The thinking behind the method of pairing countries used in the book for the purpose of comparative analysis of their economic history is explained. The salient relationships are then outlined between economic policies and the outcomes of economic growth, poverty alleviation, and income distribution that have emerged from the pairwise country comparisons. The two main findings of the analysis are that (1) there is a close relationship between a country's success or failure in pursuing policies to expand exports and its rate of economic growth; and (2) the growth in income per capita of a country tends to reduce poverty in an absolute sense, although income distribution in a relative sense may become more or less equal with economic growth. The last part of the chapter presents the pairwise country profiles. The first is a group of five small open economies that are divided into two pairs—Hong Kong and Singapore, and Jamaica and Mauritius, linked by a fifth country—Malta; the remaining pairs are Sri Lanka and Malaysia, Thailand and Ghana, Brazil and Mexico, Uruguay and Costa Rica, Colombia and Peru, Egypt and Turkey, Nigeria and Indonesia, and Malawi and Madagascar.
Keywords: Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, economic Egypt, economic growth, Ghana, history, Hong Kong, income distribution, Indonesia, Jamaica, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, poverty alleviation, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay
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