- Title Pages
- Dedication
- Preface to the First Edition
- Preface to the Enlarged Edition
- 1 Welfare Economics, Utilitarianism, and Equity
- 2 Measures of Inequality
- 3 Inequality as a Quasi‐Ordering
- 4 Work, Needs, and Inequality
- On Economic Inequality After a Quarter Century
- A.1.1 Prologue
- A.1.2 The 1973 Themes
- A.1.3 Further Issues
- A.2.1 Welfare as a Basis for Inequality Measurement
- A.2.2 From Welfare to Inequality
- A.2.3 From Inequality to Welfare
- A.3.1. Partial Rankings and Intersection Quasi‐Orderings
- A.3.2 Generalized Lorenz Dominance
- A.3.3 Stochastic Dominance
- A.4.1 The Class of Relative Inequality Measures
- A.4.2 Lorenz Dominance and Relative Inequality
- A.4.3 Transfer Sensitivity
- A.5.1 Decomposability
- A.5.2 Subgroup Consistency
- A.5.3 Consistency and interdependence
- A.6.1 Poverty: Identification and Aggregation
- A.6.2 Classical Poverty Aggregation: Head Count and Income Gap
- A.6.3 Relative Deprivation and the S Measure of Poverty
- A.6.4 Continuity, Transfers, and the S<sup>*</sup> Measure
- A.6.5 Decomposability, Subgroups, and the P<sub>α</sub> Measures
- A.6.6 Poverty Orderings
- A.7.1 Inequality, Welfarism, and Justice
- A.7.2 Functionings and Capabilities
- A.7.3 On Weights and Valuations
- A.7.4 Poverty as Capability Failure
- A.7.5 Indirect Assessment and Ordinal Intensity
- A.7.6 A Final Remark
- Bibliography
- Index of Names
- Subject Index

# Measures of Inequality

# Measures of Inequality

- Chapter:
- (p.24) 2 Measures of Inequality
- Source:
- On Economic Inequality
- Author(s):
### Amartya Sen (Contributor Webpage)

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press

Various measures of inequality that have been proposed in the literature are discussed. These fall into two categories: those that measure in some objective sense—positive measures that make no explicit use of any concept of social welfare and those that measure in terms of a normative notion of social welfare and the loss incurred from unequal distribution. The characteristics of positive measures are described in respect of range, relative mean deviation, variance and the coefficient of variation, the standard deviation of logarithms, the Gini coefficient, and Theil's entropy measure. Normative measures are described in terms of Dalton's measure, Atkinson's measure, axioms for additive separability, and a more general measure.

*Keywords:*
additive separability, Atkinson's measure, Dalton's measure, economic inequality, Gini coefficient, inequality, measurement, normative measures, positive measures, social welfare, Theil's entropy measure

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- Title Pages
- Dedication
- Preface to the First Edition
- Preface to the Enlarged Edition
- 1 Welfare Economics, Utilitarianism, and Equity
- 2 Measures of Inequality
- 3 Inequality as a Quasi‐Ordering
- 4 Work, Needs, and Inequality
- On Economic Inequality After a Quarter Century
- A.1.1 Prologue
- A.1.2 The 1973 Themes
- A.1.3 Further Issues
- A.2.1 Welfare as a Basis for Inequality Measurement
- A.2.2 From Welfare to Inequality
- A.2.3 From Inequality to Welfare
- A.3.1. Partial Rankings and Intersection Quasi‐Orderings
- A.3.2 Generalized Lorenz Dominance
- A.3.3 Stochastic Dominance
- A.4.1 The Class of Relative Inequality Measures
- A.4.2 Lorenz Dominance and Relative Inequality
- A.4.3 Transfer Sensitivity
- A.5.1 Decomposability
- A.5.2 Subgroup Consistency
- A.5.3 Consistency and interdependence
- A.6.1 Poverty: Identification and Aggregation
- A.6.2 Classical Poverty Aggregation: Head Count and Income Gap
- A.6.3 Relative Deprivation and the S Measure of Poverty
- A.6.4 Continuity, Transfers, and the S<sup>*</sup> Measure
- A.6.5 Decomposability, Subgroups, and the P<sub>α</sub> Measures
- A.6.6 Poverty Orderings
- A.7.1 Inequality, Welfarism, and Justice
- A.7.2 Functionings and Capabilities
- A.7.3 On Weights and Valuations
- A.7.4 Poverty as Capability Failure
- A.7.5 Indirect Assessment and Ordinal Intensity
- A.7.6 A Final Remark
- Bibliography
- Index of Names
- Subject Index