Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Political Data HandbookOECD Countries$

Jan-Erik Lane, David McKay, and Kenneth Newton

Print publication date: 1996

Print ISBN-13: 9780198280538

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2005

DOI: 10.1093/019828053X.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.  Subscriber: null; date: 17 September 2019

The Netherlands

The Netherlands

Chapter:
(p.275) 12. The Netherlands
Source:
Political Data Handbook
Author(s):

Jan‐Erik Lane (Contributor Webpage)

David McKay (Contributor Webpage)

Kenneth Newton (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/019828053X.003.0022

Abstract and Keywords

This section provides information on the most significant features of government and politics in the Netherlands. These include data on state structure and offices, parties, government constitutions, electoral and voting systems, and basic media materials on media, education, economic interest organisations and the budget.

Keywords:   Netherlands, government data, state structure, political parties, constitutions, media, education, economic interest organisations, budget, electoral system

  1. State Structure: Unitary.

  2. Form of State: Constitutional monarchy.

  3. Parliament (bicameral): Staten General Eerste Kamer (First chamber): 75 seats, 4 years; Tweede Kamer (Second chamber): 150 seats, 4 years.

  4. Electoral System: Proportional representation: d'Hondt diviser.

  5. Main Language: Dutch (96%).

  6. Population: 15,183,700 (1992 official estimate).

  7. Constitutional Development: Its present constitution only dates from 1983; its first constitution was adopted in 1814–15 and was subsequently revised and amended.

  8. Heads Of State:

    Queen Wilhelmina

    Nov. 1890–Sept. 1948

    Queen Juliana

    Sept. 1948–Apr. 1980

    Queen Beatrix

    Apr. 1980–

  9. Capital Cities: Amsterdam (Capital) (1986): 679,140; Gravenhage (Seat Of Government) (1986): 443,961.

  10. Ministries:

    Office of the Prime Minister

    Agriculture, Nature Conservation, and Fisheries

    Home Affairs

    Housing, Physical Planning, and the Environment

    Defence

    Development Co‐operation

    Justice and Netherlands Antilles and Aruban Affairs

    Economic Affairs

    Education and Science

    Social Affairs and Employment

    Finance

    Transport and Public Works

    Foreign Affairs

    Welfare, Public Health, and Culture

  11. (p.276)
  12. Governments:

    Prime Minister

    Parties represented in government

    July 1946–Aug. 1948

    Beel I (KVP)

    KVP, PVDA

    Aug. 1948–Mar. 1951

    Drees I (PVDA)

    KVP, PVDA, CHU, VVD

    Mar. 1951–Sept. 1952

    Drees II (PVDA)

    KVP, PVDA, CHU, VVD

    Sept. 1952–Oct. 1956

    Drees III (PVDA)

    KVP, PVDA, CHU, ARP

    Oct. 1956–Dec. 1958

    Drees IV (PVDA)

    KVP, PVDA, CHU, ARP

    Dec. 1958–May 1959

    Beel II (KVP)

    KVP, ARP, CHU

    May 1959–Jan. 1961

    De Quay I (KVP)

    KVP, ARP, CHU, VVD

    Jan. 1961–July 1963

    De Quay II (KVP)

    KVP, ARP, CHU, VVD

    July 1963–Apr. 1965

    Marijnen (KVP)

    KVP, VVD, CHU, ARP

    Apr. 1965–Nov. 1966

    Cals (KVP)

    KVP, PVDA, ARP

    Nov. 1966–Apr. 1967

    Zijlstra (ARP)

    KVP, ARP

    Apr. 1967–July 1971

    De Jong (KVP)

    KVP, VVD, ARP, CHU

    July 1971–May 1973

    Biesheuvel (ARP)

    KVP, ARP, CHU, VVD, DS‐70

    May 1973–Dec. 1977

    den Uyl (PVDA)

    PVDA, KVP, ARP, PPR, D‐66

    Dec. 1977–Sept. 1981

    van Agt I (CDA)

    CDA, VVD

    Sept. 1981–Oct. 1981

    van Agt II (CDA)

    CDA, PVDA, D‐66

    Oct. 1981–Nov. 1982

    van Agt III (CDA)

    caretaker

    Nov. 1982–July 1986

    Lubbers I (CDA)

    CDA, VVD

    July 1986–Nov. 1989

    Lubbers II (CDA)

    CDA, VVD

    Nov. 1989–Aug. 1994

    Lubbers III (CDA)

    CDA, PVDA

    Aug. 1994–

    Kok

    PVDA, VVD, D‐66

  13. Provinces:

    Population (1987)

    Capital

    Groningen

    558 378

    Groningen

    Friesland

    599 061

    Leeuwarden

    Drenthe

    434 038

    Assen

    Overijssel

    1 003 915

    Zwolle

    Flevoland (earlier Ijsselmeerpolders)

    185 365

    Lelystad

    Gelderland

    1 771 972

    Arnhem

    Utrecht

    953 957

    Utrecht

    Noord‐Holland

    2 334 209

    Haarlem

    Zuid‐Holland

    3 186 249

    's Gravenhage

    Zeeland

    335 434

    Middelburg

    Noord‐Brabant

    2 139 626

    's Hertogenbosch

    Limburg

    1 091 553

    Maastricht

  14. (p.277)
  15. Media:

    • (a) Major newspapers:

      Name

      Location

      Circulation

      De Telegraaf

      Amsterdam

      783 000

      Algemeen Dagblad

      Rotterdam

      413 900

      De Volkskrant

      Amsterdam

      342 100

      NRC Handelsblad

      Rotterdam

      241 900

      De Limburger

      Maastricht

      141 879

      Het Parool

      Amsterdam

      100 800

    • (b) Radio and television: Nederlandse Omroep Stichting. The NOS no longer controls both radio and TV broadcasting since the 1988 Media Act. It was divided into two different organisations: Nederlandse Omroepprogramma Stichting (NOS) which concentrates on transmission and Nederlandse Omroepproductie Bedrijf (NOB) which is essentially a production company. (NOS) is the co‐ordinating body for eight associate broadcasting companies transmitting programmes on radio and television. Among these the following may be named: Algemene Omroepvereniging (AVRO) (Independent); Omroepvereniging Vara (Socialist); Katholicke Radio Omroep (KRO) (Catholic); Nederlands Christelijke Radio; Televisie Radio Omroep Stichting (TROS) (Independent); Vereniging (NCRV) (Protestant); Veronica Omroep Organisatie (VOO) (Independent); VPRO (Independent).

  16. Education:

    1991/92 Full‐time

    No. Institutions

    No. Students

    Basic

    8 435

    1 408 000

    Special

    1 001

    110 000

    General secondary

    1 211

    673 000

    Vocational

    974

    699 000

    University status

    22

    175 000

  17. Economic Interest Organizations

    Employers' organizations: Verbond van Nederlandse Ondernemingen (VNO); Nederlandse Christelijke Werkgeversorganisatie (NCW).

    (p.278)

    Central trade union peak associations: Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging (FNV), formed in 1976 as a confederation of the socialist Nederlands Verbond van Vakverenigingen (NVV) and the Catholic Nederlands Katholiek Vakverboend (NKV); membership: 1,030,000; Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond in Nederland (CNV), formed 1909; membership. 308,000; Volkcentrale van Middelbaar en Hoger Personeel (MHP); membership: 117,000 (1988).

  18. National or Central Bank: De Nederlandsche Bank NV.

    Central Statistical Office:

    Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics

    Prinses Beatrixlaan 428

    POB 959

    NL‐2270 AZ Voorburg

  19. Budget: (1992 Provisional Figures)—In 1992 Us Dollars ($1 = 1.5925 Guilders)—Millions

    Revenue

    Income tax

    41 680

    Corporation tax

    11 209

    Import duties

    2 141

    Excise duties

    7 105

    Turnover tax

    25 432

    Motor vehicle tax

    2 480

    Tax on legal transactions

    1 978

    Other taxes

    5 115

    Shares in profit from Netherlands Bank

    1 198

    Interest from loans

    2 330

    Capital transfers, Postal and Telecom. Service

    917

    Natural gas revenue

    4 710

    Others

    12 202

    Total

    118 497

    Expenditure

    Social Security and public health

    30 817

    Education and culture

    23 073

    Defence

    9 042

    Transport and public works

    8 031

    Housing, town and country planning

    7 970

    Interest on public debt

    16 781

    Agriculture and fishery

    5 319

    Local authorities' shares in taxes

    10 377

    EC's shares in taxes

    4 589

    Public order and security

    4 205

    Foreign relations

    922

    Foreign aid

    3 761

    Trade and handicraft

    2 849

    Others

    4 452

    Total

    132 189

(p.279) Further Information:

Bibliography references:

Daalder, H., and Schuyt, C. (1986) (eds.), Compendium voor Politiek en Samenleving. Alphen aan den Rijn.

Daalder, H., and Irwin, D. (1989) (eds.), Politics in the Netherlands: How much Change? West European Politics, 12, London.

Gladdish, K. (1991), Governing from the Centre: Politics and Policy‐Making in the Netherlands. London: C. Hurst and Co.

Griffiths, R. T. (1980) (ed.), The Economy and Politics of the Netherlands since 1945. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Lijphart, A. (1975), The Politics of Accommodation. Berkeley: University of California Press. (p.280)