The church’s rejection of the major christological heresies is a series of dialectical turns, all taken to safeguard an account of divine involvement worthy of God. The Docetists, Arians, and Nestorians–substantial metaphysical and theological differences between them notwithstanding–endorsed unqualified and unrestricted divine impassibility, i.e. they agreed that divine impassibility ruled out the divine subject’s involvement in human history and suffering. In contrast, the orthodox theologians regarded qualified divine impassibility as being compatible with certain God-befitting emotions and with the incarnate Word’s suffering in and through human nature.
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