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Citizenship and Education in Liberal-Democratic SocietiesTeaching for Cosmopolitan Values and Collective Identities$

Kevin McDonough and Walter Feinberg

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780199253661

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2005

DOI: 10.1093/0199253668.001.0001

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(p.437) INDEX

(p.437) INDEX

Source:
Citizenship and Education in Liberal-Democratic Societies
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abolitionism 218, 372
affiliation liberalism 6, 7, 8
alphabetic writing:
invention of 31
American History X 204
Amish:
educational aims of 310
exempting children from attendance at school 424
Amnesty International 44
Anderson, B. 34, 210
Appiah, A. 241, 250, 310, 421
Archard, D. 37
Arendt, H. 237
Aristotle 64, 82, 227
autonomous thought, see individual autonomy
Bangladesh:
Grumeen bank 6
Barber, B. 45
Barnette v. West Virginio 79
Bell, D. 81, 92
Benhabib, S. 237
Black Civil Rights movement 218
Blackmun, H. 416–17
Bob Jones University:
racial discrimination 330, 331, 332, 431
Boorstin, D. 158–9, 171, 172, 173
Brennan, W. 266
Brighouse, H. 191, 198, 239, 395–6
Burtt, S. 424, 425
Callan, E. 130, 131, 132, 138, 139, 141, 146, 161, 163, 167, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186, 189, 194, 198, 199, 201, 203, 212, 214, 215, 218, 372
Canada:
Chinese immigration to 241
citizens’ responsibilities 42–3
common schools in Quebec 379–80
education of Indians 354
Greek immigration to 240–1
interaction between majority and minority national groups 381
minority groups’ demand for self-determination 378
national identity 217, 353
provincially controlled education systems 380
Québécois 360–1
Carens, J. 210
Catholics 37–8, 220
discrimination against women 425
homosexuality 432
character pluralism 190–1
Cheney, L. 68
Chicago:
South Shore Community Bank 6
China:
emigration to Canada 241
illiteracy rates 335
choices 186
Church of England 80
citizens:
role of 389
virtues of 233–5
see also citizenship
citizenship:
birth, by 211
boundaries of 226, 227, 228, 229
concepts of 40–1
critics of 39, 40, 41
dual 225
education, role of 11, 235
EU 106
function of 227–8
globalization and 225
as identity 210, 211, 215, 218–20, 223
informal morality of 43–4
language of 41
multicultural 25–6
religious minorities 281–2
responsibilities of 41–2
rights and obligations 211, 212
social 225
citizenship as shared fate 229–41
advantages of 232–3
education, role of 235–41
(p.438) citizenship as shared fate (cont.)
legitimacy 229, 230, 237
sense of identity 232
virtues of citizens 233–5
civic education 130, 131, 132, 134, 223
content of 218
patriotic model of 239
political identity 215–16
civic friendship 248–9
education, role of 249, 256, 257, 258
civic nationalism 210
civic respect 137–8
civil society 106, 107
relationship with state 107, 108, 109
civility 106
civilization:
boundaries of 35
class loyalties 166, 167
classical liberalism 3, 4, 5
clergy in the schools (CIS) program 261–3, 265–6
violation of Establishment Clause 263–5, 266
cognitive pluralism 75
Cohen, J. 255
Colwell, G. 139
common culture 97
common education:
concept of 122, 123, 124, 127, 130, 131
common schools:
burdens and dilemmas of 121–2, 129–30, 135, 136–45
civic education 134
civic respect 137–8
cultural inheritance 422–3
cultural salience 140
definition of 122, 125
delegation of curriculum 258–9
differences in 123, 124
ethical development 134, 135, 143, 144
minority cultures 142, 277, 278
personal autonomy 139–40, 143–4, 145
public values 136–7
Quebec 379–80
religion 133–4, 141–2
role of 1, 2, 122–3, 124
role of ethos and community 140–1
sex education 137, 138, 139
Soviet Union 123
value of 127
communitarianism 4–5, 25, 81
communities:
shaping of identities 84, 85–6
community service providers 257–8
compatriots 159
comprehensive conceptions of the Good (CCGs) 249
comprehensive education 179, 188
character pluralism 190–1
development of personal autonomy 180, 181, 182, 185, 189, 193, 197, 198, 199, 200, 204–5
feeling right ‘from the inside’ 191
justice 195, 196, 197
moral courage 190
understanding of the ‘good life’ 186–7, 202
congregants 388
Congregationalism 94
congregations 84, 85
constitutional consensus 213
contemporary liberalism 3, 4, 5, 7
contempt 372
Corinthians 190
cosmopolitan education 23, 26
cosmopolitan responsibility 42, 43
creationism 390
cross-cultural understanding, education for 291, 292, 293
cultural attachment, education for 288, 289–90, 292, 293
cultural coherence 199, 200
cultural community 308
cultural diversity 218
cultural inheritance 422–3
cultural interaction 31–4
infrastructure of 36–9
cultural liberalism 287, 288
cultural literacy 314
cultural pluralism 75
cultural respect 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 377
cultural salience 140
Curran, J. 108
curriculum:
content of 67–71
delegation of 258–9
multiculturalism 418–19
neglect of great works of literature and philosophy 419
religious schools 390
Dagger, R. 183, 200, 355
Dan-Cohen, M. 185–6
Declaration of Independence 68, 228
democracy:
liberal 211
nation-state 101
nationalism and 102
requirements of 248
stable 223
democratic citizenship 102, 210, 211
education for 288–9, 292, 293
minority groups 221
see also democracy
Denmark:
state involvement in education 98
Desjarlais, L. 365–9
Dewey, J. 3, 4
Diamond, J. 31
dignity 56, 60, 66
diplomacy 38
discrimination:
minority groups 277, 300
racial 330, 331, 332, 416, 417, 421, 431
religious schools 393–4, 408
sexual orientation 426–8, 431–2
distributive justice 92, 161, 166, 212
Divakaruni, C. B. 336
diversity:
consequences of 214–15
cultural 218
ethical 202
exposure to, effect on autonomy 189–90, 341–2
local 238, 241
religious 218
social 218
‘within unity’ 126–7
Doe v. Beaumont Independent School District 261
Douglass, F. 68
dual citizenship 225
Dworkin, R. 284
Dwyer, J. 335, 336
education:
multicultural 240, 418–19
policy makers, dilemmas of 136, 145
political function of 98, 99, 127
role of 103
vocational aspects of 10–11
women 335–6, 341
Elster, J. 306
encumbered self 183, 193, 200–1
enlarged mentality 237–8
equality of citizens 389
equality of opportunity:
minority groups 276, 277
Essay on Human Understanding (Locke, J.) 179
Establishment Clause 263–5, 266, 398, 399
ethical diversity 202
‘ethically servile’ individuals 189
ethnic cleansing 28, 29
ethnic festivals 419, 420
ethnic minorities 34
ethnic nationalism 210, 359–60
European identity 10
European Union (EU):
boundaries of 226
citizenship 106
federal institutions, role of 105–6
role of nations 105
evolution:
controversies surrounding 69, 71
(p.440) feeling right ‘from the inside’ 191
Feinberg, W. 78–9, 123, 132, 133, 134, 212, 216, 218, 233, 422, 423
First Amendment 397, 398, 399
foreigners:
ideology of 37
forgiveness 114–15
France:
state involvement in education 98
Frederick the Great 98
freedom:
of association 4, 77–8, 94, 426
of conscience 79, 80, 389
individual 6–7
negative 3
Fullinwider, R. 240
fundamentalist religions 186, 220
educational aims of 310
sex discrimination 331, 332
see also Mozert v. Hawkins
Galston, W. 130, 239, 259, 286, 312, 330–2, 341, 342, 345, 346
Giraud, M. 291
Glenn 409
globalization 104, 105
economic control 225
implications for citizenship 225
social rights, effect on 225–6
Good Friday Agreement 111, 112
government-sponsored racial discrimination 416, 417
Gray, J. 286
group rights:
external protections 309
internal restrictions 309
separate education 309–12, 317–18
sex discrimination 327–34, 345, 346
toleration of illiberal practices 333–4
see also groups
groups:
affiliation to 89, 90, 421–2
effect on individuals 273
identity, and 89, 90, 91, 93, 433
marginalization of 222, 223, 224
problems of citizenship 92, 93
recognition 420
civic 419–20
public schools 419
remedying effects of past discrimination 417
Grumeen bank (Bangladesh) 6
Grundtvig, N. F. S. 98
Gutmann, A. 131, 235, 310–11
Habermas, J. 226
Halbertal, M. 301, 302–7
Hall, S. 291
hierarchical marriages 336
hijab 285
Himmelfarb, G. 40
hiring staff:
religious schools 393–4, 408
Hirsch, E. D. 314
Hirschman, A. O. 332
history:
purpose of teaching 168–70, 173, 174
teaching of patriotism through 168, 170–3, 239, 240
United States 158, 159
Hobsbawm, E. 34–5
Hollinger, D. 421
homogenisation 100
homophobia 138–9
hyperliberalism 198, 199
identity 94
communities’ shaping of 84, 85–6
construction of 10
decisions regarding 192
definitions of 82–7
degreeness of 83
pluralism of identities 78, 79
political conception of a person 93
recognition of 87, 88, 89
teaching of 70
ideology of foreigners 37
illiteracy rates 335
IMF 104, 168
India:
illiteracy rates 335
sex discrimination 337, 338
individual autonomy 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 184, 194, 198, 311–12
contributors to 190–1
diversity, exposure to 189–90, 341–2
lack of 188–9
liberal autonomy, definition of 179–80
perfectionist liberals’ view of 197
(p.441) individual freedom 6–7
indoctrination 306
InterVarsity Christian Fellowship (IVCF) (US) 426, 427, 429
intercultural choice 317
intercultural learning and comparison 317
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 104, 168
international trade 38–9
Ireland:
religious schools 103
Islam 220
Jackson v. Benson 397–8
Jefferson, T. 68
Jehovah's Witnesses 79–80, 92–3
Jews 80–1, 187, 303, 304
justice 92, 161, 166, 194, 195, 196, 197, 212
Kant, I. 56, 64, 70
Keynes, J. M. 3, 4
Kukathas, C. 312, 333–4, 343, 344, 345, 346, 370
Kymlicka, W. 5, 132, 191, 279, 302, 307–18, 355, 356, 361, 362, 366, 371, 396, 420
Lee v. Weisman 264,
legitimacy:
citizenship as shared fate 229, 230, 237
nation-state 101
Levinson, M. 125, 199
liberal autonomy:
definition of 179–80
liberal equality 417
linguistic hospitality 112–13, 116
local diversity 238, 241
Locke, J. 3, 56, 57, 179, 193, 197
loyalty 224
class 166, 167
global 9–10
minority groups 273–4
multinational states 351
nation-state 9
oaths 219–20
religious minorities 280
Lustgarten, L. 284
Luther, M. 80
Macedo, S. 131, 132, 133, 138, 139, 142, 213, 214, 215, 216, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 357
MacIntyre, A. 128
Malcolmson, S. 36
Mandela, N. 115
Margalit, A. 301, 302–7
market capitalism 3
marriage
inequalities of 336–7, 341
Marshall, T. H. 225
Marxism 4
Mason, A. 163, 164
McConnell, M. 40
McLaughlin, 289
memories, exchange of 113–14, 116
migratory tendencies of human groups 30, 34
Mill, J. S. 4, 7
Miller, D. 162, 164, 355, 356, 358, 367, 374, 375
Miller, R. 160, 168
minority groups 88
control over culture 358
control over education 310–11
cultural options 90
discrimination against 277, 300
equality of opportunity 276, 277
group solidarity 90
loyalty to 273–4
political influence of 274
primary aspirations of 275
recognition of identities 87, 88, 89, 276–7
reluctance for allegiance to democratic citizenship 221
right to impose restrictions 303
right to publicly subsidized separate schooling 303–4
sharing values and beliefs of dominant groups 275–6
special accommodations for 423–5
state support for 108, 109
types of 276–80
minority nation groups 278–9, 352
benefits and costs of citizenship 378
cultures of 360–2
demand for self-determination 352, 362, 369, 377, 378
interaction with majority groups 381
justifications for state intervention 365, 366, 367
Québécois 360–1
self-understanding of national identity 372, 373
moral autonomy 71
moral conviction 57
moral courage 190
moral identity 216
(p.442) morality:
teaching of 70
Mozert v. Hawkins 8, 144, 202, 222, 224, 310, 335
multicultural accommodations in education 299–300, 318–19
permitting indoctrination 306
right to exit 307
sanctioning oppression of children 301
multicultural citizenship 25–6
multicultural culture 35
multicultural education 240, 418–19
multicultural societies 26
origins of 27–9, 30–5
subordinated cultures 29, 30
multinational civic education 351
accommodating the right to national self-determination 369–70, 376
appreciating the benefits of national diversity 378
fostering cultural respect 377
importance of commitment to 381–2
promoting national identity 354–69, 377
separate schooling for minority nations in early years 380
system of common schools housing children from a variety of national backgrounds 379–81
multinational states 308, 309
cultural respect 370
national identity 352, 372, 373
political instability 352
problems of national loyalties 351
Muslims 282, 285–6
mutual well-being 389
Napoleon 98
Narayan, U. 336
Nash, G. 159, 171, 172
nation-states:
civic engagement 101
democracy 101
economic control 225
formation of 99–100
homogenization 100
legitimacy 101
loyalty to 9
political-institutional boundaries 226
self-rule 101
national identity 86, 163, 374
development of 165, 217
multinational states 352, 372, 373
supporting redistribution 223
national sovereignty 209
nationalism 25, 162–3
civic 210
democracy and 102
ethnic 210, 359–60
negative freedom 3
New Deal (US) 59–60
Nord, W. 391
Northern Ireland:
political history 110–12
Norton, E. 191, 204
Nussbaum, M. 23, 24, 44, 337
Okin, S. 301
Olsen, L. 338, 339
overlapping consensus 212, 213
Parekh, B. 104, 121, 139, 223, 283
parents:
autonomous development of children 62–3, 66–7
educational rights 7–8, 9, 393, 394
shaping children's identities 71, 72
Parks, R. 171, 172
patriotism 159, 160
coercive promotion 163, 164, 165
constitutional 211
liberal 160–1, 212
non-coercive promotion 164, 165
versions of 163
perfectionist liberals:
case for autonomy 197
personal autonomy, see individual autonomy
personal identity, see identity
Pierce v. Society of Sisters 76, 77, 78
Plato 10, 82
pluralism 75, 76, 93, 94
character 190–1
cognitive 75
cultural 75
law as source of views about 76–8
of identities 78, 79
religious 79, 80, 81
political community 210, 211, 214–15, 308
(p.443) political independence 34
political liberalism 251
discursive restraints 252
education system 253
political participation:
boundaries of 226–7
political stability 212, 213, 214, 216, 352
polyethnic states 308, 309
Protestantism 57, 220
Proverbs 179, 181
public institutions 418
public reason 251, 252
public schools, see common schools
racial categories 421
racial discrimination 421
Bob Jones University 330, 331, 332, 431
government-sponsored 416, 417
Rawls, J. 3, 4, 75, 92, 93, 132, 212, 213, 214, 230, 248, 250, 252, 254, 256, 286, 289, 417
Raz, J. 282, 328, 329, 330, 340, 345, 346
reciprocity
logic of 115
reconciliation 115
Reed, H. 354
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 77, 417
Reich, R. 17
religious diversity 218
religious education 72, 128
requirements of 257, 258
United Kingdom 124–5, 128, 285
religious minorities 279–80, 286
attitude to citizenship 281–2
offensive practices 281
preserving identity 279, 280
primary loyalty of 280
purpose of education 282
separate education 309–12
religious orthodoxy 185
religious pluralism 79, 80, 81
religious recognition 396
religious respect 396–7
religious schools:
accountability 395, 405–8, 409
creationism 390
hiring of staff 393–4, 408
Ireland 103
national curriculum 390
purpose of 388–9
supplement to public schools, as 395–6
voucher program 392, 397, 398, 399
religious toleration 57
respect 137–8, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 377, 396–7
Ricoeur, P. 112, 113, 114, 117
right to exit 305, 306, 307, 325, 333, 339, 340, 342, 343, 344, 345
capacity to exercise right 332–3, 342, 343, 344, 345
women 334–46
Roberts v. Jaycees 78
Rorty, R. 166
Rosenblum, N. 223, 235
Rousseau 203
Sandel, M. 84, 183
Scalia, A. 416
Schlesinger Jr., A. 157–8
secular humanism 2, 410
Sen, A. 6
separate education:
demand for 309, 310, 311, 312–13, 318–19
sex discrimination 331, 332
Catholics 425
cultural groups 327–34, 345, 346
hierarchical marriages 336
India 337, 338
right of exit 334–46
sex education 137, 138, 139
sexual orientation:
discrimination 426–8, 431–2
homophobia 138–9
teaching about 69, 292, 431–2
(p.444) Shachar, A. 301, 307
Shklar, J. 219, 224, 234
simple integrity 183, 184
Smith, A. 3
Smith, R. 217
social citizenship 225
social diversity 218
societal cultures 313, 314, 315, 316, 317
multiple 316
South Shore Community Bank (Chicago) 6
Southern Baptist Convention (US) 336
Soviet Union:
common schools 123
Spinner-Halev, J. 133, 138
state:
impetus for involvement in education 98, 99
intervention 3, 4, 62, 63, 72
role of 1, 2
shaping children's identities 71–2
welfare provision 59–60
‘state system’ 38
student groups 426–30
Sugarman, S. 259, 260
Sunday closing laws 423
Sunstein, C. 306
Swann Report 126, 127, 128
Tamir, Y. 211, 212, 217–18, 370
Taylor, C. 5, 65, 70, 82, 83, 91, 279, 286, 396
Thatcher, M. 223
Thiessen, E. 407
Tomasi, J. 134, 135, 137, 143, 144, 145
traditions 114
tribes 93, 94
truth:
capacity to acquire 68–9
controversies about 69
Tully, J. 231
United Kingdom (UK)
public schools, educational policy 125
religious education 124–5, 128, 285
state-funded Muslim schools 285–6
state involvement in education 98
United Nations (UN) 39, 168
United States (US):
abolitionist movement 372
Bob Jones University 330, 331, 332, 431
Catholics 220
clergy in the schools program 261–6
constructing national identity 217
Declaration of Independence 68, 228
InterVarsity Christian Fellowship (IVCF) 426, 427, 429
loyalty oaths 219
multicultural society 28–9
New Deal 59–60
patriotic education 239
public institutions 418
public schools 124; centre of liberal reforms 415; restrictions on school officials 252–3, 254
religious minorities, policies towards 285
South Shore Community Bank 6
Southern Baptist Convention 336
teaching history 158, 159
United States v. Seeger 77
universalism 24, 25
utilitarianism 3, 10
virtues of citizens 233–5
vocational aspects of education 10–11
volunteer counselling program 266–7
vouchers for schools 392, 397, 398, 399
extracurricular activities 259–61
Waldron, J. 373
Walzer, M. 224
Warren, E. 418
Washington, G. 248
Webber, J. 231, 236
welfare provision 59–60
White, J. 160, 283
Williams, B. 371
Wisconsin v. Yoder 8, 77, 78, 202, 310, 335, 341, 424, 425
World Bank 104, 168
world citizenship 23
World Trade Organization (WTO) 168
women's suffrage movement 218
WTO 168
Zinn, H. 173