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The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology$
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Paul K. Moser

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780195130058

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0195130057.001.0001

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The Sources of Knowledge

The Sources of Knowledge

Chapter:
(p.71) Chapter 2 The Sources of Knowledge
Source:
The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology
Author(s):

Robert Audi

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/0195130057.003.0003

In “The Sources of Knowledge,” Robert Audi distinguishes what he calls the “four standard basic sources” by which we acquire knowledge or justified belief: perception, memory, consciousness, and reason. With the exception of memory, he distinguishes each of the above as a basic source of knowledge (a source that yields knowledge or justified belief without positive dependence on another source). Audi contrasts basic sources with nonbasic sources, concentrating on testimony. After clarifying the relationship between a source and a ground, or “what it is in virtue of which one knows or justifiedly believes,” Audi evaluates the basic sources’ individual and collective autonomy as well as their vulnerability to defeasibility. He also examines the relationship of coherence to knowledge and justification, noting the distinction between a negative dependence on incoherence and a positive dependence on coherence.

Keywords:   Robert Audi, basic, coherence, consciousness, defeasibility, ground, knowledge, memory, perception, reason, source, testimony

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