army front of the period — the Turkestan Front — in 1926.
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