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The Anatomy of Achievement GapsWhy and How American Education is Losing (but can still Win) the War on Underachievement$
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Jaekyung Lee

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190217648

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190217648.001.0001

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Raising the Bar

Raising the Bar

Input-Driven Accountability Policies and Achievement Outcomes

(p.163) 5 Raising the Bar
The Anatomy of Achievement Gaps

Jaekyung Lee

Oxford University Press

This chapter addresses the questions of school productivity and educational input standards in terms of accountability. How effective are input-driven educational policies in improving academic growth and narrowing achievement gaps? What types of interventions are more cost-effective for disadvantaged minority students? The trends of increased public educational expenditures vis-à-vis small student achievement gains raise questions about the productivity of schooling. The average effect size of input-driven interventions, such as class size reduction and after-school tutoring was modest, whereas effects tend to be relatively larger for targeted interventions among disadvantaged, low-achieving, and younger students. Although achievement gains from early inventions tend to decay over time, they can make long-term impacts on improving students’ educational attainment and career success. The evidence supports P-16 education policies such as universal preschool and early college programs that can help fix the broken education pipeline and make for seamless educational transitions.

Keywords:   accountability, opportunity to learn, school productivity, school interventions, input-driven education policy, standards-based education reform, P-16 education, universal preschool, early college, policy analysis

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