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The Islamic LeviathanIslam and the making of State Power.$
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Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780195144260

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0195144260.001.0001

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Secular States in Crisis

Secular States in Crisis

(p.69) 3 Secular States in Crisis
The Islamic Leviathan

Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr

Oxford University Press

Malaysia and Pakistan sought to address their problems through economic growth and the management of ethnic tensions. Malaysia pursued the New Economic Policy (NEP) to favor Malay bumiputras (sons of the soil), and Pakistan, under a military government, pursued aggressive economic growth. However, these strategies did not resolve ethnic tensions as in Malaysia it did not alleviate the economic problems facing Malays, and in Pakistan it favored Punjab at the cost of other provinces, especially East Pakistan. Both states continued to experience serious challenges to their authorities in the form of racial tensions in Malaysia and the Bangladesh movement in Pakistan.

Keywords:   Bangladesh, bumiputra, East Pakistan, economic growth, ethnic tension, Malaysia, military government, New Economic Policy, Pakistan, Punjab

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