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Beyond Greed and FearUnderstanding Behavioral Finance and the Psychology of Investing$
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Hersh Shefrin

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780195161212

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0195161211.001.0001

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Frame Dependence: The Second Theme

Frame Dependence: The Second Theme

(p.23) Chapter 3 Frame Dependence: The Second Theme
Beyond Greed and Fear

Hersh Shefrin (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

A frame is a description. Frame dependence means that people make decisions that are influenced by the manner in which the information is presented. Frame dependence manifests itself in the way that people form attitudes towards gains and losses. Many people make one decision if a problem is framed in terms of losses, but behave differently if the same problem is framed in terms of gains. An important reason for this behavior is loss aversion. Hedonic editing is the practice of choosing frames that are attractive relative to other frames. People with self‐control problems often use hedonic editing to help them deal with those problems. There is evidence that some investors use dividends in this way. Money illusion, the failure to factor in inflation or deflation correctly, provides another illustration of a framing issue.

Keywords:   dividends, frame, frame dependence, gains and losses, hedonic framing, loss aversion, mental accounting, money illusion, self‐control

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