Raising the Bar
Raising the Bar
Input-Driven Accountability Policies and Achievement Outcomes
This chapter addresses the questions of school productivity and educational input standards in terms of accountability. How effective are input-driven educational policies in improving academic growth and narrowing achievement gaps? What types of interventions are more cost-effective for disadvantaged minority students? The trends of increased public educational expenditures vis-à-vis small student achievement gains raise questions about the productivity of schooling. The average effect size of input-driven interventions, such as class size reduction and after-school tutoring was modest, whereas effects tend to be relatively larger for targeted interventions among disadvantaged, low-achieving, and younger students. Although achievement gains from early inventions tend to decay over time, they can make long-term impacts on improving students’ educational attainment and career success. The evidence supports P-16 education policies such as universal preschool and early college programs that can help fix the broken education pipeline and make for seamless educational transitions.
Keywords: accountability, opportunity to learn, school productivity, school interventions, input-driven education policy, standards-based education reform, P-16 education, universal preschool, early college, policy analysis
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