This chapter offers a detailed examination of the evolution of focal factories, drawing most of its empirical evidence from a close reading of the histories of several Toshiba factories. Looking at the changing organizational interface between focal factories and company‐wide structures offers a valuable examination of the introduction of the multidivisional model of company organization and its impact on factory and shop‐floor practices at Toshiba. The chapter starts by looking at the general institutional consequences of late development, and then, for Toshiba, examines its history and organizational patterns, organizational boundaries and the focal factory, pre‐war and post‐war organization, post‐war product diversity, factory organization and management, and corporate strategy and factory response.
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