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The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926Ten Years That Shook the World$
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Jonathan Smele

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190233044

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190233044.001.0001

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1918–19

1918–19

The Triumphal March of Reaction

Chapter:
(p.49) 2 1918–19
Source:
The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926
Author(s):

Jonathan D. Smele

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190233044.003.0002

This chapter examines the escalation of violence across the former Russian Empire as the First World War drew to a close, analysing the origins and early operations of the anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army (and that force's relations with the Don and Kuban Cossacks), the victory of Rightist forces in the Finnish Civil War, the emergence of the Baltic States, and the impact of Austro-German (and Ottoman) intervention in Ukraine and Transcaucasia. The chapter then shifts its focus to the opposition to Soviet rule that was raised by non-Bolshevik socialists in eastern Russia and elsewhere (the Democratic Counter-Revolution) in alliance with a peculiar outlier of the Allied intervention in Russia — the Czechoslovak Legion. It concludes with an account of the origins of the Red Army, noting the impact upon that process of events on the Volga Front in 1918 and the innovative solutions that the Red command introduced — especially the deployment of voenspetsy (former tsarist officers) and the ire this practise raised among Leftist elements of the Bolshevik party (and, during the so-called “Tsaritsyn Affair”, J.V. Stalin), as well as Trotsky's efforts to overcome problems of the recruitment and desertion of Red troops and officers.

Keywords:   Volunteer Army, Ukraine, Cossacks, Finnish Civil War, Austro-German intervention, Baltic States, Transcaucasia, Czechoslovak Legion, Democratic Counter-Revolution, Red Army

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