The cradle of the special theory of relativity was the combination of Maxwellian electromagnetism and the electron theory of Lorentz (and to a lesser extent of Larmor) based on Fresnel's notion of the stationary ether. This chapter looks at the contributions of the principal figures concerned with the explanation of the prima facie failure to detect any significant trace of the ether wind on the surface of the earth. Topics discussed include the Michelson-Morley experiment, Michelson-Morley kinematics, FitzGerland and Heaviside, Lorentz, Larmor, and the role of ether prior to Einstein.
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