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Elections in AfricaA Data Handbook$

Dieter Nohlen, Bernard Thibaut, and Michael Krennerich

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198296454

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198296452.001.0001

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Comoros

Comoros

Chapter:
(p.243) Comoros
Source:
Elections in Africa
Author(s):

Bernhard Thibaut

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/0198296452.003.0012

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter on elections and electoral systems in the Comoros follows the same format as all the other country chapters in the book. The first section is introductory and contains a historical overview, discussion of the evolution of electoral provisions, an account of the current electoral provisions, and a comment on the electoral statistics. The second section consists of ten tables. These are: 2.1 Dates of National Elections, Referendums, and Coups d’Etat; 2.2 Electoral Body 1972–1996 (data on population size, registered voters, and votes cast); 2.3 Abbreviations (abbreviations and full names of political parties and alliances used in tables 2.6, 2.7, and 2.9); 2.4 Electoral Participation of Parties and Alliances 1972–1996 (participation of political parties and alliances in chronological order and including the years and number of contested elections); 2.5 Referendums 1974–1996 (details of registered voters and votes cast); 2.6 Elections for Constitutional Assembly (not held); 2.7 Parliamentary Elections 1972–1996 (details of registered voters and votes cast); 2.8 Composition of Parliament 1972–1996; 2.9 Presidential Elections 1978–1996 (details of registered voters and votes cast); and 2.10 List of Power Holders 1975–1998.

Keywords:   alliances, Comoros, coups d’état, elections, electoral body, electoral participation, electoral provisions, electoral statistics, electoral systems, history, national elections, parliamentary composition, parliamentary elections, political parties, power holders, presidential elections, referendums, registered voters, votes cast

1. Introduction

1.1 Historical Overview

From independence until the early 1990s elections did not play any significant role in the political process of the Comoros. Since then some efforts have been made to establish a democratic regime, but in the context of a political structure marked by conflicts between different traditional clans the effectiveness of formal constitutional rules remains limited and notorious political instability (18 coups or attempted coups since independence) has not been overcome yet. Recent developments indicate once again strong tendencies towards an openly authoritarian regime.

Geographically the Comoros are a group of four islands situated between the African continent and Madagascar: Grande Comore (location of the capital: Moroni), Anjouan, Mohéli and Mayotte. In political terms the independent state of the Comores (official name: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros) consists only of the former three islands whereas Mayotte remains de facto in the status of an overseas department of France. In recent years separatist tendencies have gained strength on Anjouan and, to a lesser extent, on Mohéli.

Between 1887 and 1909 the Comoros were incorporated step by step into the French colonial regime. Until 1947 the archipelago was administrated by the colonial authorities of Madagascar and then became a French overseas territory of its own. In 1961 the Comoros were granted the right of self administration and in 1968 internal autonomy was achieved.

In the referendum of 1974 an overwhelming majority voted for full independence on Grand Comore, Mohéli and Anjouan. Mayotte with its mainly Christian population opted to stay with France. Building on the result of this referendum, which was not immediately accepted by France, the head of the regional government, Ahmed Abdallah, proclaimed the independent Republic of the Comoros on 7 June 1975. The (p.244) Regional Assembly, that had been elected in 1972 renamed itself into Federal Assembly and elected Abdallah for President. One month later Abdallah was ousted in a coup d'état performed by a mercenary force. The newly built ‘National Revolutionary Council’ appointed Ali Soilih as Head of State and Government in early 1976. The government announced that it would reorganize the state, dismantle the traditional feudal structure of the society and roll back remaining elements of French influence in the Comoros. In practice, none of these goals was achieved.

In May 1978, the Soilih regime was overthrown in a coup d'état, that was again performed by a mercenary force, and Ahmed Abdallah was brought back into power. A constitution was drafted and adopted in a referendum on 1 October 1978. It established the ‘Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros’ (Republique fédérale islamique des Comores). However, the inherited centralism remained an important feature of the political structure as well of the development policies pursued by the government which officially propagated a kind of Islamic socialism.

In institutional terms the Constitution of 1978 provided for a presidential system of government with a one‐chamber Parliament at the federal level. The presidential elections held in 1978 and 1984 and the parliamentary elections held in 1982 and 1987 were non‐competitive in nature, since Abdallah's Union Comorienne pour le Progrès (UCP, or Udzima) was the only party allowed to present candidates. As the Constitution of 1978 had established a limit of two consecutive presidential terms a manipulated referendum was held on 5 November 1989 in order to change that article and to allow Abdallah another re‐election. In the context of internal power conflicts between the President, the presidential guard (a mercenary force under the leadership of the notorious French Bob Denard) and the army, Abdallah was assassinated three weeks later by the presidential guard. The rebels did not succeed, however, in their effort to install a new regime, and stepped back under external pressure from France and South Africa. The President of the Supreme Court, Said Mohamed Djohar, was appointed as interim President; he subsequently announced the end of the single‐party regime and allowed the exiled opposition to return to the country.

The transition to a multi‐party regime turned out to be a difficult process marked by serious political instability. Demands of the opposition forces to form a transitional government of national unity and to establish a round table in order to work out a new constitution before the holding of elections were not met by Djohar. The first multi‐party presidential elections, which were held on 18 February 1990 had to be (p.245) nullified on the same day because of severe irregularities. The polls were repeated on 4 March and Djohar was elected in the second round on 11 March 1990. Conflicts over the conditions of the establishment of a new constitutional order remained intense until a National Constitutional Conference could be set up at the beginning of 1992 with the participation of more than 20 political parties and a number of non‐governmental organizations.

The new constitution that was approved in a referendum on 7 June 1992 established a semi‐presidential system of government based on the model of the Fifth French Republic. The parliamentary elections that were held on 22 and 29 November 1992 were considered free and fair although there were some irregularities and the polls had to be repeated in five constituencies. The highly fragmented parliamentary party system that emerged from the elections, reflecting mainly clan or family based divisions and to some extent regional cleavages between the islands, made it extremely difficult to build a stable and cohesive government. Djohar dissolved the Federal Assembly on 18 June 1993, and new elections were held on 12 and 20 December 1993. They were marked by organizational irregularities and the second round was boycotted by most of the opposition parties. The concentration of the parliamentary party system with Djohar's newly formed party Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Renouveau (RDR) obtaining an absolute majority of the seats thus did not reflect the political realities of the country.

On 28 September 1995 once again a mercenary force under the leadership of Bob Denard tried to profit from the unstable political conditions on the Comoros. Although military intervention by France prevented the collapse of the constitutional order Djohar was de facto deprived of power and sent to exile in Réunion. The presidential elections in March 1996 were won in the second round by Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim, who had been defeated by Djohar in 1990.

A representative of traditionalist forces and clan interests located in Moroni, Taki began to restructure the political order in the direction of Islamic authoritarianism soon after his inauguration. He dissolved the Federal Assembly on 12 April 1996 and called for a reform of the constitution, which was drafted by a committee boycotted by the opposition parties. The reform, adopted in a referendum on 20 October 1996, restricted the admission of parties to those obtaining at least two seats on each island in the parliamentary elections and enhanced the power of the President in several respects (government formation, appointment of governors, abolition of restrictions to re‐election, among others). (p.246) Previously, the parties that had supported Taki in the presidential race had joined to build the Rassemblement National pour le Développement (RND). The parliamentary elections of December 1996 were again boycotted by nearly all opposition parties (most importantly by the modernist Forum pour le Redressement National—FRN of Abbas Djoussouf, who had been defeated in the presidential elections) and marked by violent incidents. As a reaction to the authoritarian and exclusionary politics of Taki, separatist tendencies and demands for reintegration into France gained strength in Anjouan and Mohéli during 1996 and 1997.

1.2 Evolution of Electoral Provisions

Universal suffrage for Comorians older than 21 years was introduced under colonial rule through the Loi Cadre of 1956, which was applied for the first time in the elections for the Territorial Assembly (Assemblée Territoriale) in 1957. At that time the number of registered voters amounted to 42.9% of the population, raising to 48.5% in the elections to the French National Assembly in 1973.

After independence electoral provisions were laid down in the Constitution of 1978 (promulgated on 5 October, amended by Law No. 82.018 of 5 November 1982 and Law No. 84.14 of 31 December 1984), the Constitution of 1992 (amended in 1996) and an electoral law.

The Constitution of 1978 lowered the minimum age for active suffrage to 18 years and provided for the direct election of the President and the 42 members of the Federal Assembly. The President was to be elected for a six‐year period with one consecutive re‐election being allowed by absolute majority. De facto, in 1978 and 1984 only one candidate was presented to the electorate. Candidates for the presidency had to be at least 40 years old and present signatures of at least five elected officials from each island.

The members of the Federal Assembly were to be elected every five years by absolute majority in single‐member districts. Candidates had to be at least 21 years old. The constitution provided that the number of parties allowed to present candidates be fixed by a federal law. From 1982 onwards only the ruling Udzima was allowed to nominate party candidates for the parliamentary elections. In 1987 individual candidates were allowed to compete against the official candidates, but only the 20 constituencies of Grand Comore were contested. The electoral districts were established by federal law, and there had to be at least five in each (p.247) island. Subject to the foregoing reservation, each district had to contain between 6,000 and 11,000 inhabitants.

In 1989 the number of consecutive re‐elections of the President allowed was raised to two through a constitutional referendum. That provision was not applied due to the regime change that followed the assassination of President Abdallah. The Constitution of 1992 went back to the original restriction (one re‐election) until the respective provision was abolished in 1996. Before the parliamentary elections of 1996 the number of seats in the Federal Assembly was raised to 43.

The Constitution of 1992 introduced a Senate with 15 members (five from each island) to be elected indirectly by an electoral college for a term of six years. This institution was abolished by the constitutional reform of 1996.

1.3 Current Electoral Provisions

Sources:

Constitution of 1992 (electoral law not available).

Suffrage:

The principles of universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage are applied. All Comorian citizens with full possession of civil and political rights and a minimum age of 18 years have the right to vote.

Elected National Institutions:

President of the Republic elected for a term of five years (no restrictions to re‐election). 43 members of the Federal Assembly for a term of four years. By‐elections are held if vacancies arise.

Nomination of Candidates—Presidential Elections

Candidates must be Comorian citizens with full possession of their civil and political rights and be at least 40 years old. Independent candidacy is allowed.

‐ Parliamentary Elections:

Candidates must be Comorian citizens with full possession of their civil and political rights, be at least 21 years old and be able to read Arabic and French. Each candidate must make a monetary deposit which is reimbursed only to those who obtain at least 10% of the votes in their constituency. The status of a Member of Parliament is incompatible with any other public office.

(p.248) Electoral System—Presidential Elections:

Absolute majority system. If no candidate obtains the required majority in the first round, a second round takes place between the two candidates who obtained most votes in the first round.

‐ Parliamentary Elections:

Absolute majority system in 43 single‐member constituencies. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority in the first round, a second round takes place between the two candidates who obtained most votes in the first round.

1.4 Comment on the Electoral Statistics

Statistical electoral data on the Comoros are difficult to obtain outside the country. Several efforts to establish communication with electoral authorities and to gain access to officially released data sets did not bring about any results. The issue of the establishment of an independent Electoral Commission has been since 1993 one of the main points of conflict between the groups controlling the government and the opposition. For instance, in the chaotic parliamentary elections of 1996 the central administrative building was burned down and ballot boxes as well as other electoral materials were destroyed. Due to these difficulties most of the data presented in the following tables stem from unofficial sources. Results of the 1972 elections were taken from Ziemer (1978). Results of the referendum of 1974 were taken from Journal Officiel des Comores, results of the referendum of 1978 from Africa Research Bulletin. With regard to the referendums of 1989 and 1996 the results reported below stem from Marchés Tropicaux. Less detailed data for the referendum of 1989 which were, however, inconsistent with these were found in the national newspaper Al‐Watwan. This newspaper was used as a source for the data on the presidential elections of 1990 and the parliamentary elections of 1992 (first round). Results of presidential elections of 1996 were taken from Marchés Tropicaux.

(p.249) 2. Tables

2.1 Dates of National Elections, Referendums and Coups D'etat

Year

Presidential elections

Parliamentary elections

Elections for Constitutional Assembly

Referendums

Coups d'état

1972

03/12a

1974

22/12

1975

03/08

1978

22/10

01/10

13/05

1982

xx/03

1984

30/09

1987

22/03

1989

05/11

26/11

1990

18/02b 04/03 (1st)

11/03 (2nd)

1992

22/11 (1st)

07/06

29/11 (2nd)

1993

12/12 (1st)

20/12 (2nd)

1995

29/09c

1996

06/03 (1st)

01/12 (1st)

20/10

16/03 (2nd)

08/12 (2nd)

(a) Elections to the Chamber of Representatives of the Comore Islands (before independence).

(b) Nullified because of proven manipulations.

(c) Through a military intervention by France on 5 October 1995 the constitutional order was reestablished.

(p.250) 2.2 Electoral Body 1972–1996

Year

Type of electiona

Populationb

Registered voters

Votes cast

Total number

% pop.

Total number

% reg. voters

% pop.

1972

Pa

279,000

129,096

46.3

105,129

81.4

37.7

1974

Ref

292,000

173,179

59.3

161,379

93.2

55.3

1978

Ref

292,000

187,124

1978

Pr

316,000

195,290

98.8

1987

Pa

425,000

340,000c

80.0

65.0c

1989

Ref

458,000

265,222

57.9

243,770

92.2

53.2

1990

Pr (1st)

475,000

310,925

65.5

198,370

63.7

41.8

1990

Pr (2nd)

475,000

315,391

66.4

190,074

60.2

40.0

1992

Ref

510,000

213,000c

41.8

63.5

1992

Pa (1st)

446,817

214,374

48.0

148,536

69.3

33.2

1992

Pa (2nd)

446,817

1993

Pa

485,000

1996

Pr

528,000d

1996

Pa

528,000d

(a) Pa = Parliament; Pr = President; Ref = Referendum

(b) UN estimations as reported by Penn World Tables except for 1992 (1991 census) and 1996.

(c) Estimation.

(d) Estimation for 1997; source: CIA World Fact Book.

2.3 Abbreviations

FDC

Front Démocratique Comorien

FDP

FNJ

Front National pour la Justice

FNUC

Front National pour la Unification des Comores

FNUK

Front National Uni des Komores

FPC

Front Populaire Comorien

FRN

Forum pour le Redressement National

MDP

Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le Progrès

MDP/NGDC

Mouvement Démocratique Populaire

PASOCO

Parti Socialiste des Comores

PCDP/Djamnazi

Parti Comorien pour la Démocratie et le Progrès

PCN

PDPC/Marouf

PEC

Parti de l'Entente Comorienne

PSDC

Parti Social Démocrate des Comores

PSN

PUIC

Parti pour l'Indépendance et l'Unité des Comores

RACHADE

Rassemblement pour le Changement et la Démocratie

RDDC

RDPC

Rassemblement Démocratique du Peuple Comorien

RDR

Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Renouveau

RND

Rassemblement National pour le Développement

SNDC

UCP

Union Comorienne pour le Progrès (= Udzima)

UDC

Union Démocratique Comorienne

UDD

Union des Démocrats pour le Développement

UNDC

Union Nationale pour la Démocratie aux Comores

URDC

Union pour une République Démocratique aux Comores

(p.251) 2.4 Electoral Participation of Parties and Alliances 1972–1996

Party / Alliance

Years

Elections contested

Presidential

Parliamentary

Mouvement Mahonais

1972

0

1

PASOCO

1972, 1992

0

2

RDPC – UDC

1972

0

1

UMMA

1972

0

1

Udzima

1987, 1993, 1996

1

2

Chuma

1990, 1992, 1993, 1996

2

2

RDR

1990, 1993

1

1

UNDC

1990, 1993, 1996

2

1

FDC

1992

0

1

FDP

1992

0

1

FNJ

1992, 1996

0

2

FPC

1992, 1993a

0

2

Maesha Bora

1992

0

1

MDP/NGDC

1992, 1993

0

2

Mourad

1992

0

1

Mwangaza/Shuma

1992

0

1

Nguzo

1992

0

1

PCDP/Djamnazi

1992, 1993

0

2

PCN

1992

0

1

PDPC/Marouf

1992

0

1

PSN

1992

0

1

Rachad

1992

0

1

RDDC

1992

0

1

SNDC

1992

0

1

Toimaya

1992

0

1

Twamaani

1992

0

1

UDD

1992

0

1

Uwezo

1992, 1993a

0

2

Rashad‐RTD

1993

0

1

FRN

1996

1

0

RND

1996

0

1

(a) Alliance with RTD.

(p.252) 2.5 Referendums

Year

1974a

1978

Total number

%

Total number

%

Registered voters

173,179

Votes cast

161,379

93.2

187,124

Invalid votes

101

0.1

Valid votes

161,278

93.1

Yes

153,117

95.0

99.3

No

8101

5.0

(a) The inhabitants of Mayotte voted with a majority of 8,031 to 4,299 votes against independence; there were some irregularities, in three electoral offices the results were nullified.

Year

1989a

1992b

Total number

%

Total number

%

Registered voters

265,222

213,000c

Votes cast

94.9

63.5

Invalid votes

Valid votes

Yes

240,281

92.5

74.3

No

19,500

7.5

23.5

(a) Approve of constitutional reforms (prolongation of the maximum of consecutive presidential terms from two to three).

(b) Approve of a new constitution.

Year

1996a

Total number

%

Registered voters

Votes cast

64.0

Invalid votes

Valid votes

Yes

85.0

No

15.0

(a) Reform of the constitution, among others: restriction of the number of parties to those that obtain at least two seats in the Federal Assembly; abolition of restrictions to re‐election of the President; abolition of the Senate and of the direct election of Governors.

(p.253) 2.6 Elections for Constitutional Assembly

Elections for Constitutional Assembly have not been held.

2.7 Parliamentary Elections 1972–1996

Year

1972a

1987

Total number

%

Total number

%

Registered voters

129,096

340,000b

Votes cast

105,129

81.5

65.0

Invalid votes

267

0.3

Valid votes

104,862

99.7

Udzima

RDPC‐UDC

79,946

76.2

UMMA

13,021

12.4

PASOCO

2,352

2.2

Mouvement Mahonais

9,543

9.1

(a) Elections for the Territorial Assembly of the Comoros, including Mayotte.

Year

1992a

Total number

%a

Registered voters

214,374

Votes cast

148,536

69.3

Invalid votes

2,717b

1.8

Valid votes

145,819c

98.2

MDP/NGDC

15,194

10.4

UDD

14,961

10.3

Rachad

11,810

8.1

FDC

11,615

8.0

Maesha Bora

9,730

6.7

PCDP/Djamnazi

9,317

6.4

Chuma

9,030

6.2

Mwangaza/Shuma

7,812

5.4

Uwezo

7,674

5.3

FNJ

4,982

3.4

Mourad

4,492

3.1

Nguzo

4,009

2.7

FPC

3,550

2.4

PSN

3,394

2.3

SNDC

3,000

2.1

PDPC/Marouf

2,646

1.8

Twamaani

1,497

1.0

RDDC

1,345

0.9

Toimaya

1,239

0.8

FDP

386

0.3

PASOCO

368

0.3

PCN

110

0.1

Independents

13,892

9.5

Others

3,688

2.5

(a) First round. In this round in four of the 42 constituencies a member of the Federal Assembly was elected. In four constituencies the elections were nullified due to irregularities. Results of the second round in the remaining 34 constituencies could not be made available.

(b) The given number corresponds to the subtraction of valid votes (voix exprimés) from votes cast.

(c) Official figure. It does not correspond to the sum of the party votes that were calculated on the basis of the constituency results. The difference may result from incomplete reports on constituency results.

(p.254) For the elections of 1993 and 1996 detailed data are not available.

2.8 Composition of Parliament 1972–1996

Year

1972a

1987

1992

1993

Seats 39

% 100

Seats 42

% 100

Seats 42

% 100

Seats 42

% 100

RPDC‐UDC

34

87.2

Mouv. Mahorais

5

12.8

Udzima

42

100

2

4.8

UDD

7

16.7

Chuma

3

7.1

1

2.4

MDP

3

7.1

Mayesha Bora

3

7.1

PCDP

3

7.1

FPC‐RTD

2b

4.8

2

4.8

RDR

28

66.7

UNDC

4

9.5

MDP‐NGDC

2

4.8

PSDP‐Djamnazi

1

2.4

RASHAD‐RTD

1

2.4

UWEZO‐RTD

1

2.4

Independents

7

16.7

Others

14

33.3

(a) In 1975 the Regional Assembly renamed itself Federal Assembly and declared itself to be the Parliament of the Federal Republic of the Comoros.

(b) FPC only.

(p.255)

Year

1996

Seats 43

% 100

RND

39

90.7

FNJ

3

7.0

Independents

1

2.3

2.9 Presidential Elections 1978–1996

For the elections of 1978 and 1984 detailed data are not available. On both occasions Ahmed Abdallah Abderamane was the only candidate and according to the official result elected with 99.6% and 98.4% of the valid votes. Data on voter participation are reported in table 2.2.

1990 (first round)

Total number

%

Registered voters

310,925

Votes cast

198,370

63.7

Invalid votes

2,753

1.4

Valid votes

194,360

97.9

Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (UNDC)

47,329

24.4

Said Mohamed Djohar (RDR)

44,845

23.1

Said Ali Kemal Eddine (Chuma)

26,656

13.7

Abbas Djoussouf

26,379

13.6

Moustoifa Said Cheikh

17,739

9.1

Ali Mroudjaé

8,867

4.6

Mohamed Hassanali

8,867

4.6

Mohamed Ali Mbalia

4,989

2.6

1990 (second round)

Total number

%

Registered voters

315,391

Votes cast

190,074

60.2

Invalid votes

2,652

1.4

Valid votes

187,442a

98.6

Said Mohamed Djohar (MM)

103,000

55.1

Mohamed Taki (Independent)

84,178

44.9

(a) Official figure which does not correspond to the sum of the votes given for the candidates.

1996 (first round)

Total number

%

Registered voters

Votes cast

64.0

Invalid votes

Valid votes

Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim (UNDC)

38,900

21.3

Abbas Djoussouf (FRN)

28,727

15.7

Omar Tamou (Udzima)

13.3

Said Ali Kemal (Chuma)

8.7

M. Halifa Houmadi

2.3

Othersa

38.7

(a) Ten more candidates.

1996 (second round)

Total number

%

Registered voters

Votes cast

62.0

Invalid votes

Valid votes

Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim

64.3

Abbas Djoussouf

35.7

(p.256)

(p.257) 2.10 List of Power Holders 1975–1998

Head of State

Years

Remarks

Ahmed Abdallah Abderamane

1975

Elected by the Federal Assembly on 07/07/1975, removed by coup d'état on 03/08/1975.

Said Mohammed Djaffar

1975–1976

Interim.

Ali Soilih

1976–1978

In office since 03/01/1976.

Ahmed Abdallah Abderamane, Mohamed Ahmed

1978

Co‐presidency within the military‐political council that took power in the coup of 13/05/1978; Mohamed Ahmed left the presidency to Abdallah after the referendum of 01/10/1978.

Ahmed Abdallah Abderamane

1978–1989

Officially inaugurated on 25/10/1978; he was elected twice for six‐year terms under the single‐party regime introduced by the constitution of 1978 and planned to allow himself another term with the constitutional referendum of 1989; assassinated on 26/11/1989.

Said Mohamed Djohar

1989–1990

Interim President since 27/11/1989.

Said Mohamed Djohar

1990–1996

Constitutionally elected President, inaugurated on 20/03/1990.

Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim

1996–

Constitutionally elected President, inaugurated on 27/03/1996.

Head of Government

Years

Remarks

1978–1992

Under the Constitution of 1978 the Prime Minister was appointed and replaced without any parliamentary intervention by the elected President. The office was abolished in 1985.

Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim

1992

Coordinator of the government of national unity; appointed on 06/01/1992, dismissed on 03/07/1992.

M'Chagama

1992

Appointed on 09/07/1992, retreated on 06/11/1992 in order to present himself as candidate in the parliamentary elections.

Halidi Abderamane Ibrahim

1993

Appointed on 01/01/1993, retreated after parliamentary vote of no confidence on 09/05/1993.

Ali Mohamed

1993

Appointed on 25/05/1993.

Ahmed Ben Cheikh

1993

Appointed on 19/06/1993 as coordinator of a caretaker government.

Abdou Madi

1994

Appointed on 02/01/1994, dismissed on 13/10/1994.

Halifa Houmadi

1994–1995

Appointed on 13/10/1994, resigned on 28/04/1995.

Caabi El Yachroutu

1995–1996

Appointed on 28/04/1995.

Tadjidine Ben Said Massonde

1996

Appointed on 27/03/1996; resigned on 27/12/1996.

Ahmed Abdou

1996–

Appointed on 27/12/1996.

(p.258) 3. Bibliography

Bibliography references:

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Charpantier, J. (1984). ‘Le regime d'Ali Soilih. Moroni 1975–1978’. Le Mois en Afrique, 19/2: 77–87.

Guebourg, J.‐L. (1995). Espace et pouvoirs en Grande Comore. Paris: L'Harmattan.

Djabir, Abdou (1993). Les Comores, un Etat en construction. Paris: L'Harmattan.

Fasquel, J. (1991): Mayotte, les Comores et la France. Paris: L'Harmattan.

Lunel, P. (1992). Bob Denard: le roi de fortune. Paris: Ed. 1.

Newitt, M. (1984). The Comoro Islands. Struggle against Dependency in the Indian Ocean. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press.

Perri, P. (1994). Comores: les nouveaus mercenaires. Paris: L'Harmattan.

Jeske, J. (1986). Die Komoren. Hamburg: Institut für Afrika‐Kunde.

Negrin, J.‐P. (1980). ‘Le federalisme à la comorienne’. Annuaire des Pays d l'Ocean Indien, 7: 131–144.

Ottenheimer, M., and Ottenheimer, H. (eds.) (1994). Historical Dictionary of the Comoro Islands. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Verin, E. N. (1988). Les Comores dans la tourmente: vie politique de l'archipel de 1976 à 1978. Paris: Institut des langues et civilisations orientales/l'Aiglon.

Westenberger, C. (1995). Komoren. Kronshagen: Stein.

Mukonoweshuro, E. G. (1990). ‘The Politics of Squalor and Dependency in the Comoro Islands’. African Affairs, 89/357: 555–577.