Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics : oso
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Microcavities
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199228942.jpg" alt="Microcavities"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Alexey Kavokin, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Guillaume Malpuech, Fabrice P. Laussy</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199228942</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228942.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2007</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2008-05-01</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>The rapid development of microfabrication and assembly of nanostructures has opened up many opportunities to miniaturize structures that confine light, producing unusual and extremely interesting optical properties. This book addresses the large variety of optical phenomena taking place in confined solid state structures: microcavities. Microcavities represent a unique laboratory for quantum optics and photonics. They exhibit a number of beautiful effects, including lasing, superfluidity, super-radiance, and entanglement. The book is written by four practitioners strongly involved in experiments and theories of microcavities. The introductory chapters present the semi-classical and quantum approaches to description of light-matter coupling in various solid state systems, including planar cavities, pillars, and spheres; introduce exciton-polaritons, and discuss their statistics and optical properties. The weak and strong exciton-light coupling regimes are discussed further with emphasis on the Purcell effect, lasing, optical parametric oscillations, and Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons. The last chapter discusses polarization and spin properties of cavity polaritons. The book also contains portraits of scientists who gave key contributions to classical electromagnetism, quantum optics, and exciton physics.</p>Alexey Kavokin, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Guillaume Malpuech, and Fabrice P. Laussy2008-05-01Coherent X-Ray Optics
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198567288.jpg" alt="Coherent X-Ray Optics"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>David Paganin</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198567288</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567288.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2006</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2007-09-01</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book offers a grounding in the field of coherent X-ray optics, which in the closing years of the 20th century experienced something of a renaissance with the availability of third-generation synchrotron sources. It begins with a treatment of the fundamentals of X-ray diffraction for both coherent and partially coherent radiation, together with the interactions of X-rays with matter. X-ray sources, optical elements, and detectors are then discussed, with an emphasis on their role in coherent X-ray optics. Various aspects of coherent X-ray imaging are then considered, including holography, interferometry, self imaging, phase contrast, and phase retrieval. The foundations of the new field of singular X-ray optics are examined, focusing on the topic of X-ray phase vortices. Most topics in the book are developed from first principles using a chain of logic which ultimately derives from the Maxwell equations, with numerous references to the contemporary and historical research literature.</p>David Paganin2007-09-01Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198525844.jpg" alt="Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Massimo Inguscio, Leonardo Fallani</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198525844</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525844.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2013</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2013-12-17</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>Are the fundamental constants of Nature really constant? How can we build clocks that lose only a few seconds on the entire life of the Universe? This book answers these questions by illustrating the history and the most recent advances in atomic physics connected to the possibility of performing precise measurements and achieving the ultimate control of the atomic state. Written in an introductory style, this book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to more experienced researchers who need to stay up-to-date with the most recent advances. It is not a classical atomic physics textbook, in which the focus is on the theory of atomic structures and on light-matter interaction: it focuses on the experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental techniques, as well as discussing the results and the challenges of contemporary research. Emphasis is given to the investigation of precision physics: from the determination of fundamental constants to tests of general relativity and quantum electrodynamics, from the realization of atomic clocks and interferometers to the precise simulation of condensed matter theories with ultracold gases. The book discusses these topics while tracing the evolution of experimental atomic physics from traditional laser spectroscopy to the revolution introduced by laser cooling, which allows the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a degree above absolute zero, opening new frontiers in precision in atomic spectroscopy and revealing novel states of matter.</p>Massimo Inguscio and Leonardo Fallani2013-12-17Current Trends in Atomic Physics
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198837190.jpg" alt="Current Trends in Atomic Physics"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>AntoineBrowaeysAntoine BrowaeysSenior Researcher at CNRS an Director of Research, Institut d'Optique Graduate School, FranceThierryLahayeThierry LahayeCNRS Researcher, Institut d’Optique, FranceTreyPortoTrey PortoAdjunct Professor, Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, USACharles S.AdamsCharles S. AdamsProfessor, Durham University and Joint Quantum Center, United KingdomMatthiasWeidemüllerMatthias WeidemüllerDean, Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Heidelberg, GermanyLeticia F.CugliandoloLeticia F. CugliandoloProfessor, Sorbonne Université, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Énergies, France</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198837190</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198837190.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2019</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2019-07-18</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This volume gathers the lectures notes of Session CVII of the Les Houches summer school of Physics, entitled “Current trends in Atomic Physics”. The school took place in July 2016 and had the goal to give the participants a broad overview of Atomic Physics as a whole, and in particular its connections to other areas of physics, such as condensed-matter and high-energy physics. The book comprises twelve chapters corresponding to lectures delivered at the school.</p>Antoine Browaeys, Thierry Lahaye, Trey Porto, Charles S. Adams, Matthias Weidemüller, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo2019-07-18Nanoscale Device Physics
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198759874.jpg" alt="Nanoscale Device PhysicsScience and Engineering Fundamentals"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Sandip Tiwari</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198759874</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198759874.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2017</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2017-08-24</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>Nanoscale devices are distinguishable from the larger microscale devices in their specific dependence on physical phenomena and effects that are central to their operation. The size change manifests itself through changes in importance of the phenomena and effects that become dominant and the changes in scale of underlying energetics and response. Examples of these include classical effects such as single electron effects, quantum effects such as the states accessible as well as their properties; ensemble effects ranging from consequences of the laws of numbers to changes in properties arising from different magnitudes of the inter-actions, and others. These interactions, with the limits placed on size, make not just electronic, but also magnetic, optical and mechanical behavior interesting, important and useful. Connecting these properties to the behavior of devices is the focus of this textbook. Description of the book series: This collection of four textbooks in the Electroscience series span the undergraduate-to-graduate education in electrosciences for engineering and science students. It culminates in a comprehensive under-standing of nanoscale devices—electronic, magnetic, mechanical and optical in the 4th volume, and builds to it through volumes devoted to underlying semiconductor and solid-state physics with an emphasis on phenomena at surfaces and interfaces, energy interaction, and fluctuations; a volume devoted to the understanding of the variety of devices through classical microelectronic approach, and an engineering-focused understanding of principles of quantum, statistical and information mechanics. The goal is provide, with rigor and comprehensiveness, an exposure to the breadth of knowledge and interconnections therein in this subject area that derives equally from sciences and engineering. By completing this through four integrated texts, it circumvents what is taught ad hoc and incompletely in a larger number of courses, or not taught at all. A four course set makes it possible for the teaching curriculum to be more comprehensive in this and related advancing areas of technology. It ends at a very modern point, where researchers in the subject area would also find the discussion and details an important reference source.</p>Sandip Tiwari2017-08-24Microcavities
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198782995.jpg" alt="Microcavities"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Alexey V. Kavokin, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Guillaume Malpuech, Fabrice P. Laussy</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198782995</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198782995.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2017</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2017-08-24</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>Both rich fundamental physics of microcavities and their intriguing potential applications are addressed in this book, oriented to undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as to physicists and engineers. We describe the essential steps of development of the physics of microcavities in their chronological order. We show how different types of structures combining optical and electronic confinement have come into play and were used to realize first weak and later strong light–matter coupling regimes. We discuss photonic crystals, microspheres, pillars and other types of artificial optical cavities with embedded semiconductor quantum wells, wires and dots. We present the most striking experimental findings of the recent two decades in the optics of semiconductor quantum structures. We address the fundamental physics and applications of superposition light-matter quasiparticles: exciton-polaritons and describe the most essential phenomena of modern Polaritonics: Physics of the Liquid Light. The book is intended as a working manual for advanced or graduate students and new researchers in the field.</p>Alexey V. Kavokin, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Guillaume Malpuech, and Fabrice P. Laussy2017-08-24Theoretical Physics to Face the Challenge of LHC
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198727965.jpg" alt="Theoretical Physics to Face the Challenge of LHCLecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 97, August 2011"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>LaurentBaulieuLaurent BaulieuLaboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Sorbonnes Universites - Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, FranceKarimBenakliKarim BenakliLaboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Sorbonnes Universites - Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, FranceMichael R.DouglasMichael R. DouglasSimons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University, USABrunoMansoulieBruno MansoulieInstitut de recherches sur les lois fondamentales de l'Univers, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, FranceEliezerRabinoviciEliezer RabinoviciRacah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, IsraelLeticia F.CugliandoloLeticia F. CugliandoloLaboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Sorbonnes Universites - Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198727965</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727965.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2015</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2015-03-19</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book is based on lectures at the Les Houches Summer School held in August 2011 for an audience of advanced graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in particle physics, theoretical physics, and cosmology—areas where new experimental results were on the verge of being discovered at CERN. The school was held during a summer of great anticipation that at any moment contact might be made with the most recent theories of the nature of the fundamental forces and the structure of spacetime. In fact, during the session, the long anticipated discovery of the Higgs particle was announced. The book vividly describes the creative diversity and tension within the community of theoreticians who have split into several components—those doing phenomenology and those dealing with highly theoretical problems—with a few trying to bridge both domains. The theoreticians covered many directions in the theory of elementary particles, from classics such as the supersymmetric Standard Model to very recent ideas such as the relation between black holes, hydrodynamics, and gauge/gravity duality. The experimentalists explained in detail how intensively and precisely the LHC has verified the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model, predictions that were at the frontline of experimental discovery during the 1970s to 1990s, and how the LHC is ready to make new discoveries. They described many of the ingenious and pioneering techniques developed at CERN for the detection and data analysis of billions of billions of proton–proton collisions.</p>Laurent Baulieu, Karim Benakli, Michael R. Douglas, Bruno Mansoulie, Eliezer Rabinovici, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo2015-03-19Quantum Theory from Small to Large Scales
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199652495.jpg" alt="Quantum Theory from Small to Large ScalesLecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 95, August 2010"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>JürgFrohlichJürg FrohlichProfessor, ETH Zürich, SwitzerlandManfredSalmhoferManfred SalmhoferUniversität Heidelberg, GermanyVieriMastropietroVieri MastropietroUniversita' di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, ItalyWojciechDe RoeckWojciech De RoeckUniversität Heidelberg, GermanyLeticia F.CugliandoloLeticia F. CugliandoloUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, France</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199652495</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652495.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2012</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2012-09-20</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book collects lecture courses and seminars given at the Les Houches Summer School 2010 on ‘Quantum Theory: From Small to Large Scales’. Fundamental quantum phenomena appear on all scales, from microscopic to macroscopic. Some of the pertinent questions include the onset of decoherence, the dynamics of collective modes, the influence of external randomness, and the emergence of dissipative behaviour. Our understanding of such phenomena has been advanced by the study of model systems and by the derivation and analysis of effective dynamics for large systems and over long times. In this field, research in mathematical physics has regularly contributed results that were recognized as essential in the physics community. During the last few years, the key questions have been sharpened and progress on answering them has been particularly strong. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides the necessary background for future studies.</p>Jürg Frohlich, Manfred Salmhofer, Vieri Mastropietro, Wojciech De Roeck, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo2012-09-20Astrophysical Lasers
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199548279.jpg" alt="Astrophysical Lasers"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Vladilen Letokhov, Sveneric Johansson</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199548279</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548279.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2008</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2009-05-01</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>Progress in modern radio astronomy led to the discovery of space masers in the microwave range, and it became a powerful tool for studies of interstellar star-forming molecular clouds. Progress in observational astronomy, particularly with ground-based huge telescopes and the space-based Hubble Space Telescope, has led to recent discoveries of space lasers in the optical range. These operate in gas condensations in the vicinity of the mysterious star Eta Carinae (one of the most luminous and massive stars of our Galaxy). Both maser and laser effects, first demonstrated under laboratory conditions, have now been discovered to occur under natural conditions in space too. This book describes consistently the elements of laser science, astrophysical plasmas, modern astronomical observation techniques, and the fundamentals and properties of astrophysical lasers.</p>Vladilen Letokhov and Sveneric Johansson2009-05-01An Introduction to Quantum Optics and Quantum Fluctuations
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199215614.jpg" alt="An Introduction to Quantum Optics and Quantum Fluctuations"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Peter W. Milonni</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199215614</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780199215614.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2019</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2019-04-17</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book is an introduction to quantum optics for students who have studied electromagnetism and quantum mechanics at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level. It provides detailed expositions of theory with emphasis on general physical principles. Foundational topics in classical and quantum electrodynamics, including the semiclassical theory of atom-field interactions, the quantization of the electromagnetic field in dispersive and dissipative media, uncertainty relations, and spontaneous emission, are addressed in the first half of the book. The second half begins with a chapter on the Jaynes-Cummings model, dressed states, and some distinctly quantum-mechanical features of atom-field interactions, and includes discussion of entanglement, the no-cloning theorem, von Neumann’s proof concerning hidden variable theories, Bell’s theorem, and tests of Bell inequalities. The last two chapters focus on quantum fluctuations and fluctuation-dissipation relations, beginning with Brownian motion, the Fokker-Planck equation, and classical and quantum Langevin equations. Detailed calculations are presented for the laser linewidth, spontaneous emission noise, photon statistics of linear amplifiers and attenuators, and other phenomena. Van der Waals interactions, Casimir forces, the Lifshitz theory of molecular forces between macroscopic media, and the many-body theory of such forces based on dyadic Green functions are analyzed from the perspective of Langevin noise, vacuum field fluctuations, and zero-point energy. There are numerous historical sidelights throughout the book, and approximately seventy exercises.</p>Peter W. Milonni2019-04-17Modern Optics
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198738770.jpg" alt="Modern Optics"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>B. D. Guenther</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198738770</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738770.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2015</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2016-01-21</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book presents good treatments of paraxial matrix optics, aberration theory, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel–Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian and Bessel beams, multiple thin films, surface plasmons, photonic crystals, and fiber optics. In addition to theory, the book surveys the state of the art in applications including laser optics, computational imaging, medical imaging, polarization, optical modulation, and nonlinear optics. It requires background in Fourier transforms, electromagnetism up to Maxwell’s equations, and matrix algebra for the relevant topics. There are problems at the end of each chapter. A large number of figures, both diagrams and photographs are included to give readers a good physical insight into optics.</p>B. D. Guenther2016-01-21Electrical Properties of Materials
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198829942.jpg" alt="Electrical Properties of Materials"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Laszlo Solymar, Donald Walsh, Richard R. A. Syms</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198829942</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198829942.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2018</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2018-10-18</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>A classic text in the field providing a readable and accessible guide for students of electrical and electronic engineering. Fundamentals of electric properties of materials are illustrated and put into context with contemporary applications in engineering. Mathematical content is kept to a minimum allowing the reader to focus on the subject. The starting point is the behaviour of the electron, which is explored both in the classical and in the quantum-mechanical context. Then comes the study of bonds, the free electron model, band structure, and the theory of semiconductors, followed by a chapter on semiconductor devices. Further chapters are concerned with the fundamentals of dielectrics, magnetic materials, lasers, optoelectronics, and superconductivity. The last chapter is on metamaterials, which has been a quite popular subject in the past decade. The book includes problems, the worked solutions are available in a separate publication: Solutions manual for electrical properties of materials. There is an appendix giving a list of Nobel Prize winners whose work was crucial for describing the electric properties of materials, and there are further appendices giving descriptions of phenomena which did not fit easily within the main text. In particular there is a quite detailed appendix that summarizes the properties of memory elements. The book is ideal for undergraduates, and is also an invaluable reference for graduate students and others wishing to explore this rapidly changing field.</p>Laszlo Solymar, Donald Walsh, and Richard R. A. Syms2018-10-18Atomistic Spin Dynamics
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198788669.jpg" alt="Atomistic Spin DynamicsFoundations and Applications"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Olle Eriksson, Anders Bergman, Lars Bergqvist, Johan Hellsvik</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198788669</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198788669.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2017</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2017-05-18</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>The purpose of this book is to provide a theoretical foundation and an understanding of atomistic spin-dynamics, and to give examples of where the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation can and should be used. The contents involve a description of density functional theory both from a fundamental viewpoint as well as a practical one, with several examples of how this theory can be used for the evaluation of ground state properties like spin and orbital moments, magnetic form-factors, magnetic anisotropy, Heisenberg exchange parameters, and the Gilbert damping parameter. This book also outlines how interatomic exchange interactions are relevant for the effective field used in the temporal evolution of atomistic spins. The equation of motion for atomistic spin-dynamics is derived starting from the quantum mechanical equation of motion of the spin-operator. It is shown that this lead to the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, provided a Born-Oppenheimer-like approximation is made, where the motion of atomic spins is considered slower than that of the electrons. It is also described how finite temperature effects may enter the theory of atomistic spin-dynamics, via Langevin dynamics. Details of the practical implementation of the resulting stochastic differential equation are provided, and several examples illustrating the accuracy and importance of this method are given. Examples are given of how atomistic spin-dynamics reproduce experimental data of magnon dispersion of bulk and thin-film systems, the damping parameter, the formation of skyrmionic states, all-thermal switching motion, and ultrafast magnetization measurements.</p>Olle Eriksson, Anders Bergman, Lars Bergqvist, and Johan Hellsvik2017-05-18The Photomultiplier Handbook
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199565092.jpg" alt="The Photomultiplier Handbook"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>A. G. Wright</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199565092</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780199565092.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2017</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2017-08-24</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This handbook is aimed at helping users of PMTs who are faced with the challenge of designing sensitive light detectors for scientific and industrial purposes. The raison d’être for photomultipliers (PMTs) stems from four intrinsic attributes: large detection area, high, and noiseless gain, and wide bandwidth. Detection involves a conversion process from photons to photoelectrons at the photocathode. Photoelectrons are subsequently collected and increased in number by the action of an incorporated electron multiplier. Photon detection, charge multiplication, and many PMT applications are statistical in nature. For this reason appropriate statistical treatments are provided and derived from first principles. PMTs are characterized by a range of photocathodes offering detection over UV to infra-red wavelengths, the sensitivities of which can be calibrated by National Laboratories. The optical interface between light sources and PMTs, particularly for diffuse or uncollimated light, is sparsely covered in the scientific literature. The theory of light guides, Winston cones, and other light concentrators points to means for optimizing light collection subject to the constraints of Liouville’s theorem (étandue). Certain PMTs can detect single photons but are restricted by the limitations of unwanted background ranging in magnitude from a fraction of a photoelectron equivalent to hundreds of photoelectrons. These sources, together with their correlated nature, are examined in detail. Photomultiplier biasing requires a voltage divider comprising a series of resistors or active components, such as FETs. Correct biasing provides the key to linear operation and so considerable attention is given to the treatment of this topic. Electronic circuits and modules that perform the functions of charge to voltage conversion, pulse shaping, and impedance matching are analysed in detail.</p>A. G. Wright2017-08-24Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics and Telecommunication
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199665488.jpg" alt="Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics and TelecommunicationSecond Edition"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Warren Nagourney</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199665488</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199665488.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2014</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2014-06-19</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas (including telecommunications). The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, optical cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics, modulation techniques and fiber optics, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. Among the latter are such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity or periodically poled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity and astigmatism in ring cavities. A detailed discussion of laser frequency-locking is provided, prefaced by an introduction to linear system and servomechanism theory. The generation of a “discriminant” for laser frequency-locking using a passive cavity, an atomic resonance or a molecular resonance is analyzed. Semiconductor lasers are described in great detail, since they are rapidly becoming the most common laser source in the laboratory. Fiber lasers are increasingly becoming the choice for frequency-stable solid-state sources and are described in the chapter on fiber optics. The treatment of optical fibers uses the simple “scalar approximation” and a number of fiber-optic devices are described and analyzed using this theory. Several recent developments are discussed, such as frequency metrology using femtosecond laser combs or combs derived from four-wave parametric interactions in microtoroids. In order to derive the greatest benefit from the material in the book, the reader should have a working knowledge of intermediate electromagnetic theory, elementary quantum mechanics and optics.</p>Warren Nagourney2014-06-19Quantum Dot Lasers
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198526797.jpg" alt="Quantum Dot Lasers"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Victor M. Ustinov, Alexey E. Zhukov, Anton Yu. Egorov, Nikolai A. Maleev</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198526797</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526797.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2003</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2010-01-01</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book is devoted to the physics and technology of diode lasers based on self-organized quantum dots (QD). It addresses the fundamental and technology aspects of QD edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, reviewing their current status and future prospects. The theoretically predicted advantages of an ideal QD array for laser applications are discussed and the basic principles of QD formation using self-organization phenomena are reviewed. Structural and optical properties of self-organized QDs are considered with a number of examples in different material systems. The book includes recent achievements in controlling the QD properties such as the effect of vertical stacking, changing the matrix bandgap and the surface density of QDs. The book is also focused on the use of self-organized quantum dots in laser structures, fabrication and characterization of edge- and surface-emitting diode lasers, their properties and optimization. Special attention is paid to the relationship between structural and electronic properties of QDs and laser characteristics. The threshold and power characteristics of the state-of-the-art QD lasers are also demonstrated. Issues related to the long-wavelength (1.3-um) lasers on a GaAs substrate are also addressed and recent results on InGaAsN-based diode lasers presented for the purpose of comparison.</p>Victor M. Ustinov, Alexey E. Zhukov, Anton Yu. Egorov, and Nikolai A. Maleev2010-01-01Optics f2f
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198786788.jpg" alt="Optics f2fFrom Fourier to Fresnel"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>Charles S. Adams, Ifan G. Hughes</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198786788</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198786788.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2018</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2019-01-24</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book is primarily intended to be used in optics teaching from undergraduate to graduate level. It is assumed that an elementary course on optics has previously been studied, but all the key concepts of wave optics and light propagation are introduced where needed, and illustrated graphically. A recurring theme is that simple building blocks such as plane and spherical waves can be summed to construct useful solutions. Fourier methods and the angular-spectrum approach are used extensively, especially to provide a unified approach to Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction. Particular attention is paid to analysing topics in contemporary optics—propagation, dispersion, laser beams and waveguides, apodization, tightly focused vector fields, unconventional polarization states, and light–matter interactions. Throughout the text the principles are applied through worked examples and the book is copiously illustrated with more than 240 figures. The 200 end-of-chapter exercises offer further opportunities for testing the reader’s understanding.</p>Charles S. Adams and Ifan G. Hughes2019-01-24Double Photoionisation Spectra of Molecules
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198788980.jpg" alt="Double Photoionisation Spectra of Molecules"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>John Eland, Raimund Feifel</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198788980</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/oso/9780198788980.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2017</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2018-03-22</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A preliminary chapter covers double photoionisation of an atom in order to explain the basic principles of the technique, then five chapters present spectra of molecules of increasing size. A seventh chapter on the new fields of core–core and core–valence double ionisations, with selected examples, completes the main body of the book. Appendices explain the detailed mechanisms of double photoionisation, the calibration of the electron spectrometers, and give a brief summary of the methods by which double ionisation energies are calculated theoretically.</p>John Eland and Raimund Feifel2018-03-22Quantum Optics
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780198508861.jpg" alt="Quantum Optics"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>John Garrison, Raymond Chiao</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780198508861</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2008</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2008-09-01</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>Quantum optics is the field of physics describing the interaction of individual photons with matter, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book starts with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then builds up a more advanced treatment. The theory begins with the quantum description of the simple harmonic oscillator, and is subsequently extended to provide the tools required to discuss coherent states, the interaction of light with atoms, entangled states, quantum noise and dissipation, linear optical amplifiers, and the fundamental issues associated with Bell's theorem. There is an equally strong emphasis on experimental methods. A quantum description of lenses, mirrors, beam splitters, Y-junctions, circulators, and stops is applied to a collection of important experiments in linear optics. A description of the most important methods of primary photon detection is followed by an explanation of heterodyne and homodyne techniques. Spontaneous down conversion and quantum tomography are discussed, together with important experimental applications. These experimental and theoretical considerations come together in a chapter briefly discussing quantum noise and its suppression in telecommunications; the limitations and possibilities for quantum cloning; the principles and techniques of quantum cryptography; and the physical basis for quantum computing.</p>John Garrison and Raymond Chiao2008-09-01Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases
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<table><tr><td width="200px"><img width="150px" src="/view/covers/9780199661886.jpg" alt="Many-Body Physics with Ultracold GasesLecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 94, July 2010"/><br/></td><td><dl><dt>Author:</dt><dd>ChristopheSalomonChristophe SalomonLaboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, ParisGeorgy V.ShlyapnikovGeorgy V. ShlyapnikovLeticia F.CugliandoloLeticia F. CugliandoloDepartment of Physics, University of Paris VI</dd><dt>ISBN:</dt><dd>9780199661886</dd><dt>Publisher:</dt><dd>Oxford University Press</dd><dt>Subjects:</dt><dd>Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics</dd><dt>DOI:</dt><dd>10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661886.001.0001</dd><dt>Published in print:</dt><dd>2012</dd><dt>Published Online:</dt><dd>2013-01-24</dd></dl></td></tr></table><p>This book gathers the lecture notes of courses given at the 2010 summer school in theoretical physics in Les Houches, France, Session XCIV. This book illustrates how the field of quantum gases has flourished at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information. The physics of correlated atoms in optical lattices is covered from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, including the Bose and Fermi Hubbard models, and the description of the Mott transition. Few-body physics with cold atoms has made spectacular progress and exact solutions for 3-body and 4-body problems have been obtained. The remarkable collisional stability of weakly bound molecules is at the core of the studies of molecular BEC regimes in Fermi gases. Entanglement in quantum many-body systems is introduced and is a key issue for quantum information processing. Rapidly rotating quantum gases and optically induced gauge fields establish a remarkable connection with the fractional quantum Hall effect for electrons in semiconductors. Dipolar quantum gases with long range and anisotropic interaction lead to new quantum degenerate regimes in atoms with large magnetic moments, or electrically aligned polar molecules. Experiments with ultracold fermions show how quantum gases serve as ‘quantum simulators’ of complex condensed matter systems through measurements of the equation of state. Similarly, the recent observation of Anderson localization of matter waves in a disordered optical potential makes a fruitful link with the behaviour of electrons in disordered systems.</p>Christophe Salomon, Georgy V. Shlyapnikov, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo2013-01-24