Page of

Index

Index

Source:
Below the Radar
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
(p.253) abortion, 21, 46, 52, 229n76
Achtenberg, Roberta, 3
Adams, Gerry, 12
Adams, Richard, 54–55
Adoption of KRS, In re (Alabama), 95
adoption rights. see same-sex parental rights
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 33, 190–191
Alaska: bans on same-sex marriage, 1, 66
American Bar Association (ABA), 91–92
American Center for Law and Justice, 70–71
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 57
American Family Association, 85–86
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) (ADA), 9, 24, 144, 145, 195, 244n49
anti-bullying legislation, 36, 224n115
Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1988), 144, 243n48
appendices, 207–211
Arkansas: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 91, 94–95
Astroturf campaigns, 225n138
Baehr, Nina, 90
Baehr v. Lewin (1993) (Hawaii), 1, 53, 58, 67f
Baker, Jack, 53
Baker v. Vermont (1999) (Vermont), 74
ballot initiatives, 20
bans on same-sex marriage, 1, 2, 7, 62–68, 63–65f, 67f, 70–71, 74–75, 76f, 83, 95, 204, 213n6, 214n18, 229n75. see also specific states
bans on same-sex parental rights, 91
Barber, Matt, 130
Barwick, Paul, 54
Basic Rights Oregon (BRO), 80, 111
Bauer, Gary, 2, 58
Beland, Daniel, 28
below-the-radar advocacy, 12–50;
civil rights advocacy, potential visibility, 23–30, 221n72, 221n84;
costs and benefits of, 45–48;
housing and family rights, 48–50;
legal advocacy, 15–18, 217n27;
opposition politics, 18–23, 220n62. see also visibility, review of
below-the-radar tactics, 30–45;
coalition building, 39–42;
drawbacks of citizen deliberation, 42–45;
legal vehicles and venues, 31–34, 222n94;
reform paradigms, 34–39, 222n104
best interest of the child standard, 101–102, 113–114, 117–122, 202, 239n130
Biden, Joseph, 76
Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group, 81, 232n129
Boehner, John, 190
Boies, David, 81–82
(p.254) Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) (USSC), 58
Bowles, Chester, 188
Bradley, Mamie Till, 194–195
Branch, Taylor, 188, 189
Brooks, David, 4
Brown v. Education (1954) (USSC), 7, 18–19, 21, 31, 194–195, 199
Bryant, Anita, 55
Buchanan, Pat, 51
bureaucratic anarchy, 20, 85
Burns, Sehl, 158
Bush, George H.W., 144
Bush, George W., 51, 67–68, 69–70, 71, 73, 88, 120
California: bans on same-sex marriage, 55;
Proposition 8, 38, 79–80, 81–83;
rise in hate crimes, 86–87;
same-sex parental rights, 115. see also specific cities and counties
California Supreme Court, 19, 75, 114
campaign finance, 19–20
Canada: same-sex marriage, 81
Catholic charities, 92
Chabot, Steve, 71
Chick-fil-A, 85
children’s welfare. see best interest of the child standard
children’s welfare research, 40
Christian Conservatives, 52, 58, 69–70, 86. see also social conservative movement
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center (1985) (USSC), 141, 243n37
City of Edmonds v. Oxford House, Inc. (1995) (Washington), 147–148
City of Palatine;
United States v. (1994) (USCA), 169, 183
Civil Rights Act (1964) (USSC), 31–32, 194
Civil Rights Movement, 13–14, 187–188, 194
civil unions, 68, 75, 214n18
Clinton, Bill, 37–38, 62, 75
coalition building, 39–42
Coalition to Preserve the Fair Housing Act, 166
Cole v. Arkansas (2011) (Arkansas), 94–95
collaborative organizations, in group home siting, 174–176, 174f, 177f, 178, 181–182, 183t
Colorado: rhetoric of special rights, 36;
same-sex marriage, 54–55, 59
Community Mental Health Centers Act (1963), 135
Community Residential Siting Program (CRSP), 175
Connecticut Supreme Court, 75, 104
consent decrees, 170
constitutional protections for LGBT individuals, 66–67, 71, 112–114, 198
Coonrad, Claudia, 159
cooperative organizations, in group home siting, 174f, 176–178, 177f, 181–182, 183t
court systems. see legal advocacy; specific cases and courts
Covington, Cary R., 46
Dear, Michael, 148, 157
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (1996), 1–2, 62, 66, 67, 68, 70, 72–73, 74, 75, 80–81, 123, 127, 189–190
deliberative democracy, 42–45, 160
Deluca, Kevin, 195
democracy, hallmarks of, 13
Democratic Party: and civil rights movement, 188;
early opposition to same-sex marriage, 88;
opposition to Federal Marriage Amendment, 67
disabilities, perceptions of, 132. see also hierarchies of acceptance, of disabilities
(p.255) Dobson, James, 70, 73
domestic partnerships, 47, 56, 59, 61, 66, 214n18
Edmonds v. Washington State Building Code Council (1994) (Washington), 147–148, 170
Elisa B. v. Superior Court (2005) (California), 203
Engel, Stephen M., 37
Episcopal Church, 56
Epp, Charles, 36, 200
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 55–56
Eskridge, William N., 28, 59
Ettelbrick, Paula, 57, 61
Euclid v. Ambler (1926) (USSC), 136, 141
Every Child Deserves a Family Act, proposed, 241n173
Fair Housing Act (1968), 37, 141, 165, 168, 242n24
Fair Housing Amendments Act (1988) (FHAA), 9, 133, 143–148, 157, 167, 169, 170, 171, 179, 244n53
familial privacy, 113
family law: confidentiality of records, 110
Family Law Advisory Council (NCLR), 111, 116
Family Research Council, 29, 58, 119, 121
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): hate crimes data, 86
Federal Marriage Amendment, 67, 70, 230n89
First Amendment, 113, 168
Fischer, Bryan, 86
Fitzsimmons, Helen, 158
Florida: bans on same-sex marriage, 55, 104;
group homes, 132–133
initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 55, 91
Focus on Family, 29, 70, 111, 230n87
Foreman, Matt, 75
framing, 34–39, 78, 119, 222n104
Frank, Barney, 57–58
Freedom to Marry, 78
full faith and credit clause, 7, 20, 60, 92, 95, 103, 239n154
Fung, Archon, 44
Gallagher, Maggie, 84
Gamson, William A., 34
Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders (GLAD), 102
Gay and Lesbian Victory Fund, 57
gay youth, 196
General Social Survey (2006), 153
Georgia: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 91
Gingrich, Newt, 190
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 229n76
good neighbor agreements, 175, 178
Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health (2003) (Massachusetts), 8, 27, 31, 66, 67f, 70, 71, 74, 199, 203
Good Shepherd Manor, 150, 168
Griggs v. Duke Power (1971) (USSC), 32
Groth, Sarah, 158–159
group home advocacy, overview, 4–5, 9–10;
and opposition politics, 29–30;
use of low visibility tactics, 31, 34, 48–50. see also NIMBYism, opposition to group homes
group home opposition multivariate analysis, 211
group home sitings, and strategic visibility, 158–186;
continuum of strategies, 174–179, 174f, 177f;
high stakes of high visibility, 159–166;
legal consensus, 167–171;
Oxford House, low-visibility pioneers, 179–181, 185, 186;
political and organizational factors, 171–174;
visibility and housing stability, 181–182, 183t
(p.256) group home sitings, litigation and backlash over, 132–157;
overview, 132–135;
advocacy strategies, 156–157;
and backlash, 152–156;
court decisions, 144–148;
history of shared housing, 135–142;
legislative support, 142–144;
and media coverage, 154, 155t;
multivariate analysis of opposition, 211;
opposition and gridlock, 139–142;
and single family ideal, 136–138. see also NIMBYism, opposition to group homes
group housing rights, 22
Hacker, Jacob, 221n79
Hamilton, Alexander, 13, 16, 23
Hara, Lloyd, 54
Harold, Christine, 195
hate groups and crimes, 7, 86–87
Hawaii: same-sex marriage, 1, 47, 59–62
Hawaii Supreme Court, 60
hierarchies of acceptance, of disabilities, 152–154, 153t, 155t, 172
HIV/AIDS, 38, 58, 145, 152
Hollinger, Joan Heifetz, 123
Hood, Ron, 91
Huckabee, Mike, 85
Human Rights Campaign, 39–40, 61, 84, 101
hybrid tactics, 203–205
Iglesias, Tim, 175–176
Illinois: same-sex marriage, 83
Immigration and Nationalization Service, 54
incrementalism, 26–28, 87, 131
Internal Revenue Service, 53
interview data, 207–209
Iowa: civil servant refusal to provide services, 20;
custody rights, 3
Iowa Supreme Court, 19–20, 75
Jenkins, Janet, 122
Jet Magazine: publication of post-mortem photograph of E. Till, 194–195
judicial activism rhetoric, 16–17, 33, 70, 74, 74f, 126–127, 128
judiciary: as adversarial legalism, 36;
elections of, 16, 19;
and majority/minority interests, 16–17, 216n22, 217n23, 217n25. see also legal advocacy; specific cases and courts
Kansas: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 95
Kennedy, Anthony, 81
Kennedy, John F., 135, 188–189
Kennedy, Robert, 188–189
Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health (2008) (Connecticut), 67f
Kerry, John, 67–68, 70, 75–76
King, Coretta Scott, 188
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 12, 187–189, 194
Klarman, Michael J., 19
Lambda Legal, 39–40, 57, 60
Lawrence v. Texas (2003) (USSC), 27, 66, 71, 74
legal advocacy: and anti-rights backlash, 36, 224n118;
and below-the-radar advocacy, 15–18, 217n27;
as incremental, 26–27;
and legal doctrines, 28–29;
lower courts and administrative bodies, 34;
and low-visibility strategies, 25–26;
and opposition politics, 18–23, 220n62;
and social change, 199–202;
statutory advances, 31–34
Legal Aid, 191
Leonard, George B., 194
Levitt, William, 137
LGBT parental rights. see same-sex parental rights
(p.257) Liberty Counsel, 121–122, 130, 197, 240n156
Lithwick, Dahlia, 97
Lofton v. Secretary of the Department of Children and Family Services (2004) (USSC), 104, 114
Los Angeles County, California: group home sitings, 164, 176–177;
in utero second-parent adoption, 103–104
Louisiana: civil servant refusal to provide services, 20;
initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 95
Loving v. Virginia (1967) (USSC), 32
low-visibility research, 17
Madison, James, 13
Maine: same-sex marriage, 38, 75, 78
marriage equality: media coverage of, 68f, 69t, 71, 72f, 73, 74, 74f, 108f, 195, 230n95;
Republican Party stance on, 77;
social conservative opposition to, 25, 83–84, 130–131, 241n171. see also same-sex marriage
Marriage Protection Act, proposed, 73
Maryland: same-sex marriage, 32, 78
Massachusetts: co-parenting cases, 2–3
same-sex marriage, 27, 47, 73–74
Massachusetts Supreme Court, 48
Massachusetts v. HHS (2010) (USCA), 80
maximum occupancy restriction ordinances, 147–148
McCain, John, 120
McConnell, Michael, 53
media coverage: of Civil Rights Movement, 13–14, 187, 194–195;
of group home sitings, 154, 155t;
of marriage equality, 68, 68f, 69t, 71, 72f, 73, 74, 74f, 108f, 195, 230n95;
of same-sex parental rights, 90–91, 108f, 109t, 124–129, 125–128f, 240n166
Melillo, Joseph, 1
Melnick, R. Shep, 33, 190–191, 222n102
Mental Health Law Project, 140
mentally disabled individuals, 31
Meyer, David S., 24–25, 46
Michigan: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 92, 94, 204
Michigan Court of Appeals, 94
Michigan Supreme Court, 104
Milk, Harvey, 56, 195–196
Miller, Lisa, 122
Minnesota Supreme Court, 53
minority rights advocacy, 18
Missouri: same-sex parental rights, 104
Molloy, Paul, 144, 179, 180
Moore v. East Cleveland (1977) (USSC), 141
Moral Majority, 52
Morris, Ruth, 194
M.P. v. S.P. (1979) (New Jersey), 100–102
Mullen, In re (2011) (Ohio), 122
Multnomah County, Oregon, 102
Musgrave, Marilyn, 73
myth of rights concept, 36–37
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 39, 41, 77
Nadler v. Superior Court (1967) (California), 98, 101
National Center for Adoption Law & Policy, 118, 120
National Center on Lesbian Rights (NCLR), 95–98;
Family Law Advisory Council, 111, 116
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 51, 75
National League of Cities, 152–153, 166
National Organization for Marriage, 84
National Organization for Women, 39
Nebraska: same-sex parental rights, 104
(p.258) Nebraska Supreme Court, 103
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 9
New Hampshire: same-sex marriage, 75
New Jersey: court reliance on Windsor, 83;
same-sex parental rights, 104
New Jersey Supreme Court, 66
New Mexico: court reliance on Windsor, 83
New Republic: on social conservative movement, 21, 219n55
New York: Levittown model, 137;
same-sex marriage, 77, 81
The New York Times: on marriage equality, 68, 68f
NIMBYism, opposition to group homes: FHAA provisions, 143–146;
First Amendment protections, 168;
home advocate approaches to, 5, 31, 47–48, 135, 148–152, 159;
prevalence of, 9, 148;
North Carolina: bans on same-sex marriage, 79;
visitation rights for non-biological parents, 103
North Carolina Supreme Court, 95
Novkov, Julie, 29
Obama, Barack, 39, 76–77, 81, 82, 189–190
Ohio: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 91, 94;
same-sex parental rights, 104
Oklahoma: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 91, 92
Olmstead v. LC and EW (1999) (USSC), 31
Olson, Ted, 81–82
omnibus bills, 26
opposition politics: and below-the-radar advocacy, 18–23, 220n62
Oregon: adoption rights, 102;
anti-discrimination legislation, 35;
bans on same-sex marriage, 80;
Vanport City model, 137
Oxford House: and discrimination, 164, 172;
lawsuits, 147–148;
as low-visibility pioneers, 179–181, 185, 186, 193, 204;
and passage of Anti-Drug Abuse Act, 144
Page, Joseph, 180
parental rights. see same-sex parental rights
parenthood, fundamental right to, 113
Paterson, David, 81
Pennsylvania Supreme Court, 101–102
Perry v. Brown (USCA pending), 204
Pew Charitable Trusts, 105, 106t
Pierceson, Jason, 28, 31, 216n22
Pinello, Dan, 58
Pine Street Inn, 174–175, 184–185
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) (USSC), 21
Polin, Steve, 181
Post, Robert, 201
Potomac Group Homes v. Montgomery County (1993) (Maryland), 169
The Potter’s House, 147
Powell, Colin, 77
prayer in public schools, 20
President’s Commission on Mental Health, 139
pro choice views, 21, 218n48
pro-life campaign, 21, 219n54
public opinion: on same-sex marriage, 78–79, 79f, 84;
on same-sex parental rights, 91, 104–108, 105f, 106–107t
Quayle, Dan, 51, 60
Reed, Douglas S., 20
(p.259) Republican Party: anti-gay stance of, 29, 51–52, 67;
Buchanan’s RNC speech, 51;
moderation of stance on marriage equality, 77
Richman, Kimberly, 100, 118
rights paradigm, 35–39
Roe v. Wade (1973) (USSC), 4, 7, 21, 31, 199, 218n48, 219n55, 229n76
Romney, Mitt, 73–74, 77
Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act (1990), 38
same-sex marriage, 51–88;
overview, 1–2, 7;
backlash to Hawaii decision, 62–68, 63–65f, 67f, 229n75;
evolution of, 53–56;
and gay agenda, 56–59;
initiatives in Hawaii, 59–62;
and low-visibility strategies, 24–25;
marriage equality (2009-present), 75–84, 76f, 79f, 214n18, 232n134, 233n137;
public reaction, 68–75, 68f, 69t. see also bans on same-sex marriage
same-sex parental rights, 89–131;
overview, 2–4, 5, 8, 10, 89–90;
adoption rights, generally, 91–92, 102–103;
constitutional vs. statutory tools, 112–117;
costs and benefits of low visibility strategies, 48–50;
and custody rights, 97–102;
focus on rights of children, 38, 40, 117–122;
legal support for, 23;
and low-visibility, 108–124, 108f, 109t;
and low-visibility strategies, 25, 221n72;
and marriage, 122–124;
media coverage of, 90–91, 108f, 109t, 124–129, 125–128f, 240n166;
and opposition politics by bureaucrats, 20;
public opinion on, 91, 104–108, 105f, 106–107t;
same-sex couples as parents, 102–104;
as second front, 90–97, 93–94f, 96f;
second-parent adoption, 89, 90, 94–96, 102–104, 123
San Francisco, California: benefits to city employee couples, 56
Santorum, Rick, 70
Save Our Children crusade, 55, 58
Scalia, Antonin, 221n73
Schattschneider, E. E., 44, 216n13
Schlafly, Phyllis, 56
Schram, Sanford, 14, 216n14
Schroeder, Rebecca, 89, 90
Sekulow, Jay, 70–71
Shapiro, Ian, 13, 216n14
Shapiro, Joseph, 195
Shea, Lynn, 159
Siegel, Reva, 201
Silver, Nate, 78
Singer, John, 54
Singer v. Hara (1974) (Washington), 32
Smith, Darlene, 20
social conservative movement: influence of A. Bryant on, 55;
opposition to marriage equality, 25, 83–84, 130–131, 241n171;
as reaction to Roe, 21, 219n55;
rhetorical constraints by, 71–72;
voter mobilization within, 29, 62. see also specific organizations
Social Security reform, 28
Soss, Joe, 14, 216n14
South Dakota: attempts to ban same-sex marriage, 1
Southern Management Corporation, 145
Southern Poverty Law Center, 85–86
Spyer, Thea, 81
Stadter v. Siperko (2008) (Virginia), 240n156
Staggenborg, Suzanne, 24–25, 46
Stanley v. Illinois (1972) (USSC), 113
state maps: and marriage equality, 63–65f, 76f, 94f, 96f;
and same-sex parental rights, 93f, 96f
stealth organizations, in group home sitings, 174f, 176–178, 177f, 181–182, 183t, 186. see also Oxford House
Stoddard, Tom, 57
(p.260) subterranean government, 5–6, 215n12, 221n79
Sullivan, Anthony, 54–55
Sunstein, Cass, 221n84
Texas: initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 91, 196;
same-sex marriage, 59–60;
same-sex parental rights, 103
third-party parents, 121–122
Third Way, 78
Tiananmen Square protests, 14
Till, Emmett, 194–195
Time: articles on the “homosexual in America,” 55
Unitarian Universalist Fellowship, 56
United States v. Yonkers Board of Education (1987) (USDC), 146
US Courts of Appeals cases: Eighth Circuit, 169;
Eleventh Circuit, 104, 147;
Fifth Circuit, 20, 95;
First Circuit, 80, 189;
Ninth Circuit, 147–148, 190;
Second Circuit, 81, 169;
Seventh Circuit, 180;
Sixth Circuit, 168, 169
Usitalo v. Landon (2012) (Michigan), 237n77
US Justice Department, 81, 145, 147–148, 189, 190, 225n137
US Labor Department, 145
US Senate: Republican Policy Committee, 71
US Supreme Court (USSC): on DOMA, 81;
federalism and state police powers, 237n78;
on local government role in housing zoning, 140–141, 148;
on Reconstruction, 36. see also specific cases
Utah: attempts to ban same-sex marriage, 1;
initiatives to curb/ban same-sex parental rights, 92, 94
Varnum v. Brien (2009) (Iowa), 19
Vatican, 52, 227n8
Vermont: adoption rights, 102;
co-parenting cases, 2–3
same-sex parental rights, 114–115
Vermont Supreme Court, 27–28, 66
Village of Belle Terre v. Boraas (1974) (USSC), 141
violence, use of, 7, 22, 86–87, 133
Virginia: same-sex parental rights, 3, 104
visibility, review of, 187–205;
courts and social change, 199–202;
hybrid tactics, 203–205;
implications, 197–199;
liabilities of low-visibility advocacy, 193–197;
and opposition, 192–193
Washington (state): adoption rights, 102–103;
group home sitings, 147–148, 170;
same-sex marriage, 38, 54, 75, 78
Washington, DC: same-sex marriage, 59, 75
Washington Supreme Court, 99
watchdog groups, 19–20
Waxman, Henry, 187
wedding service providers, 85
White, Ryan, 38
Why Marriage Matters, 78
Wilton, Robert, 154
Windsor, Edith, 81
Windsor;
United States v. (2013) (USSC), 83
Winerip, Michael, 134
Wisconsin: co-parenting cases, 3
Wofford, Harris, 188
Wolfson, Evan, 60, 62, 78
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