This chapter discusses the modes of transmission, worldwide distribution, and environmental conditions necessary for the spread of HIV. It explains the epidemiological framework for understanding disease spread, which includes characteristics of the pathogen, the host, and the environment. The appendix to this chapter presents cross-national survey data on sexual behavior. The data demonstrate that there is no correlation between higher national prevalence of HIV and countries with higher rates of early initiation of sex, premarital sex, or multipartnered sex.
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