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European Integration After AmsterdamInstitutional Dynamics and Prospects for Democracy$
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Karlheinz Neunreither and Antje Wiener

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198296409

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198296401.001.0001

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Flexibility: A Tool of Integration or a Restraint on Disintegration?

Flexibility: A Tool of Integration or a Restraint on Disintegration?

Chapter:
(p.175) 10 Flexibility: A Tool of Integration or a Restraint on Disintegration?
Source:
European Integration After Amsterdam
Author(s):

Helen Wallace

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/0198296401.003.0010

’Flexibility’ emerged as one of the key words in the practitioners’ discourse during the Intergovernmental Conference leading to the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997. The term became part of the new Eurospeak of the process, and shorthand for a broad‐ranging debate on the institutions and politics of the EU. It surfaced much as 'subsidiarity’ had done in the negotiations leading to agreement at Maastricht in 1991. Subsidiarity had then appeared to provide both a rationale and an operating tool for rearranging the division of labour between the European and national policy arenas. This chapter argues that similarly flexibility, according to its proponents, promised a new principle and a new tool for responding to differences in the enthusiasms and capabilities of the member states of the EU to take on new tasks of policy integration. In the period following Maastricht, it had become evident that subsidiarity was both a contested concept and a muddled guide for practice. In the aftermath of Amsterdam, flexibility needs to be examined both for its role as a potential principle in the integration process and for the scope it might offer for resolving problems of practice. This chapter develops this proposition more in detail. To that end, it puts the development of the principles of subsidiarity and flexibility in historical perspective.

Keywords:   Amsterdam Treaty, discourse, European Union, flexibility, intergovernmental conference, Maastricht, member states, national policy, policy integration, subsidiarity

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