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The Anatomy of Achievement GapsWhy and How American Education is Losing (but can still Win) the War on Underachievement$
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Jaekyung Lee

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190217648

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190217648.001.0001

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Raising the Bar

Raising the Bar

Input-Driven Accountability Policies and Achievement Outcomes

Chapter:
(p.163) 5 Raising the Bar
Source:
The Anatomy of Achievement Gaps
Author(s):

Jaekyung Lee

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190217648.003.0006

This chapter addresses the questions of school productivity and educational input standards in terms of accountability. How effective are input-driven educational policies in improving academic growth and narrowing achievement gaps? What types of interventions are more cost-effective for disadvantaged minority students? The trends of increased public educational expenditures vis-à-vis small student achievement gains raise questions about the productivity of schooling. The average effect size of input-driven interventions, such as class size reduction and after-school tutoring was modest, whereas effects tend to be relatively larger for targeted interventions among disadvantaged, low-achieving, and younger students. Although achievement gains from early inventions tend to decay over time, they can make long-term impacts on improving students’ educational attainment and career success. The evidence supports P-16 education policies such as universal preschool and early college programs that can help fix the broken education pipeline and make for seamless educational transitions.

Keywords:   accountability, opportunity to learn, school productivity, school interventions, input-driven education policy, standards-based education reform, P-16 education, universal preschool, early college, policy analysis

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