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Panda NationThe Construction and Conservation of China's Modern Icon$

E. Elena Songster

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780199393671

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199393671.001.0001

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(p.175) Notes

(p.175) Notes

Source:
Panda Nation
Author(s):

E. Elena Songster

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Introduction

(1.) George B. Schaller, Hu Jinchu, Pan Wenshi, and Zhu Jing, The Giant Pandas of Wolong (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1985); Pan Wenshi, Lü Zhi, Zhu Xiaojian, Wang Dajun, Wang Hao, Long Yu, Fu Dali, and Zhou Xin, Jixu shengcun de jihui (A chance for lasting survival). Beijing: Beijing Daxue chuban she, 2001; Davis, D. Dwight, The Giant Panda: A Morphological Study of Evolutionary Mechanisms. Chicago: Chicago Natural Museum, 1964, among many others.

(2.) Ruth Harkness, The Lady and the Panda (London: Nicholson and Watson, 1938); Ramona and Desmond Morris, Men and Pandas (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966); Henry Nicholls, The Way of the Panda: The Curious History of China’s Political Animal (New York: Pegasus Books, 2011), among others.

(3.) Mark Hineline, lecture, “The Built Environment,” University of California San Diego, 2000.

(4.) Historical geographers include scholars such as Richard Louis Edmonds; economic and agricultural historians such as Peter Purdue early on integrated the environment in their analysis of Chinese history. Harriet Ritvo and others pioneered the field of animal studies. Historical studies of China such as Mark Elvin’s Retreat of the Elephants on premodern China and Robert Marks’ examination of late-imperial China in Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt are among other foundational works on the environmental history of China. These books focused on the symbolic power of the animals and used them as effective launching pads from which to delve into other historical questions.

(5.) Torah Kachur, “Is China the World’s New Scientific Superpower?” CBC News, September 1, 2016, http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/china-science-superpower-1.3743556, (Accessed January15, 2017).

(6.) W. D. Matthew and Walter Granger, “Fossil Mammals from the Pliocene of Sze-chuan, China,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 48, no.17 (December 10, 1923): 579.

(p.176)

(7.) Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong; Rui Peng, Bo Zeng, Xiuxiang Meng, Bisong Yue, Zhihe Zhang, and Fangdong Zou, “The Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca),” Gene 397 (2007): 76–83.

(8.) Fa-ti Fan, “Redrawing the Map: Science in Twentieth-Century China,” Isis 98 (2007): 524–538.

Chapter 1

(1.) Hua Mei’s father, Shi Shi, was exchanged for another male panda, Gao Gao, in January of 2003; James Steinburgh, “Hua Mei’s Trip to China Postponed Again, This Time by SARS Fears; Human Companions Would Be Put at Risk,” Union Tribune (San Diego), April 23, 2003.

(2.) Ian Markham-Smith, “US Zoo to Be Test Case for Panda Plan,” South China Morning Post (Hong Kong), January 22, 1995.

(3.) The giant pandas in Mexico are an exception to this arrangement. The giant pandas that have lived in the Chapultepec Zoo in Mexico City were actual gifts from China and belonged to Mexico. The offspring, born in 1981, 1983, and 1990, were therefore offspring of pandas that Mexico owned. As such, China did not have any official jurisdiction over the baby pandas that the gift pandas produced. This did not prevent China from getting upset when the Mexican zoo offered one of its pandas to the Memphis Zoo on a short-term loan in exchange for several large primates (please see George B. Schaller, The Last Panda (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1993), 237 for more details on this specific event). Captive breeding of giant pandas was also successful in Madrid in 1982 and Tokyo in 1988.

(4.) Donald Harper, “The Cultural History of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Early China,” Early China 35–36 (2012–2013): 186. The dragon and the phoenix are closely associated with the emperor and empress of China. The crane was considered to be generally auspicious. Craig Clunas, Art in China (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1997), 56. Tigers were seen as connected with “the other world” and as a vehicle to it. Sara Allen, The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China (New York: State University of New York Press, 1991), 154. The cicada was a symbol of rebirth and immortality. Please see Berthold Laufer’s study, Jade. A Study in Chinese Archeology and Religion (New York: Dover Publishing, 1974).

(5.) Père David was interested in joining this order because they were sending missionaries to China, a country that intrigued him and his naturalist curiosities. Ramona Morris and Desmond Morris, The Giant Panda (London: Kogan Page, 1981), 25–27; Schaller, Last Panda; Keith Laidler and Liz Laidler, Pandas (London: BBC Books, 1992); Armand David, Journal de mon troisieme d’exploration dans l’empire de Chinois par l’Abbé Armand David [Diary of my explorations in the Chinese empire by Abbé Armand David], (Paris, Hachette, 1875); Helen M. Fox, (p.177) trans., Abbé David’s Diary: Being an Account of the French Naturalist’s Journeys and Observations in China in the Years 18661869 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1949). Lazarist was the name given to the missionaries who served under the St. Vincent de Paul order because it was headquartered at the priory of Saint Lazare in Paris. Saint Lazare memorializes a poor man named Lazarus who suffered from leprosy and poverty as described in the parable from Luke 16: 19–25. St. Vincent de Paul was a French monk who had particular compassion for the poor.

(8.) David, Abbé David’s Diary, 276–283; Armand David, “Journal d’u voyage dans le center de la Chine et dans le Thibet Oriental” [Diary of my travels to the center of China and in Tibet], Bulletin Nouvelle Archives Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris 10: 3–82; Also quoted in Morris and Morris, Giant Panda, 28, and Laidler and Laidler, Pandas, 45.

(9.) Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong, 225; Morris and Morris, Giant Panda, 29.

(10.) Fox, Abbé David’s Diary, 283.

(11.) Hu Jinchu along with Pan Wenshi and Zhu Jing collaborated with George B. Schaller in his seminal wild panda behavioral research conducted in Sichuan Province between 1980 and 1985. This project is described in great detail in the two books that the project produced: Schaller et al., Giant Pandas of Wolong and Schaller, Last Panda.

(12.) Hu Jinchu, Da xiongmao de yanjiu [Research on the giant panda], (Shanghai: Shanghai keji jiaoyu chuban she, 2001), 1; Zhou Jianren, “Guanyu xiongmao,” Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], July 6, 1956, 8; Siku quanshu [Complete books of the four treasuries], Wenyuange siku quanshu dianzi ban [electronic source], (Hong Kong: Dizhi wenhua chuban youxian gongsi, Zhongwen daxue chuban she, 1999).

(13.) Hu Jinchu, Da xiongmao de yanjiu, 3.

(14.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 219.

(15.) Hu Jinchu, Da xiongmao de yanjiu, 1.

(16.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,”185.

(17.) Li Shizhen, Bencao ganmu [Materia medica], (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chuban she, 1991 [1596]).

(18.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 186.

(19.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 188.

(20.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 192–195.

(21.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 185–224.

(22.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 187.

(23.) Harper, “Cultural History of the Giant Panda,” 188.

(24.) Li Shizhen, Bencao ganmu.

(p.178)

(25.) Gujin tushu jicheng [Compilation of Books and Illustrations, Past and Present] (Taipei: Tingwen shu chu, 1977 [1725]).

(26.) E. H. Wilson, A Naturalist in Western China (London: Cadogan Books, 1913), 184.

(28.) Theodore Roosevelt and Kermit Roosevelt, Trailing the Giant Panda (New York: Blue Ribbon Books, Inc., 1929), 2.

(30.) The brothers trekked in the region that they eventually succeeded in hunting the giant panda from March 6 through April 13, 1928. Roosevelt and Roosevelt, Trailing the Giant Panda, 145, 221, 225.

(31.) Two Chinese-American brothers and a number of local hunters assisted Ruth Harkness in this mission and captured a baby panda cub. Harkness found a home for the baby panda cub, Su Lin, at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. Su Lin lived in Chicago for about a year before he got sick and died. The Ruth Harkness expedition is also recounted in many other books, the most detailed is her own: Ruth Harkness, The Lady and the Panda, 187; Morris and Morris, Men and Pandas, 62–78.

(34.) Roosevelt and Roosevelt, Trailing the Giant Panda, 228. It has been suggested that the resistance to eating panda meat that the members of the Lolo ethnic minority group, now more commonly referred to as Yi—Lolo is now considered to be a derogatory term—expressed in this account may have been based on a religious belief or superstition. Please see Stevan Harrell, “The History of the History of the Yi,” in Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers, ed. Stevan Harrell (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995). While the Roosevelts expressed surprise, they did not probe the issue further. Without any more evidence, it is difficult to know definitively why this group did not eat panda with the Roosevelt brothers. One can deduce, however, that the giant panda was not casually considered game for meat as far as this group of people was concerned.

(35.) Recorded by Schaller, who personally attended the trial, in Schaller, Last Panda, 126.

(36.) Gujin tushu jicheng, juan 670, xing 660. Also see Hu Jinchu, George B. Schaller, Pan Wenshi, and Zhu Jing, Wolong de da xiongmao [The giant pandas of Wolong] (Chengdu: Sichuan kexue jishu chuban she, 1985), 3–4.

(37.) Based on personal interviews with three members of the Baima community, Pingwu County, Sichuan, June 2002. It is difficult to historicize this belief. Government documents from the early 1960s indicate that Baima people did in fact hunt giant pandas, at least on occasion. Those documents probably refer to a local response to China’s widespread famine following the Great Leap Forward.

(39.) Guangming ribao, May 5, 1999; Sheryl WuDuun, “Pessimism Is Growing on Saving Pandas From Extinction,” New York Times, June 11, 1991, C4. According (p.179) to personal interviews conducted in China 2001–2002, six people received the death penalty for poaching giant pandas. While this law has not been officially removed from the books, no one has reportedly been sentenced to death for this offense in recent years.

(40.) “Woman Accused of Peddling Panda Pelt,” USA Today, July 23, 2008.

(41.) Wilson, Naturalist in Western China, 183. Peh Hsiung is Ernest Wilson’s romanization of bai xiong, the local name for the giant panda.

(42.) Schaller et al., Giant Pandas of Wolong, 129.

(43.) Schaller et al., Giant Pandas of Wolong, 225, Morris and Morris, Giant Panda, 30.

(46.) More recently the term “red panda” has been promoted and favored over “lesser panda” in the spirit of finding alternatives to the seemingly demeaning categorization of “lesser” as well as using a term closer to the Latin name.

(47.) Hu Jinchu, Da xiongmao de yanjiu, 2.

(48.) Pan Wenshi, Gao Zhengsheng, Lü Zhi, Xia Zhengkai, Zhang Miaodi, Ma Cailing, Meng Guangli, Zhe Xiaoye, Lin Xuzhuo, Cai Haiting, and Chen Fengxiang, Qinling da xiongmao de ziran bihu suo [The giant panda’s natural refuge in the Qinling Mountains] (Beijing: Beijing Daxue chuban she, 1988), 17.

(50.) Rui Peng, Bo Zeng, Xiuxiang Meng, Bisong Yue, Zhihe Zhang, and Fangdong Zou, “The Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca),” Gene 397 (2007): 76–83. Schaller et al., Giant Pandas of Wolong, 228; Schaller, Last Panda, 266–267.

(51.) Davis, Giant Panda: A Morphological Study, 16. For further detail, see E. R. Lankester, “On the Affinities of Ǽluropus malanoleucus,” Linnean Society of London 2, no. 8 (1901): 163–171.

(52.) Matthew and Granger, “Fossil Mammals from the Pliocene,” 579. To aid with the Latin terminology, the Aeluropus refers to Aeluropoda or Ailropoda, the giant panda genus. Hyaenarctos is an extinct separate branch of the bear evolutionary stem. Ursidae is the bear family. The use of terms such as “stem” and “family” adhere to the Linnaean taxonomical system rather than the more recent system of cladistics because the authors of this quotation were working within the context of the Linnaean system. According to the 2012 adjustments to the Geological Society of America geologic time table, the periodization of the Pliocene epoch was 2.6 to 5.3 million years ago. The concept that something could be “modernized” in the Pliocene implies that relatively minor evolutionary change has occurred in these animals since the Pliocene. https://www.geosociety.org/GSA/Education_Careers/Geologic_Time_Scale/GSA/timescale/home.aspx.

(54.) Stephen J. Gould, “The Panda’s Thumb,” The Panda’s Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1980), 22.

(p.180)

(56.) The general trend toward typing the giant panda as a bear can be traced in scientific literature and, perhaps even more revealing, in reference lists that tap the scientific literature for information such as the IUCN Red List of endangered species. Please see: IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature), Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/712/all; CITES (Convention on Trade in Endangered Species), Appendix I http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml; Tetsuo Hashimoto et al., “The Giant Panda Is Closer to a Bear, Judged by α‎- and β‎-Hemoglobin Sequences,” Journal of Modern Evolution 36 (1993): 282–289.

(58.) Rui et al., “Phylogenetic Analysis of the Giant Panda,” 82.

(59.) Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, “Phylogenetic Position of the Giant Panda: Historical Consensus through Supertree Analysis,” in Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation, ed. Donald Lindburg and Karen Baragona (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 14, 289.

(61.) Pan et al., Qinling da xiongmao, 3–21; Chris Catten, Pandas (London: Christopher Helm, 1990), 31.

(62.) Davis, Giant Panda: A Morphological Study, 17; Zhu Jing and Long Zhi, “Da xiongmao de xingshuai [The rise and fall of the giant panda],” Acta Zoologica Sinica 29, no.1 (March 1983): 93–103.

(63.) “‘Giant Panda Originates in Europe’ Incredible [sic],” Beijing Review, 41, no. 22 (June 1–7, 1998): 28.

(64.) Robert M. Hunt, “A Paleontologist’s Perspective on the Origin and Relationships of the Giant Panda,” in Giant Pandas: Biology and Conservation, ed. Donald Lindburg and Karen Baragona (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 48.

(65.) Hunt, “A Paleontologist’s Perspective,” 48; The Miocene epoch occurred 5.3–23 million years ago according to the Geological Society of America.

(66.) Changzhu Jin, Russell L. Ciochon, Wei Dong, Robert M. Hunt, Jr., Marc Jaeger, and Qizhi Zhu, “The First Skull of the Earliest Giant Panda,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 26 (June 26, 2007): 10932–10937; Sindya N. Bhanoo, “Ancient Bear May Be Ancestor of Giant Panda,” New York Times, November 19, 2012.

(67.) Matthew and Granger, “Fossil Mammals from the Pliocene,” 579.

(68.) Stephen Jay Gould, “How Does the Panda Fit?” in An Urchin in the Storm (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1987), 23.

(70.) Changzhu Jin et al., “The First Skull,” 10936.

(71.) Russell L. Ciochon, Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, and author of aforementioned study of panda fossils, personal correspondence, December 10 and November 21, 2008.

(p.181)

(72.) Changzhu Jin et al., “The First Skull,” 10932.

(73.) Shuping Yao, “Chinese Intellectuals and Science: A History of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),” Science in Context 3, no. 2 (1989): 448.

(74.) The Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are among the many organizations in the United States that connect these three forces. For more examples and further detail, see Everett Mendelsohn, Merritt Roe Smith, and Peter Weingart, Science Technology and the Military (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988). A significant distinction between the United States’ and China’s efforts to enlist science under the service of the state is that in the case of China, this correlation was an integral part of the nation-building plan at its inception.

(76.) Zhou Jianren was the younger brother of the famous literary figure Lu Xun. Zhou also worked as a translator and worked with Ye Duzhuang on the translation of Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species.

(80.) Zhou Jianren, “Guanyu xiongmao,” 8. It should be noted here that although the panda diet is 99% bamboo, pandas actually do (very) occasionally eat meat. However, at the time of this article, it was thought that they were strict herbivores trapped in a carnivore’s body.

(82.) Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, vol. 1, Contradictions Among the People, 19561957 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), 48–52.

(83.) I would like to thank Ye Wa, Ph.D. for pointing me toward the notion of the scientific movement.

(84.) Renmin ribao [People’s Daily] (hereafter, RMRB), November 28, 1963, 2.

(85.) RMRB, November 28, 1963, 2. “Liberation” refers to the Chinese Communist Party’s victory in taking power over China in 1949.

(86.) RMRB, November 28, 1963, 2.

(87.) Zhu Jing and Li Yangwen, Da xiongmao [Giant panda] (Beijing: Science Press, 1980), Appendix.

(88.) Zhu and Li, Da xiongmao, Appendix.

(89.) Liang you [Young companion] 153, no. 31 (April 1940), 42.

(90.) Guo An, “Wo guo zui da de dongwu yuan–Beijing dongwu yuan,” Renmin ribao, May 6, 1956, 3; Zhou Jianren, “Guanyu xiongmao,” 8.

(91.) Nicholas Menzies, Forest and Land Management in Imperial China (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994); Susan Fernsebner, “Material Modernities: China’s Participation in World’s Fairs and Expositions, 1876–1955” (PhD diss., University of California, San Diego, 2002).

(p.182)

(93.) Guo An, “Wo guo zui da de dongwu yuan,” 3.

(94.) RMRB, November 28, 1963, 2.

Chapter 2

(1.) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

(2.) Sichuan Forest Department Representative, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, PRC, interview by author, January 2002; Geologist, Peking University, Beijing, interview by author, March 2002.

(4.) Zheng Zuoxin, “Sulian dongwu qu xi yu shoulie yanjiu shiye de fazhan jinkuang” [Recent status of the development of Soviet animal reserves and hunting research industries], Dongwuxue zazhi [Journal of zoology] 3, no. 1 (1959), 31; Suzanne Pepper, “Learning for the New Order,” The Cambridge History of China, Volume 14, The People’s Republic, Part I: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1949–1965, ed. Roderick MacFaraquhar and John K. Fairbank (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 197–203; Shuping Yao, “Chinese Intellectuals and Science,” 451–453.

(5.) Douglas Weiner, among others, has charted the grave pitfalls that befell these fields, sometimes with catastrophic results, due to the political subjugation of science in the USSR. Weiner also traced the struggles, resistance, and successes of scientists who fought the misguided directions in which politics sometimes pulled science. Please see Douglas R. Weiner, Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation, and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988) and Douglas R. Weiner, A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachëv (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

(6.) Lysenko was a Soviet theorist of heredity. For a succinct and seminal study on him and policies associated with him, see David Joravsky, The Lysenko Affair (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1986 [1970]). For an examination of his impact on China, see Laurence Schneider, “Editor’s Introduction: Lysenkoism in China: Proceedings of the 1956 Qingdao Genetics Symposium,” Chinese Law and Government 19, no. 2 (1986); Schneider, Biology and Revolution in Twentieth-Century China, 115–212.

(7.) N. Laluosikaya, “Ziran jieli meiyou mimi” [Nature has no secrets], Zhishi jiushi liliang [Knowledge is Power] (1958), 17. This is the romanization of the Chinese transliteration of the name of this Soviet author.

(p.183)

(8.) Wu Zhonglun, ed., Zhongguo ziran baohu qu [China’s nature reserves] (Shanghai: Keji jiaoyu chuban she, 1996), 35. Dinghu Shan reserve is located in Zhaoqing County, Guangdong Province.

(9.) Wu Zhonglun, Zhongguo ziran baohu qu, 539.

(10.) Zhu Kezhen, “Kaizhan ziran baohu gongzuo” [Developing nature protection work], Zhu Kezhen wen ji [Collected essays of Zhu Kezhen], 436. The information that the purpose of setting up a reserve in a colder climate was for comparative study comes from a Sichuan Forest Department Representative, interview, January 2002.

(12.) Zhu Kezhen, “Zhongguo ziran qu hua (chugao) ‘xu’ ” [Preface of China’s nature reserve plan, draft], Zhu Kezhen wen ji [Collected essays of Zhu Kezhen] (Beijing: Kexue chuban she, 1959), 377.

(13.) Zhu Kezhen, “Zhongguo ziran,” 377.

(14.) Jin Jieliu, “Guanyu ‘ziran baohu’ ” [Concerning ‘nature protection’], 动物学杂志Dongwuxue zazhi [Journal of zoology] 1, no. 3 (1957), 129.

(15.) Jin Jieliu, “Guanyu ‘ziran baohu,’ ” 129–131.

(16.) G. P. Dementiev, “Sulian de ziran baohu” [Nature protection in the Soviet Union], Dongwuxue zazhi [Journal of Zoology] 1, no. 4 (1957): 210–211. Please note that in the text of this chapter I follow Douglas Weiner’s spelling of this author’s name (Dement’ev) and of the names of other Soviet figures. The Chinese source romanizes the name as it appears on this footnote.

(17.) Dementiev, “Sulian de ziran baohu,” 210–211.

(18.) Jin Jieliu, “Guanyu ‘ziran baohu,’ ” 129.

(19.) Zhu Kezhen, “Zhongguo ziran,” 377.

(20.) Zuoye Wang, “Zhu Kezhen,” in Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, ed. Noretta Koertge (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2007).

(21.) Zhu Kezhen, “Zhongguo ziran,” 377.

(22.) Zhu Kezhen, “Zhongguo ziran,” 377.

(23.) Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890–1920 (New York: Atheneum, 1979 [1959]), 2.

(25.) Judith Shapiro, Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 67–94.

(26.) Penny Kane, Famine in China 1959–1961: Demographic and Social Implications (Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press, 1988), 88–91; Jasper Becker, Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1996), 270.

(27.) PRC, Guowu yuan [State Council], “Guowu yuan guanyu jiji baohu he heli liyong yesheng dongwu ziyuan de zhishi” [State Council notice concerning the active protection and rational use of wild-animal resources], (Guolin Tanzi 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 1.

(28.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tanzi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3.

(p.184)

(29.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tanzi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 1–4.

(30.) PRC, Guowu yuan [State Council], “Guowu yuan dui linye bu guanyu kaizhan wo guo shoulie shiye baogao de pifu” [Report on the State Council address to the Ministry of Forestry concerning the development of our national hunting industry] (1958), Guanyu yesheng dongwu ziyuan de wenjian ji [Collection of documents concerning wild-animal resources], ed. Lin zheng baohu si [Forest Protection Department] (Beijing: Linye bu, 1987), 13.

(31.) PRC, Guowu yuan [State Council], “Zhonghua renmin gonggong he linye bu wei tingzhi shengchan he bianyong shi yong pu shou wan de lianhe tongzhi” [Announcement to the People’s Government and the Ministry of Forestry calling for the end of the production and sale of specific animal poison] (1961), in Guanyu yesheng dongwu ziyuan de wenjian ji [Collection of documents concerning wild-animal resources], ed. Lin zheng baohu si [Forest protection department] (Beijing: Linye bu, 1987), 100.

(32.) Dementiev, “Sulian de ziran baohu,” 210–211.

(33.) Zheng Zuoxin, “Sulian dongwu qu,” 31.

(34.) Dementiev, “Sulian de ziran baohu,” 210.

(35.) Shaanxi sheng, Linye ting [Shaanxi Province, Forestry department], “Shaanxi sheng shoulie shiye guanli zanxin banfa” [Shaanxi Province announcement concerning the issuing of temporary methods of hunting industry management for Shaanxi Province], (Huilin Li zi di 793 hao), December 26, 1962.

(36.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 5.

(37.) Dementiev, “Sulian de ziran baohu,” 210–211.

(38.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3.

(39.) Zheng Zuoxin, “Sulian dongwu qu,” 32.

(40.) Dementiev, “Sulian de ziran baohu,” 211; Zheng Zuoxin, “Sulian dongwu qu,” 31.

(42.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 2–5.

(43.) Nicholas R. Lardy, “Economic Recovery, 1963–1965,” The Cambridge History of China, Volume 14, The People’s Republic, Part I: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, 1949–1965, ed. Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 378–397.

(44.) PRC, Guowu yuan, Linye bu [State Council and Ministry of Forestry], “Guanyu guoying linchang jingying shoulie shiye de ji xiang guiding” [Regulations concerning the operation and management of the hunting industry in national forest areas] (1961), Guanyu yesheng dongwu ziyuan de wenjian ji [Collection of documents concerning wild-animal resources], ed. Lin zheng baohu si [Forest protection department] (Beijing: Linye bu, 1987), 107–112; Shaanxi sheng, Linye ting (Huilin Li zi di 793 hao), December 26, 1962.

(45.) PRC, Linye bu (Ministry of Forestry), “Guanyu guoying linchang jingying guanli shoulie shiyde ji xiang guiding” (Concerning the Operation and Management of (p.185) Hunting Industry Regulations in National Forest centers), Lin jing Luo zi di 145 hao (10 May 1962), 107.

(46.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3.

(47.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 1, 4.

(48.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3.

(49.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3.

(50.) James C. Scott, The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977).

(51.) PRC, Guowu yuan, “Guoying linchang jingying shoulie shiye,” (1961), 110.

(52.) The Chinese government did not advertise its grain importation. This measure was desperate and its publicity would force the acknowledgment that not only was China unable to recover on its own, but the exorbitant grain taxes and export of grain during the previous years had actually caused the famine.

(53.) Dong Zhiyong, ed., Zhongguo linye nianjian [China Forestry Yearbook], (Beijing: Zhongguo linye chuban she, 1987), 80.

(54.) Jin Jieliu, “Guanyu ‘ziran baohu,’ ” 130.

(55.) PRC, Guowu yuan, (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 2.

(56.) Jin Jianming, ed., Ziran baohu gailun [An introduction to nature protection], (Beijing: Zhongguo huanjing kexue chuban she, 1991), 168.

(57.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 4.

(58.) Gujin tushu jicheng, juan 660, xing 670; Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong, 3–4.

(60.) Kang Jia (pseudonym), Baima woman, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC, interview by author, May 29, 2002.

(61.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju (Pingwu county forestry bureau), “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo kaizhan qingkuang jianjie” (A concise report on the status of the development of work on hunting in Pingwu county) (Sept. 13, 1965), 2–4.

(62.) PRC, Guowu yuan, “Guoying linchang jingying shoulie shiye,” (1961), 108; John F. Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation (New York: Winchester Press, 1975), 36.

(63.) Weiner, Models of Nature, 30; Weiner, Little Corner of Freedom, 204–205, 386–387. Predation control predates Soviet conservation and was a debated issue from Lenin’s tenure through the 1980s; Thomas Dunlap, Saving America’s Wildlife (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 39–40, 113. During the 1920s, the United States opened a special office, Predator and Rodent Control (PARC), precisely for the sake of dealing with this issue. Activists and scientists debated the extermination of predators in the United States from the founding of PARC forward. The United States was even more aggressive than China in its early predator control campaigns. Not only were such questionable methods as poison (p.186) utilized, but the US government also sent out teams of hunters to cleanse the hills of coyotes and wolves.

(64.) Tang Tansheng, “Chuan bei jiu xian de maopi shou ji qi liyong de chubu baogao” [Report on the early steps in finding pelt animals and other useful items in the northern nine counties of Sichuan], Dongwuxue zazhi [Journal of Zoology] 4, no. 5 (1960), 197.

(65.) Tang Tansheng, “Chuan bei jiu xian,” 197.

(66.) PRC, Guowu yuan, (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 4; PRC, Guowu yuan, “Guoying linchang jingying shoulie shiye,” (1961), 108.

(67.) Zhu Jing. “Jiefang yihou wo guo de shoulie, xunyang, yu baohu gong zuo” (National hunting, rearing, and nature protection work since liberation). Dongwuxue zazhi (Journal of zoology) 6, no. 6 (1964), 315–316.

(68.) Zhu Jing, “Jiefang yihou wo guo de shoulie,” 315–316.

(69.) Zhu Jing, “Jiefang yihou wo guo de shoulie,” 316.

Chapter 3

(1.) In 1958 the State Council assigned the Ministry of Forestry and its subordinate offices jurisdiction over all hunting regulation. This 1962 State Council directive largely focused on the regulation of hunting. Hu Tieqing, former head of Sichuan Provincial Wild Animal Protection Department, interview by author, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, PRC, January 14, 2002.

(2.) Feng Yunwu, former deputy director of Wanglang Nature Reserve, interview by author, Pingwu County, Sichuan Province, PRC, October 18, 2001.

(3.) PRC, Guowu yuan (Guolin Tanzi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3–5; Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui pizhuan sheng linye ting (Sichuan Provincial people’s committee transmission to the provincial department of forestry). “Guanyu jiji baohu he heli liyong yesheng dongwu ziyuan de baogao” (Report concerning the active protection and rational use of wild animal resources) (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao) April 2,1963, 1.

(4.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(5.) Fu Yingquan, ed., Sichuan zhuan [Sichuan volume], Zhongguo ziran ziyuan cong shu [Chinese natural resources series], no. 33 (Beijing: Zhongguo huanjing kexue chuban she, 1995), 389–395.

(6.) Zhong Zhaomin, founder of Wanglang. Interview by author, Mianyang, Sichuan Province, PRC, January 22, 2002.

(7.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuanhui [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, People’s committee], “Guanyu jianli Wanglang ziran baohu qu de baogao” [Concerning the establishment of Wanglang Nature Reserve] (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1, 2.

(8.) Zhong Zhaomin. “Wanglang zai qianjin” (Wanglang forging forward), unpublished papers, April 2004.

(p.187)

(9.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(10.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(11.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(12.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(13.) There is some discrepancy in the founding dates of each of these reserves. The other three giant panda reserves are credited with being founded the same year as Wanglang by a few lists, yet most authorities interviewed named Wanglang as the first to be established. Hu Jinchu maintains that the Wolong reserve in Wenchuan County was established in 1963 after he discovered that the area contained giant pandas in his 1963 surveys. Wolong staff assert that the reserve was first established as a forest area and only in 1975 was it named a panda reserve with an expanded area. Wolong staff also note that it was not originally known that giant pandas lived in the area. This information conflicts with the copy of the Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963 document in my possession that specifically recommends the creation of a panda reserve in Wolong in 1963. The other official documents that I have regarding the creation of Wolong, however, assert the establishment of a forest area in 1965 and a panda reserve in 1975.

(14.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 2.

(15.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuan hui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1, 2.

(16.) He Daihua, ed., Ke’ai de jia xiang Pingwu [Our endearing hometown of Pingwu] (Mianyang: Mianyang shi weicheng caiying chang ying shua, 1998), 2.

(17.) Hu Tieqing, interview, January 14, 2002; Feng Yunwu, interview, October 18, 2001; Zhong Zhaomin, interview, January 22, 2002.

(18.) Xie Zhong and Jonathan Gipps, The 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda [sic] (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (Beijing and London: Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens and Bristol Zoo Gardens, 2001), 4–22.

(19.) Qian Danning, ed., Pingwu xian zhi [Pingwu County gazetteer] (Chengdu: Sichuan kexue jishu chuban she, 1997), 118.

(20.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuan hui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1.

(21.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuanhui, (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1.

(22.) Feng Yunwu, interview, October 18, 2001.

(23.) Zhong Zhaomin, “Wanglang zai qianjin,” 2.

(24.) Zhong Zhaomin, “Wanglang zai qianjin,” 2.

(25.) Feng Yunwu, interview, October 18, 2001.

(26.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, January 22, 2002; Feng Yunwu, interview, October 18, 2001; Cai Li [pseudonym], former surveyor and staff member in Wanglang reserve, interview by author, Pingwu County, Sichuan Province, PRC, October 19, 2001; Geng Shengwa, former surveyor and member of the Baima community, (p.188) interview by author, Pingwu County, Sichuan Province, PRC, May 29, 2002; Geng Shengwa, Cai Li, and Chai Ningzhu are pseudonyms.

(27.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, January 22, 2002.

(28.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuanhui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1.

(29.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuan hui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1.

(30.) Sichuan sheng, Linye ting (Sichuan provincial department of forestry), “Guanyu ziran baohu qu gongzuo de chubu yijian” (Suggestions on the introduction of nature reserve work) (Lin jing zi di 010 hao), February 17, 1965, 1.

(31.) Sichuan sheng, Linye ting (Lin jing zi di 010 hao), February 17, 1965, 1.

(32.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuan hui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1. One hectare is equal to 2.45 acres.

(33.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuan hui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 2.

(34.) For example: Chen Guidi and Wu Chuntao, Will the Boat Sink the Water: The Life of China’s Peasants (New York, Public Affairs, 2007); Yang Su, “Mass Killings in the Cultural Revolution: A Study of Three Provinces,” in The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History, ed. Joseph W. Esherick, Paul G. Pickowicz, and Andrew Walder (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006).

(35.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, May 27, 2002.

(36.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuan hui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1.

(37.) Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong, 254.

(38.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, May 27, 2002.

(39.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, May 27, 2002.

(40.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 515.

(41.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 515.

(42.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 515; Xiao Youyuan, Pingwu Baima Zang zu [The Baima Tibetans in Pingwu County] (Mianyang: Mianyang hong guang qiye yingshua chang, 2001), 49.

(43.) Local observer, Pingwu county, Sichuan, PRC, interview by author, October 2001.

(44.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 515–516.

(45.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 516.

(46.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 516.

(47.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 516; by 1964 the lumber company was called the Mianyang Prefecture Lumber Mill [Mianyang zhuanqu famu chang 绵阳专区伐木厂].

(48.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 517.

(49.) Baima villager, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC, interview by author, May 29, 2002.

(50.) Baima villager, interview, May 29, 2002.

(51.) Baima villager, interview, May 29, 2002.

(p.189)

(52.) Baima villager, interview, May 29, 2002.

(53.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xian zhi, 517.

(54.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Renmin weiyuanhui (Hui ban zi di 022 hao), July 1, 1965, 1.

(55.) Integrated Conservation Development Program (ICDP), “Pingwu xian da xiongmao qixidi zonghe baohu yu fazhan xiangmu, Baima zang zu xiang shehui jingji diaocha baogao” (Pingwu county giant panda habitat Integration of Conservation and Development Program, Baima Tibetan community social and economic survey report). June 1998, 59–60.

(56.) Xiao Youyuan, 48.

(57.) Baima villager 2, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC, interview by author, May 29, 2002.

(58.) Zeng Weiyi, “Baima ren zuyu yanjiu jian jie,” [A simple introduction of research on the classification of the Baima people] in Baima zangzu yanjiu wenji [Collected work on research on the Baima Tibetans], ed. Zeng Weiyi (Chengdu: Sichuan sheng minzu yanjiu suo, 2002), 209; Katia Chirkova, “Between Tibetan and Chinese: Identity and Language in Chinese South-West,” Journal of South Asian Studies 30, no. 3 (2007): 415.

(59.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(60.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo kaizhan qingkuang jianjie” (1965), 2.

(61.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 2.

(62.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 2.

(63.) PRC, Guowu yuan, (Guolin Tan zi di 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 3. The 1962 State Council policy demanded the active protection of wild animal resources and “strictly prohibited” the hunting of the giant panda among a select list of other species indigenous only to China.

(64.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 1.

(65.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 3.

(66.) Kang Jia [pseudonym], Baima woman, interview by author, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC, May 29, 2002.

(67.) Sichuan sheng, Renmin weiyuan hui (Chuan nong zi 0191 hao), April 2, 1963, 3.

(68.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 2.

(69.) The report uses the term 战斗大队, which I translate as “combat forces.” Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 6.

(70.) The referencing of ethnic minorities in China as barbarians and the former use of animal and insect radicals in the terms used to name various groups is broadly known. Stevan Harrell notes that ethnic minorities were viewed on a scale of cultural civility by the Han, some being more civilizable than others. To read further, please see Stevan Harrell, “Introduction,” in Cultural Encounters on China’s Ethnic Frontiers, ed. Stevan Harrell (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996), 9.

(p.190)

(71.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 6; Ye Wa, Beijing resident during early 1960s, San Diego, CA, USA, interview by author, September 25, 2003.

(72.) Sichuan, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 7.

(73.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 7.

(74.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju, “Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo” (1965), 6.

(75.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, May 27, 2002.

(76.) Baima villagers, interview by author, May 30, 2002.

(77.) See Kenneth Lieberthal and Michel Oksenberg, Policy Making in China: Leaders, Structures, and Processes (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 350; they cite David Goodman, Centre and Province in the PRC: Sichuan and Guizhou, 1955–1965 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986); Lardy, Economic Growth and Distribution in China (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1978); Victor Faulkenheim, “Continuing Central Predominance,” Problems of Communism 21, no. 4 (1972): 75–83.

(78.) Zhong Zhaomin, interview, January 22, 2002.

(79.) Cai Li, interview, October 19, 2001.

Chapter 4

(1.) Pingwu County is nearly 1,000 miles from China’s capital, Beijing.

(2.) Wanglang ziran baohu qu da xiongmao diaocha zu [Wanglang Nature Reserve giant panda survey team], “Sichuan sheng Pingwu xian Wanglang ziran baohu qu da xiongmao de chubu diaocha” [Preliminary survey of giant pandas in the Wanglang Nature Reserve in Pingwu County, Sichuan] Dongwuxue bao [Acta Zoologica Sinica] 20, no. 2 (June 1974): 162. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was a reorganization of the formerly separate ministries.

(3.) Wu Zhonglun, ed., Zhongguo ziran baohu qu [China’s nature reserves] (Shanghai: Keji jiaoyu chuban she, 1996); Jin Jianming, Wang Liqiang, Xue Dayuan, eds., Ziran baohu gailun [An introduction to nature protection] (Beijing: Zhongguo huanjing kexue chuban she, 1991); Richard Louis Edmonds, Patterns of China’s Lost Harmony: A Survey of the Country’s Environmental Degradation and Protection (London: Routledge, 1994). See especially Judith Shapiro, Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), chapters 3 and 4 for a discussion of terracing unfertile hills to mimic Dazhai, filling in Dian Lake in the Kunming area, and reclamation of wetlands in northern China, etc.

(4.) Shapiro, Mao’s War Against Nature, 57. Pan Wenshi, Director of Giant Panda Conservation and Research Center, interview by author, Beijing, PRC, January 2002.

(5.) The term “national treasure” is in quotes because this was an official term applied to the giant panda in 1972. The Chinese term is “国宝.”

(p.191)

(6.) Wanglang ziran baohu chu diaocha zu, “Wanglang ziran baohu qu da xiongmao de chubu diaocha,” (1974) 162.

(7.) Wanglang ziran baohu chu diaocha zu, “Wanglang ziran baohu qu da xiongmao de chubu diaocha,” (1974) 162–173.

(8.) Based on the translation in Mao Zedong, “Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art,” Mao Tse-tung on Literature and Art (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1977 [1960]), 12.

(9.) Matthew David Johnson, “A Politics of Form: Cultural Conflict and China’s Film Industry After the Great Leap Forward, 1959–1964,” unpublished paper presented at the UCSD-Stanford Cultural Revolution Conference June 8–9, 2003, University of California, San Diego, 2, 18.

(11.) Zhang Ding and Zhang Mei, “Shiyong meishu—Zhongying gongyi meishu xueyuan qizuo shixi” [Useful art—Work and practice of the Central Craft and Art Academy], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], June 4, 1961, 8.

(12.) I would like to thank Yun-Chiahn C. Sena for sharing her insights on brush painting. Clunas, Art in China, 144.

(13.) Zhongguo youpiao quanji Zhongguo Renmin Gongheguo juan (Beijing: Beijing Yanshan chuban she, 1989), 122.

(14.) “Chuantong gongyi kai xinhua” [Updating traditional art and craft], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], (June 5, 1973), 4.

(15.) “Hubei shou gongyi lao yiren qizuo yipi xin zuopin” [Old artists produce new art for Hubei handicrafts], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], August 27, 1972, 3.

(16.) Julia F. Andrews, Painters and Politics in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1979 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 115118.

(17.) “Jiji fazhan chuantong yigong meishu pin shenchan” (Enthusiastic development of traditional craft and artwork production). Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), October 26, 1972, 2.

(18.) “Jiji fazhan chuantong gongyi,” 2.

(19.) “Chuantong gongyi kai xinhua,” 4.

(20.) “Shaoyang zhu yi kai xinhua” [Updating bamboo art in Shaoyang], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], June 23, 1973, 3.

(21.) “Shaoyang zhu yi kai xinhua,” 3.

(22.) Hao Siyong, “Xiongmao wu zhou sui” [‘Panda’ is five years old], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], September 30, 1961, 5.

(23.) “Fazhan qing gongye yuanliao jidi Nei Menggu qing gongye bumen jianli jidi zhengqu yuanliao zhubu zi gei rui anbai hao ruping chang tongguo zhiyuan xumuye fazhan guang bi ru yuan” [The basic materials for the development of light industry. The departments involved in Inner Mongolia’s light industry established basic materials to pursue the development of milk product production to support the development of husbandry and the expansion of milk resources], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], February 17, 1960, 2; “Nei Menggu dapi ru zhipin (p.192) gongying shichang” [A large supply of Inner Mongolian milk products hit the market], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], August 24, 1963, 2.

(24.) “Youqu de suliao wanju” [An interesting plastic toy], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], January 29, 1962, 2.

(25.) “Xin Xilan zongli Maerdeng fangwen Qinghua Daxue” [New Zealand Prime Minister Muldoon visits Qinghua University], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 30, 1976, 2.

(26.) “Xin Xilan zongli Maerdeng fangwen Qinghua Daxue” April 30, 1976, 2.

(27.) “Wenhua da geming tuidong zhaoxiangji gongye da fazhan: 1976 nian quanguo zhaoxiangji de chanliang, bi wenhua da geming qian de 1976 nian zengchangle 12 bei, pinzhong zengjia jin 4 bei. Shishi you li de pipan le Deng Xiaoping ‘Jin buru xi’de miulun’ ” [The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution promotes the development of the camera industry: in 1976 the production of cameras throughout the entire country was greater than before the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution by twelve fold, the number of camera models increased by four fold, offering a genuine criticism of Deng Xiaoping’s false assertion that ‘Today is not as good as in the past’], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], June 14, 1976, 3.

(28.) “Wenhua da geming tuidong zhaoxiangji gongye da fazhan,” 3.

(29.) “Wenhua da geming tuidong zhaoxiangji gongye da fazhan,” 3.

(30.) “Nuli guanche zhixing Mao Zhuxi geming wenyi luxian de xin chengguo guoqing qijian zhuang shang ying yi pi xin yingpian” [Diligently carrying out Chairman Mao’s line on art for national day with many new films], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], September 30, 1975, 4.

(31.) “Wo guo xinxing jiaopian gongye dale fanshen zhang” [Our nation brought about an upswing in the burgeoning film industry], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], February 12, 1976, 1.

(32.) “Wo keji yingpian zai Luoma fangying shoudao huanying” [Our technology film was well received in Rome], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], December 17, 1976, 6; “Wo yingpian zai Yindu guoji dianying jie shoudao huanying” [Our films were well received in India’s international film festival], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], February 2, 1977, 5.

(33.) “Wo dui wai xie daibiao tuan jiesu dui Yilang youhao fangwen” [Our foreign relations envoy goes to Iran], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], September 11, 1977, 6; “Wo dui wai you xie daibiao tuan fangwen Yilake” [Our foreign relations envoy goes to Iraq], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], September 27, 1977, 5.

(34.) Zhong Zhaomin, “Zai Wanglang ziran baohu qu paishe kejiao yingpian, ‘Xiongmao’ gushipian, ‘Xiongmao lixian yanzhi’ deng yingpian de gaishu [Overview of the filming of the science education documentary, ‘Panda’ and the feature film ‘Diary of a panda’s adventures’ in the Wanglang Nature Reserve],” personal reflections, April 2004.

(35.) China Pictorial [Renmin huabao, 人民画报], May 1973, 22–25.

(p.193)

(36.) Naomi Oreskes, “Objectivity or Heroism? On the Invisibility of Women in Science,” Osiris, Second Series, 11, Science in the Field (1996): 87–113.

(38.) Jiang Qing (wife of Mao Zedong), Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan, and Zhang Chunqiao were four radical leaders of the Cultural Revolution who banded together and pushed the movement forward. After Mao’s death in 1976, these four were designated as a clique, arrested, tried, and convicted, officially marking the end of the Cultural Revolution.

Chapter 5

(1.) “Beijing shi gewei hui zeng songgei meiguo ren min de yi dui xiongmao zai huashengdun guojia dongwuyuan juxing jiaojie yishi” [A ceremony was given in Washington, DC, at the National Zoo for the pair of pandas that the Beijing municipal revolutionary committee presented to the American people], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 22, 1972; “Dongjing juxing jieshou Zhongguo renmin zengsong yi dui da xiongmao yishi Erjie tang jin guanfang zhangguan, Qiaoben deng mei sanlang ganshi zhang, yi ji ge jie renshi canjia” [Tokyo held a reception for the pair of pandas given by the Chinese people; Commanding Officer, Head Secretary, and other public figures from other divisions all participated], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], November 5, 1972, 4.

(2.) Peter Enav, “Chinese Pandas Arrive in Taiwan in Charm Offensive,” Associated Press, December 23, 2008.

(3.) Christina Lamb, “Peevish China recalls panda Tai Shan due to Obama’s meeting with the Dalai Lama,” The Sunday Times (UK), February 14, 2010.

(4.) Mark Magnier, “Attack of the Pandas,” Los Angeles Times, March 21, 2006; Margaret MacMillan, Nixon and Mao: The Week that Changed the World (New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2008), 148; “Youguan da xiongmao de lishi jizai” [A written account of the history of the giant panda], Zhongguo ribao wangzhan [China daily online], China Culture.org http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/cn_zggd/2006-01/11/content_77854.htm.

(5.) Kojima Noriyuki et al., eds., Nihon Shoki 3, (Tōkyō: Shōgakkan, 1994–1998), 218–219; Also, thank you to Kim Kono and Stephen Roddy for consultation on this passage and the contributors to the discussion of this myth at the Hatena Diary blog, http://d.hatena.ne.jp/syulan/20070523/p1 (Accessed March 4, 2008).

(6.) “Two Pandas are Presented to Bronx Zoo by Chinese at Ceremony in Chungking,” New York Times, November 10, 1941, 19.

(7.) Zhong and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 1–2. Studbooks offer the pedigree of any given animal. This one lists all giant pandas captured and brought into captivity or born in captivity that survived long enough to receive a number, and usually a name.

(8.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 2.

(p.194)

(9.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 7, 10, 11.

(10.) “Peng Zhen shizhang zenggei Pingrong yi pi zhengui dongwu” [Mayor Peng Zhen gave Pyongyong several precious animals], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], June 8, 1965, 4.

(11.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 7, 10, 11.

(12.) Zhang Xiruo daibiao de fayan [Representative Zhang Xiruo’s speech], “Huxiang xiqu, huxiang fazhan, huxiang zunzhong fazhan dui wai wenhua jiaoliu gongzuo” [Mutual assimilation, mutual development, mutual respect, development of cultural foreign exchange work], published in Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], May 4, 1959, 5.

(13.) Joseph A. Davis, “A China Doll and Pal Come to Town,” New York Times, April 23, 1972, E5.

(14.) “Nikesong zongtong furen zai jing canguan youlan” [President Nixon’s wife on a sightseeing tour of the capital], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], February 23, 1972, 2.

(15.) “Beijing shi gewei hui daizhuren Wu De huijian husong sheniu de meiguo keren” [Beijing municipal revolutionary committee representative Wu De meets and escorts musk oxen guests from America], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 13, 1972, 5; “Beijing shi gewei hui zeng songgei meiguo ren min de yi dui xiongmao,” Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 22, 1972, 6; “The People’s Pandas” New York Times, March 15, 1972, 46.

(16.) “Beijing shi gewei hui daizhuren Wu De,” April 13, 1972.

(17.) “Beijing shi gewei hui daizhuren Wu De,” April 13, 1972.

(18.) “Security is Tight as 2 Pandas Land, Gifts from Peking Housed at Zoo in Washington,” New York Times, April 17, 1972, 5; New York Times, April 15, 1972, 62.

(19.) Nan Robertson, “New Pandas Melt Hearts at National Zoo,” New York Times, April 18, 1972, 1.

(20.) “Beijing shi gewei hui zeng songgei meiguo ren min de yi dui xiongmao,” April 22, 1972, 6. Their popularity only grew throughout their lives in the National Zoo of Washington, DC, and the city mourned at their deaths.

(21.) “Panda-monium in Washington,” New York Times, June 11, 1972.

(22.) “People’s Pandas,” New York Times, March 15, 1972, 46.

(23.) “People’s Pandas,” New York Times, March 15, 1972, 46.

(24.) Robertson, “New Pandas,” April 18, 1972, 1.

(25.) Michael Gross, Cover Art, National Lampoon, (July 1972).

(26.) Robertson, “New Pandas,” April 18, 1972, 1.

(27.) Harrison E. Salisbury, “Dinner with Mrs. Sun Yat-sen in Old Peking,” New York Times, June 3, 1972, 2.

(28.) Harrison E. Salisbury, “U.S. Musk Oxen Recuperating, Draw Crowds in Peking Zoo,” New York Times, June 14, 1972, 2.

(29.) Samuel S. Kim, “The People’s Republic of China in the United Nations: A Preliminary Analysis,” World Politics 26, no. 3 (April 1974), 301; Justin S. (p.195) Hempson-Jones, “The Evolution of China’s Engagement with International Governmental Organizations: Toward a Liberal Foreign Policy,” Asian Survey 45, no. 5 (2005), 707.

(30.) Another comparative survey of Renmin ribao articles must be done to evaluate this relationship properly. My pool is based on articles that mention “panda” or “giant panda” in the text. I would be surprised if there was a great discrepancy between the ratio of articles about China’s new relations with these countries that do include “panda” or “giant panda” and those that do not; however, this caveat must be expressed until a more exact assessment is made.

(31.) “Dongjing juxing jieshou Zhongguo renmin zengsong yi dui da xiongmao,” November 5, 1972, 4; “China Presents Japan with Two Giant Pandas,” New York Times, September 29, 1972.

(32.) New York Times, October 29, 1972, 17.

(33.) “Dongjing juxing jieshou da xiongmao,” November 5, 1972, 4.

(34.) Masaya Tsuchiya, “Recent Developments in Sino-Japanese Trade,” Law and Contemporary Problems 38, no.2, Trade with China (Summer-Autumn, 1973): 241–243.

(35.) Chalmers Johnson, “The Patterns of Japanese Relations with China, 1952–1982,” Pacific Affairs 59, no. 3 (Autumn, 1986): 404.

(36.) Chalmers Johnson, “Patterns of Japanese Relations with China,” 403.

(37.) The Nixon administration not only had declined to inform Japan about this important policy change, it also did not inform the US public, Congress, the State Department, or even the Secretary of State that this was going to happen. Henry Kissinger, the National Security Advisor, made these arrangements with Zhou Enlai only shortly before Nixon announced it publicly. See Chalmers Johnson, “Patterns of Japanese Relations with China,” 410.

(38.) Chalmers Johnson, “Patterns of Japanese Relations with China,” 411.

(39.) “Dongjing juxing jieshou da xiongmao,” November 5, 1972, 4.

(40.) Lee W. Farnsworth, “Japan 1972: New Faces and New Friends,” Asian Survey 13, no. 1 (January, 1973): 122.

(41.) Farnsworth, “Japan 1972: New Faces and New Friends,” 113.

(42.) “Hu yin shanlu gong youyi—ji di shi ci ri zhong youhao xingnian xialing ying” [Home in the hidden foothills praising friendship—records of the tenth Japanese-Chinese friendship summer camp for young people], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], August 8, 1973, 5.

(43.) “Wo zengsong xiongmao jiaojie yishi zai pali juxing Ceng Tao dashi he Fengdanei bu zhang gong zhu Zhong Fa youyi bu duan fazhan” [At the ceremony for our gift of pandas, Ambassador Ceng Tao and Ministry Head Fengdanei together celebrated the continuous development of friendship between China and France], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], December 22, 1973, 5.

(44.) “Wo guo zhengfu zengsong Pengpishe zongtong he Faguo renmin de yi dui da xiongmao yunwang Pali” [The pair of pandas that our national government gave (p.196) President Pompidou and the people of France are headed for Paris], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], December 9, 1973, 4.

(45.) “Wo zeng Yingguo renmin da xiongmao jioajie yishi zai lundun juxing” [The handover ceremony for the giant pandas we gave to the English people was held in London], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], November 8, 1974, 6.

(46.) “Wo zengsong de yidui daxiongmao yun di Moxige” [Our gift pandas have arrived in Mexico], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], September 12, 1975, 5.

(47.) Huang Hua wei wo ping pang qiu daibiao tuan juxing shaodai hui dui Meiguoren he pingxie deng gei yu daibiaotuan reqing huanying he youyu gao jiedai biaoshi ganxie” [Huang Hua acts as our Ping-Pong team representative and holds a reception to express gratitude to the American people and the Ping-Pong association for giving our team a warm welcome and friendship], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 23, 1972, 6.

(48.) “Huang Hua wei wo ping pang qiu daibiao,” April 23, 1972, 6.

(49.) “Ying hua shi jie fang dong ling” [Visiting eastern neighbors during the cherry blossom festival], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], May 10, 1973, 5.

(50.) “Tanaka (Tianzhong jiao rong) Shouxiang huijian Liao Chengzhe tuanzhang Riben xinwen jie pengyou juxing cha hui huanying wo daobiao tuan” [Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei met committee head Liao Chengzhi; Japan’s news friends hosted a tea ceremony to welcome our representative committee], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], May 15, 1973, 5.

(51.) “Zhong Ri youhao de xin bianzhang—ji Zhong Ri youhao xiehui daibiao tuan fangwen Riben” [New chapters in Chinese-Japanese friendship—records of the Chinese-Japanese friendship association representatives’ visit to Japan], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], June 4, 1973, 5.

(52.) Hu Tieqing, interview by author, January 14, 2002.

(53.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 2–11.

(54.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 2–11.

(55.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 11–23.

(56.) Dong Zhiyong, ed., Zhongguo linye nianjian, 80.

(57.) “Beijing shi gewei hui zeng songgei meiguo ren min de yi dui xiongmao,” April 22, 1972, 6; “Dongjing juxing jieshou da xiongmao,” November 5, 1972, 4.

(58.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 2–23.

(59.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 11–23.

(60.) Han Zhengfu, “Han Zhengfu tongzhi zai quan sheng zhengui dongwu ziyuan, diaocha zuotan huiyi shang de jianghua” [Comrade Han Zhengfu’s speech at the province-wide meeting on precious animal resources and surveys], November 17, 1973, 3.

(61.) PRC, Nonglin bu [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry], “Guanyu zheng qiu dui ‘yesheng dongwu ziyuan baohu tiaoli’ (caoan) de yijian he zanting pizhuo buzu guojia zhengui dongwu de tongzhi” [Report concerning the government’s request about the suggestion to temporarily halt the approval to trap precious (p.197) species with the ‘wild animal resource protection regulations’ (draft)], (3 Nonglin [lin] zi di 53 hao), May 8, 1973, 1.

(62.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 23–51.

(63.) Han Zhengfu, “Zai quan sheng zhengui dongwu ziyuan,” November 17, 1973.

(64.) Han Zhengfu, “Zai quan sheng zhengui dongwu ziyuan,” November 17, 1973.

(65.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, forestry bureau], “Guanyu caoni ‘yesheng dongwu ziyuan baohu tiaojian’ de shuoming” [Draft of explanation of ‘factors in terms of wild animal resource protection’], May 1973; Han Zhengfu, “Zai quan sheng zhengui dongwu ziyuan,” November 17, 1973; PRC, Nonglin bu (3 Nonglin [lin] zi di 53 hao), May 8, 1973.

(66.) PRC, Nonglin bu (3 Nonglin [lin] zi di 53 hao), May 8, 1973.

(67.) Han Zhengfu, “Zai quan sheng zhengui dongwu ziyuan,” November 17, 1973, 3, 5.

(68.) PRC, Nonglin bu (3 Nonglin [lin] zi di 53 hao), May 8, 1973, 3.

(69.) Paul G. Pickowicz, Professor of History, University of California, San Diego, interview by author May 6, 2004, La Jolla, California.

Chapter 6

(1.) Some of the material used in this chapter is incorporated into the co-authored article, Sigrid Schmalzer and E. Elena Songster, “Wild Pandas Wild People: Two Views of Wilderness in Deng-Era China,” in Visualizing Modern China: Image, History, and Memory, 1750–Present, ed. James A. Cook, Joshua Goldstein, Matthew D. Johnson, and Sigrid Schmalzer. (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014), 259–278; Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Revolutionary committee], “Guanyu baohu da xiongmao de jiji tongzhi” [Urgent notice concerning protecting giant pandas] (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976, 1; PRC, Nonglin bu [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry], “Guanyu jiaqiang da xiongmao baohu gongzuo de jiji tongzhi” [Urgent notice concerning giant panda protection work], (Nonglin 76 [lin] zi di 20 hao), March 16, 1976, 1; Sichuan sheng, Linye ting [Sichuan province, Forestry department], “Guanyu guanche zhixing nonglin bu ‘guanyu jiaqiang da xiongmao baohu gongzuo de jiji tongzhi’ de tongzhi” [Notice regarding carrying out the policy of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry ‘Urgent notice regarding strengthening giant panda protection work’], (Chuanlin zao 76 di 27 hao), March 23, 1976, 1; Sichuan sheng, Linye ting [Sichuan Province, Forestry department], “Qing shouji da xiongmao ziran siwang qingkuang de jiji tongzhi” [Urgent notice requesting the collection of giant pandas that naturally died], (Chuanlin zao 76 di 29 hao), April 9, 1976, 1; Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Revolutionary Committee], “Guanyu diaocha da xiongmao qingkuang de jiji tongzhi” [Urgent notice regarding a survey of the giant panda situation], (Pingge fa 76 di 25 hao), (p.198) April 13, 1976, 1; Da xiongmao ziran siwang lianhe diaocha dui [Giant panda natural death United Survey Team (hereafter United Survey Team)], July 20, 1976, 1; Sichuan sheng, Mianyang, Linye ju [Mianyang prefecture forestry bureau], “Guanyu jiaqiang dui da maoxiong xiankuang guancha he dui jianzhu kaihua siwang hou de huifu qingkuang jinxing diaocha zongjie de tongzhi” [Summary notice regarding the strengthening of the monitoring of the present giant panda situation and the survey of the advancement of post-bamboo flowering and die-off recovery], (Dilin jingying di 32 hao), March 13, 1976.

(2.) Sichuan sheng, Mianyang linye ju [Mianyang Forestry Bureau], (Dilin jingying 76 di 32 hao), March 13, 1976, 1.

(3.) Yang Ruoli, Zhang Fuyun, and Luo Wenying, “1976 nian da xiongmao zainan xing siwang yuanyin de shenlun” [Probing into reasons for the 1976 catastrophic death of giant pandas], Acta Theriologica Sinica 1, no. 2 (December 1981): 128.

(4.) Jiang Tingan, “Zai da xiongmao de guxiang” [In panda country], Bowu [Natural history] 3 (November 1980): 15. The area that this article describes is most likely Wanglang and Pingwu County. This identification is indicated by the fact that at that time there were still very few nature reserves and the type of bamboo described, arrow bamboo, was the predominant type of bamboo that grew in Wanglang. While there are Tibetans living in Pingwu County, there are more local Baima. Because of their official categorization as Baima Tibetans, many official and popular documents refer to them simply as Tibetan. This is,therefore, most likely a reference to a member of the Baima group rather than a Tibetan.

(5.) Pingwu County is in northern Sichuan and neighbors southern Gansu. Both areas contain pandas and are situated along the same Min mountain range.

(6.) Yang et al., “1976 da xiongmao siwang yuanyin,” 128.

(7.) Sichuan sheng, Mianyang linye ju (Dilin jingying 76 di 32 hao), March 13, 1976.

(8.) For a brief overview of the major events during this period, please see Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2013 [1990]), 559–638.

(9.) Yao Weimin, ed., Zhonggong Pingwu difang shi dashi ji, 1935–1998 [Central Pingwu local history and record of major events, 1935–1998], (Pingwu: Sichuan donghua yingwu jituan youxian gongsi, 1999), 151.

(10.) PRC, Nonglin bu [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry], (Nonglin 76 [lin] zi di 20 hao), March 16, 1976; Sichuan sheng, Linye ting [Sichuan Province, Forestry Department], (Chuanlin zao 76 di 29 hao), April 9, 1976; Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976; Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 25 hao), April 13, 1976; Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 29 hao), April 22, 1976.

(11.) While it is believed that environmental factors can influence a bamboo’s flowering cycle, the main trigger, although not fully understood, is considered to be (p.199) independent of the environment. Zhong Zhaomin, “Zhulei kaihua yu dizhen de guanxi,” undated and unpublished essay, 2.

(12.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976, 1.

(13.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976, 1–2.

(14.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976, 1.

(15.) Yang et al., “1976 da xiongmao siwang yuanyin,” 128.

(16.) Guo An, “Wo guo zuida de dongwu yuan,” May 6, 1956, 3; Zhou Jianren, “Guanyu xiongmao,” July 6, 1956, 8.

(17.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976, 2.

(18.) Sichuan sheng, Linye ting, (Chuanlin zao 76 di 27 hao), March 23, 1976, 2.

(19.) Sichuan sheng, Linye ting, (Chuanlin zao 76 di 29 hao), April 9, 1976, 1–2.

(20.) PRC, Nonglin bu, (Nonglin 76 [lin] zi di 20 hao), March 16, 1976, 2.

(21.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 25 hao), April 13, 1976, 5.

(22.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 29 hao), April 22, 1976, 1.

(23.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 12 hao), February 10, 1976, 2.

(24.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui, (Pingge fa 76 di 25 hao), April 13, 1976, 6.

(25.) Schaller et al., Giant Pandas of Wolong, 254.

(26.) Gazetteers are local histories. They commonly compile centuries of history and include details about local flora, fauna, and natural disasters among many other types of information including local agriculture, industry, population. Sometimes they are written at the district level, other times the provincial level; there are also topical national-level gazeteers.

(27.) Sichuan sheng, Mianyang, Linye ju, (Dilin jingying 76 di 32 hao), March 13, 1976, 1–2.

(28.) PRC, Guowu yuan “Guowu yuan guanyu jiji baohu he heli liyong yesheng dongwu zi yuan de zhishi,” (Guolin Tan zi 287 hao), September 14, 1962, 5; PRC, Nonglin bu, “Guanyu jiaing da xiongmao baohu,” (Nonglin 76 [lin] zi di 20 hao), March 16, 1976, 1.

(29.) PRC, Nonglin bu, “Guanyu jiaing da xiongmao baohu,” (Nonglin 76 [lin] zi di 20 hao), March 16, 1976, 2.

(30.) Sichuan sheng, Linye ting, (Chuanlin zao 76 di 29 hao), April 9, 1976, 2.

(31.) Qian Danning, ed., Pingwu Xianzhi, 505.

(32.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xianzhi, 506.

(33.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Forestry Bureau], “Guanyu jiaqiang Wanglang ziran baohu qu guanli gongzuo (p.200) de baogao” [Report concerning the strengthening of Wanglang Nature Reserve management work], (Pinglin hu 76 zi di 03 hao), May 20, 1976, 1.

(34.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Forestry Bureau], (Pinglin hu 76 zi di 03 hao), May 20, 1976, 2. The other panda destined for Paris was captured in Baoxing County in southern Sichuan. Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 14.

(35.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Forestry Bureau], “Guanyu Wanglang ziran baohu qu 76 nian jijian kuan kai ji jihua baogao” [Report concerning Wanglang Nature Reserve construction budget for 1976], (Pinglin ban76 zidi 04 hao), June 18, 1976.

(36.) One jin is equal to 1.1023 lbs.

(37.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Linye ju [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Forestry Bureau], “Guanyu qingshi jiejue si da xiongmao shiliang gongying de baogao” [Report concerning request to solve the problem with supplies for feeding and raising giant pandas], (Pinglin ban 76 zi di 06 hao), June 22, 1976, l.

(38.) Sichuan sheng, Pingwu xian, Geming weiyuanhui [Sichuan Province, Pingwu County, Revolutionary Committee], “Guanyu zhuan fa Sichuan sheng geming weiyuanhui yingfa nonglin bu song ‘guanyu da xiongmao daliang siwang qingkuang de diaocha baogao’ de han” [Reply regarding the forwarding of Sichuan Province’s Revolutionary Committee’s issuing of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s directive, ‘Concerning the survey report of the large number of giant panda deaths’], (Pingge fa 76 di 78 hao), December 14, 1976, 1; Da xiongmao ziran siwang lianhe diaocha dui, United Survey Team, July 20, 1976, 1; Zhong Zhaomin, “Da xiongmao siwang yu dizhen de guanxi” [The relationship between giant panda death and earthquakes], undated essay, 1; Wen Zhe and Wang Menghu, “Da xiongmao yu zhu” [Giant pandas and bamboo], Da ziran [Nature] 1 (1980): 12; Jiang Tingan, “Zai da xiongmao de guxiang,”15; Schaller et al., Giant Pandas of Wolong, 255.

(39.) Jiang Tingan, “Zai da xiongmao de guxiang,” 15–16; Yang et al., “1976 da xiongmao siwang yuanyin,” Zhong Zhaomin, “Da xiongmao siwang yu dizhen,” 1.

(40.) As a reminder, studbooks offer the pedigree of any given animal. This one in particular lists all giant pandas captured and brought into captivity or born in captivity that survived long enough to receive a number, and also usually a name up to 2001. Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 18–20.

(41.) They would have died quickly, if this was the case, because even unnamed “New No. 7” was recorded in the captive-panda studbook after only a three-month life in captivity before she died. Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 18.

(42.) Stephen J. O’Brien, Pan Wenshi, and Lü Zhi, “Pandas, People and Policy,” Nature 369 (May 19, 1994): 180.

(p.201)

(44.) Deduced from population parameters stated in Schaller, Last Panda, 230; Christopher S. Wren, “Bureaucracy and Blight Imperil China’s Pandas,” New York Times, July 3, 1984, C1.

(45.) Schaller, Last Panda, 200; Alan H. Taylor and Qin Zisheng, “Culm Dynamics and Dry Matter Production of Bamboos in the Wolong and Tangjiahe Giant Panda Reserves, Sichuan, China,” Journal of Applied Ecology 24, no. 2 (August 1987): 422; Donald G. Reid and Hu Jinchu, “Giant Panda Selection Between Bashania Fangiana Bamboo Habitats in Wolong Reserve, Sichuan, China,” Journal of Applied Ecology 28 (1991): 230–231; Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong, 255.

(46.) Schaller et al., The Giant Pandas of Wolong, 255.

(47.) Yin Hong, “Zhongguo yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui fu zeren tan muqian da xiongmao de zaiqing ji jixu de jiuzai cuoshi [Head of China’s Wild Animal Protection Association discusses the present situation of the giant panda crisis and the urgent need for panda rescue measures],” Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 16, 1984, 3; Schaller, Last Panda, 201.

(48.) RMRB, January 1975–January 1985.

(49.) RMRB, August 21, 1983, 3.

(50.) RMRB, September 1, 1983, 2.

(51.) Yin Hong, “Zhongguo yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui fuze ren tan,” 3.

(52.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao” [Saving the ‘national treasure’ the giant panda], interview by journal reporter in, Yesheng dongwu [Chinese Wildlife] 3 (May 1984): 1.

(53.) RMRB, September 1, 1983.

(54.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(55.) Enid Nemy, “First Lady’s Quest: ‘The Real China,’” New York Times, April 23, 1984, A6.

(56.) New York Times (hereafter NYT), January 22, 1984, 34; NYT, February 5, 1984, 28.

(57.) RMRB, August 17, 1983, 1.

(58.) Yin Hong, “Zhongguo yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui fuze ren tan,” 3; Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(59.) Hu Jinchu, “Canjia Zhongguo dongwuxue hui chengli wushi zhou nian nian hui de dongwuxue gongzuozhe huyu: caiqu jinji jieshi baohu da xiongmao” [Participating in the fiftieth annual meeting of China’s national zoological meeting, a zoological worker’s appeal: take urgent measures to protect the giant panda], Yesheng dongwu [Chinese wildlife] 5 (September 1984): 2.

(60.) Hu Jinchu, “Canjia Zhongguo dongwuxue hui,” 2.

(61.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(62.) Ouyang Huiyun, “Wolong ziran baohu qu da xiongmao zhuan yi dao anquan didai” [Moving giant pandas in the Wolong Nature Reserve to a safer area] Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], October 22, 1983, 3; Yin Hong, “Zhongguo yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui fuze ren tan,” 3; Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(p.202)

(64.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 1.

(65.) Hu Jinchu, “Canjia Zhongguo dongwuxue hui,” 1.

(66.) Chen Yuanfei, “Da xiongmao 1983 dashi ji” [Major giant panda events in 1983], Da ziran tansuo [Exploring Nature] 2 (1984): 185.

(67.) This may simply be the result of inaccurate reporting, poor information, or pressure on the journalists to produce dead pandas for public consumption. Regardless, George Schaller was alarmed by reading news in the United States claiming that pandas had died in Wolong. When he checked this information with researchers in Wolong, they asserted that it was incorrect and that no pandas in Wolong had died of starvation. Schaller, Last Panda, 202.

(68.) Ouyang Huiyun, “Wolong ziran baohu qu da xiongmao zhuan yi,” 3.

(69.) New York Times, February 13, 1984, A6.

(70.) Kenneth G. Johnson, George B. Schaller, and Hu Jinchu, “Response of Giant Pandas to a Bamboo Die-off,” National Geographic Research 4 (1988): 161–177.

(71.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 1.

(72.) Yin Hong, “Zhongguo yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui fuze ren tan,” 3.

(73.) Hu Jinchu, “Canjia Zhongguo dongwuxue hui,” 1.

(74.) RMRB, May 17, 1984, 3.

(76.) Qian Danning, Pingwu xianzhi, 421. Although Pingwu is a different county, the reporter for the New York Times indicated that the sum of the reward was approximately one-year’s salary. The average yearly salary for a Pingwu resident in 1984 was 486 yuan per year. It is more likely that the sum was mistranslated into a dollar amount than that the standard of living in another mountainous county of Sichuan was eight times higher than that of Pingwu County.

(77.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(78.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(79.) Liu Xiangji and Huang Zhenggen, “Baohu da xiongmao deng zhenxi dongwu yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui kaizhan mujuan huodong” [Protecting the giant panda and other precious and rare animals, the Wild Animal Protection Association develops fundraising activity], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], January 9, 1984, 3.

(80.) RMRB, April 4, 1984, 3.

(81.) RMRB, June 8, 1984, 6.

(82.) RMRB, February 22, 1984, 3.

(83.) Yin Hong, “Zhongguo yesheng dongwu baohu xiehui fuze ren tan,” 3.

(84.) New York Times, January 22, 1984, 34.

(85.) New York Times, April 18, 1984, A24.

(86.) Enid Nemy, “At End of Day for Reagans, Dinner with Nine Courses,” New York Times, April 28, 1984, 4.

(87.) RMRB, April 29, 1984, 1; Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(p.203)

(88.) RMRB, March 16, 1984, 1.

(89.) RMRB, February 24, 1984, 3.

(90.) Liu Yuanyun, “Chengdu lujun xuexiao wei qiangjiu da xiongmao yongyue juankuan juanliang” [The Chengdu army academy enthusiastically contributed money and grain to save the giant panda], Sichuan dongwu [Sichuan animals] 3, no. 3 (August 1984): 46.

(91.) Xi Zefu, “Chengdu shi di shi zhongxue shi sheng jiji juankuan zhengjiu da xiongmao” [Teachers and students and Chengdu’s Number Ten middle school enthusiastically contributed funds to save the giant panda], Sichuan dongwu [Sichuan Animals] 3, no. 3 (August 1984): 46

(92.) Dong Zhiyong, “Qiangjiu ‘guobao’ da xiongmao,” 2.

(93.) Hu Jinchu, “Canjia Zhongguo dongwuxue hui,” 3.

(94.) Song Lianfeng, “Wolong leng jian zhu mianji kaihua gusi da xiongmao wunai xia shan jieshi huagu zhu” [Because the arrow bamboo has mass-flowered and died in Wolong, giant pandas have no choice but to descend to eat the umbrella bamboo], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], April 22, 1984, 1.

(96.) Wren, “Bureaucracy and Blight Imperil China’s Pandas,” C1; Christopher S. Wren, “Chinese Official Denies Gift for Pandas was Sidetracked,” New York Times, October 17, 1984, A19.

(97.) Song Houqing, “Linye bu fu buzhang Dong Zhiyong shuo: qiangjiu da xiongmao shi xiang chang qi gongzuo” [The vice-chair of the Ministry of Forestry, Dong Zhiyong said: saving the giant panda is a long-term task], Renmin ribao [People’s Daily], December 18, 1984, 3.

(98.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 27–30.

(99.) Song Houqing, “Dong Zhiyong shuo: qiangjiu da xiongmao shi xiang chang qi gongzuo,” 3.

(100.) Johnson et al., “Responses of Giant Pandas to a Bamboo Die-off,” 176.

(101.) Johnson et al., “Responses of Giant Pandas to a Bamboo Die-off,” 161–177.

(102.) Johnson et al., “Responses of Giant Pandas to a Bamboo Die-off,” 176.

(103.) Johnson et al., “Responses of Giant Pandas to a Bamboo Die-off,” 176.

(104.) Pan et al., Jiuxiu shengcun de jihui, 3.

(105.) Pan et al., Jiuxiu shengcun de jihui, 7.

(106.) Pan et al., Jiuxiu shengcun de jihui, 5.

(107.) Pan Wenshi, professor of Biology at Peking University, interview by author, 2001, Beijing, PRC.

(108.) RMRB, January 5, 1985– November 29, 1987.

Chapter 7

(1.) KarmaQuest, ecotourism travel website. Content available from http://www.karmaquests.com/sichuan-2003.htm (content confirmed 21 March and 25 (p.204) June 2004). Content has changed and the new content is available at http://www.karmaquests.com/sichuan_panda_trip.htm (Accessed February 5, 2017, website updated 2014).

(2.) Geoff Carey, ed., A Biodiversity Review of China (Hong Kong: World Wide Fund for Nature [WWF] International, 1996), 4. James Harkness, interview by author, September 2001; Lü Zhi, correspondence, August 13, 2015.

(3.) Li Shengzhi, ICDP representative. Interview by author, May 25, 2002, Pingwu City, Pingwu County, Sichuan.

(4.) Integrated Conservation Development Program (ICDP), June 1998, 53, (hereafter, ICDP),

(5.) ICDP, 48.

(6.) Pingwu xian, linye ju, Pingwu xian shoulie gongzuo kaizhan qingkuang jianjie [A concise report on the status of the development of work on hunting in Pingwu County] (September 13, 1965), 6.

(7.) Immanuel C.Y. Hsü, China Without Mao: The Search for a New Order, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 188.

(8.) “Outline of the Protection Project for the Giant Panda and its Habitat in Sichuan Province,” List of Proposals, submitted to WWF, 1993.

(9.) Carey, ed., A Biodiversity Review of China, 4.

(10.) James Harkness, interview, 2001; Lü Zhi, correspondence, 2015.

(11.) Lü Zhi, Executive Director of the Peking University Center for Nature and Society and founder of the Shanshui Conservation Center College of Life Science, Peking University. Interview by author, July 10, 2002.

(12.) Lü Zhi, interview, July 10, 2002.

(13.) Chen Youping, Director of Wanglang Nature Reserve, interview by author May 28, 2002, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC.

(14.) Baima community members, interview with author, 2001, 2005.

(15.) Jiang Shiwei, Deputy Director of Wanglang Nature Reserve, interview by author, May 29, 2002, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC.

(16.) ICDP, 55.

(17.) Taylor and Qin, “Culm Dynamics and Dry Matter Production of Bamboos,” 419–433.

(18.) Ronald R. Swaisgood, Zejun Zhang, Fuwen Wei, David E. Wildt, and Andrew J. Kouba, “Giant Panda Conservation Science: How Far We Have Come,” Biology Letters 6.2 (2010): 143–145.

(19.) Pan Wenshi et al., Jixu shengcun de jihui, 61–62; Wang Dajun, “Postscript: The People of the Qinling Study,” in Pan Wenshi et al., A Chance for Lasting Survival: Ecology and Behavior of Wild Giant Pandas, trans. Richard B. Harris (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2014), 329.

(20.) Qian Danning ed., Pingwu xianzhi, 847.

(21.) Zhang Shougong, “China’s 1998 Flood Disaster, Cause and Response,” Presented at conference, “Natural Disaster and Policy Response in Asia, Implications for Food Security,” Harvard University Asia Center, Spring 1999.

(p.205)

(22.) Lü Zhi, interview, July 10, 2002.

(23.) Wanglang National Nature Reserve website: http://www.wanglang.com/Display.asp?ID=26 (Accessed August 12, 2010).

(24.) TIES, The International Ecotourism Society, “TIES Global Ecotourism Factsheet,” TIES, September, 2006, www.ecotourism.org (Accessed July 7, 2011).

(25.) Karmaquest, http://www.karmaquests.com/index.htm (Accessed August 10, 2010).

(26.) Karmaquest, http://www.karmaquests.com/about-us.htm (Accessed August 12, 2010).

(27.) Chen Youping, interview, May 28, 2002.

(28.) Li Shengzhi, interview, October 2001.

(29.) Kang Jia (pseudonym), Baima woman, interview by author, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC, May 29, 2002.

(30.) World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), China. http://www.wwfchina.org/english/loca.php?loca=107#2. Accessed December 18, 2012.

(31.) Emily Yeh and Chris Coggins, eds., Mapping Shangrila: Contested Landscapes in the Sino-Tibetan Borderlands (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014), especially 95–197.

(32.) Zhang, Zhenguo et al., “Ecotourism and Nature-Reserve Sustainability in Environmentally Fragile Poor Areas: The Case of the Ordos Relict Gull Reserve in China,” Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 4, No. 2 (Fall/Winter 2008), 13–14. http://ejournalnbii.org (Accessed August 8, 2010).

(33.) “Sichuan Wanglang, Tangjiahe ziran baohuqu xuexi kaocha baogao [Sichuan, Wanglang, Tangjiahe nature reserve study and survey report],” Mianyang shi linyeju zhuban [Mianyang City Forestry Office], December, 30, 2005.

(34.) Jiang Shiwei, “Wanglang: Zai minshan shenchu jingjing zhanfang [Wanglang: the quiet blossom deep in the heart of the Min Mountains],” Zhongguo luse shibao China’s Green Times, August 6, 2010. http://www.forestery.gove.cn/portal/main’s’72/content-434604.html (Accessed August 7, 2010).

(35.) Guangming He, Xiaodong Chen, Wei Liu, Scott Bearer, and Shiqiang Zhou, “Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China,” Environmental Management 42 (2008): 1021.

(37.) Pan Wenshi, interviews by author, February 2002.

(38.) Chen Liang, “Ecotourism to Save Nature,” China Daily, November 14, 2003, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/cd/2003-11/14/content_281438.htm. (Accessed August 8, 2010).

(39.) “Ecotourism to Save Nature,” November 14, 2003.

(40.) Jiang Shiwei, “Wanglang zai Min shan,” August 6, 2010.

(41.) Local worker, interview by author, May 2002, Pingwu County, Sichuan, PRC.

(42.) “Duzi qu luyou 3—Zhongguo di 57 ge minzu” [Lone travel 3—China’s 57th nationality] from Xiecheng http://www.ctrip.com/ found on (p.206) http://www.chinazijiayou.com/news/92/2007/129102756252.htm (Accessed August 8, 2010).

(43.) Wanglang reserve staff member, interview, July 1, 2013.

(44.) Binbin V. Li, Stuart L. Pimm, Sheng Lie, Lianjun Zhao, and Chunping Luo, “Free-Ranging Livestock Threaten the Long-Term Survival of Giant Pandas,” Biological Conservation 216 (2017), 23–24.

(45.) Wang Hao, Ph.D., Lecturer, Peking University, School of Life Sciences, interview by author, August 9, 2016.

(46.) Wang Hao, interview, August 9, 2016.

(47.) Lü Zhi, personal correspondence, August 13, 2015.

(48.) Wang Hao, interview, August 9, 2016.

(49.) Wang Hao, interview, August 9, 2016.

(50.) Wang Hao, interview, August 9, 2016.

(52.) Wang Hao, interview, August 9. 2016.

(53.) Wanglang National Nature Reserve Web site, Home page, http://www.wanglang.com/, accessed January 14, 2013.

(54.) Wanglang Nature Reserve TEAM Network webpage, http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/field_stations/wanglang-nature-reserve (Accessed August 7, 2010) lists Wanglang as one of its few non-tropical scientific research sites in China.

(55.) John Seidensticker, John F. Eisenberg, and Ross Simons, “The Tangjiahe, Wanglang, and Fengtongzhai Giant Panda Reserves and Biological Conservation in the People’s Republic of China,” Biological Conservation 28, No. 3 (1984): 217–251; Alan H. Taylor, Qin Zisheng, Liu Jie, “Structure and Dynamics of Subalpine Forests in the Wang Lang Natural Reserve, Sichuan, China,” Vegetation 124 (1996): 24–38; Zhan, Xiangjiang and others, “Molecular Censusing Doubles Giant Panda Population Estimate in Key Nature Reserve,” Current Biology 16, no. 12 (2006): 451–452.

(56.) See Chapter 3: “The Winding Road to Wanglang: Creating a Panda Reserve” for more on the far reaches of nationalistic sentiment.

Chapter 8

(1.) “Panda Ambassador Mei Lan Ushers in Chinese New Year by Launching Earth Hour 2010 to the World,” WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) Global, February 11, 2010, http://wwf.panda.org/?188762 (Accessed January 21, 2012); World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Earth Hour Website: http://www.earthhour.org/ (Accessed on July 24, 2015).

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(3.) Huang Shiqiang, “Bu chuguo men de da xiongmao” [Stages in the process of giant pandas going abroad], unpublished essay, 2002, 2.

(4.) Huang Shiqiang, “Bu chuguo men de da xiongmao,” 4.

(5.) “Pandas Extend Coast Visit,” The New York Times, October 1, 1984, B11.

(6.) Schaller, Last Panda, 239–241.

(7.) Schaller, Last Panda, 235–249.

(8.) Even in 2009, after a great deal of success in captive breeding and there was a resurgent interest in reintroduction, such as described in F. Shen, Z. Zhang, W. He, B. Yue, A. Zhang, L. Zhang, R. Hou, C. Wang, and T. Watanabe, “Microsatellite Variability Reveals the Necessity for Genetic Input from Wild Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) into the Captive Population,” Molecular Ecology 18 (March 2009): 1061–1070. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04086.x pointed to the challenges of sustainable captive breeding.

(9.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 22–37.

(10.) CITES (Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) text, Washington, D.C., 1973, Amended at Bonn, 1979. http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.php#II; Appendices: http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php (Note: The giant panda is in Appendix I—under the greatest threat and strictest regulation. Accessed January 15, 2012).

(11.) CITES, http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.php#II; Appendices: http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php (Note: The giant panda is in Appendix I—under the greatest threat and strictest regulation. Accessed January 15, 2012).

(13.) Schaller, Last Panda, 243–248.

(14.) In Chinese the number eight is considered auspicious in part because it is a homonym with a Chinese word for fortune and prosperity.

(15.) Mu Xuequan, ed. “Six pandas arrive in Beijing to celebrate China’s 60th anniversary,” China View online, April 29, 2009. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/29/content_11283702.htm (Accessed August 2011). In China, both because of the patterns and cycles of the traditional Chinese lunar calendar and the more auspicious sound of the number six, the sixtieth birthday and sixtieth anniversary are more significant than the fiftieth and are thus celebrated in a similar fashion to fiftieth anniversaries of events in western countries.

(16.) Cui Lei, ed. “Zeng Xiang da xiongmao ni yu 4 yue 26 ri qicheng,” Renmin ribao online, April 16, 2007. http://unn.people.com.cn/GB/14800/21806/5620841.html (Accessed, August 9, 2011).

(17.) “Two pandas selected to move to Macau,” Macau Daily Times online, May 25, 2010. http://www.macaudailytimes.com.mo/ (Accessed May 25, 2010).

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(18.) Xie and Gipps, 2001 International Studbook for Giant Panda, 34–41.

(19.) John Watts, “1,3000 Years of Global Diplomacy Ends for China’s Giant Pandas,” The Guardian International, September 14, 2007, 27.

(21.) Lauren Strapagiel, “Nishiyuu Journey by Cree Youth Ends as Harper Greets Pandas,” Huffington Post, March 25, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/03/25/nishiyuu-journey-ends-ottawa-harper-pandas_n_2950643.html, (Accessed July 27, 2017); Emily Mertz, “Harper’s Panda Meeting Sparks Criticism,” Global News, March 25, 2013, http://globalnews.ca/news/427585/harpers-panda-meeting-sparks-criticism/ (Accessed August 21, 2017). Thank you to Joanna Hindle for calling my attention to this incident.

(22.) Enav, “Chinese Pandas Arrive in Taiwan,” December 23, 2008.

(23.) Thomas Gold, “The Status Quo is Not Static: Mainland-Taiwan Relations,” Asian Survey 27, No. 3 (March 1987), 302.

(24.) John Copper, “Taiwan in 1986: Back on Top Again,” Asian Survey 27, No. 1 (January 1987), 88; “Report Finds Taiwan Leads in Economic Growth,” Journal of Commerce, August 22, 1986.

(25.) “Peking Zoo Willing to Give a Pair of Giant Pandas to Zoo in Taiwan,” Xinhua News Agency, April 10, 1987.

(26.) “Foreign News Briefs,” United Press International, August 13, 1986.

(27.) “Taiwan Turns Down Mainland Panda Offer,” Japan Economic Newswire, December 9, 1988.

(29.) Free China Journal Editors, “Mainland–Taiwan Animal Exchange Being Studied,” The Free China Journal 6, no. 29, April 24, 1989, 3.

(30.) Free China Journal Editors, “Taipei Panda Expertise Still Being Questioned,” The Free China Journal 6, no. 31 (May 1, 1989), 3.

(31.) “Taiwan Rejects China’s Panda Offer, Reuters News, July 23, 1990; “Taiwan says ‘No’ to China’s Panda Offer,” Straits Times, July 24, 1990.

(32.) Free China Journal Editors, “Panda Plan Withdrawn by City Zoo Officials,” The Free China Journal, 7, no. 71 (September 17, 1990), 3.

(33.) “BBC Summary of World Broadcasts,” Xinhua News Agency, March 11, 1995.

(34.) Fang Hsu and Victor Lai, “Taiwanese party delegates, ARATS officials discuss resuming cross-strait talks,” Taiwanese Central News Agency, August, 31, 2000; Lilian Wu, “Pandas May Come to Taiwan,” Central News Agency (Taiwan), June 6, 1997.

(35.) “Giant Panda Couple—Free Gifts for Taiwan,” Xinhua, February 27, 2006, http://au.china-embassy.org/eng/xw/t237132.htm (Accessed on December 15, 2017).

(36.) “Names Unveiled for Panda Pair for Taiwan,” Xinhua, January 28, 2006. news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-01/28/content_4113317.htm.

(37.) Yang Meng-yu, “Taiwan wucheng minzhong huanying xiongmao daolai,” [In Taiwan fifty percent of the populace welcome the arrival of pandas], Lienhe bao, January 16, 2006.

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(38.) Richard Sobel, William-Arthur Haynes, and Yu Zheng, “The Polls—Trends: Taiwan Public Opinion Trends, 1992–2008: Exploring Attitudes on Cross-Strait Issues,” Public Opinion Quarterly 74, No. 4 (Winter 2010): 782–813.

(39.) Ko Shu-ling, “Focus on Pandas, not Missiles: Chen,” Taipei Times, March 31, 2006.

(40.) Liao Hongxiang, “Da maoxiong de xianjing” [Giant panda trap], New Taiwan, May 5, 2005, http://www.newtaiwan.com.tw/bulletinview.jsp?bulletinid=21901 (Accessed on July 24, 2010).

(41.) Associated Press, “Taiwan rejects China’s Offer of Pandas,” USA Today, March 31, 2006.

(42.) “Taipei Zoo Challenges COA’s Panda Rejections,” China Post, June 25, 2007; “Zoo Sticks to its Guns over Accepting China’s Pandas,” China Post, March 28, 2008.

(43.) Chen Shui-pien, “Born Free,” A-Pien Zongtong Dianzi Youbao [President Pien’s Blog], http://www.president.gov.tw/1_president/subject-05.html, March 23, 2006 (Accessed February 2008).

(44.) Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, “Da maoxiong anzhang weihui xikai di san ci pancha hui” [Third meeting on the application for giant pandas], 1995 nian 3 yue 31 ri, March 31, 2006 (Special note: Taiwan’s system for dates is based on the notion that the year 1911 is the first year of the Republic. Consequently it is officially considered to be the first year, which effectively subtracts eleven years from the date. Thus, a date that reads 1995 is equivalent to 2006 according to standard western calendars).

(45.) Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, “Da maoxiong anzhang,” March 31, 2006.

(46.) “Taiwan Rejects China’s Giant Pandas,” IOL, March 31, 2006; “Government Rejects China’s Offer for Gift Pandas,” China Post, April, 1, 2006.

(47.) Yang Li, ed., “Taiwan Rejects Pandas,” China Daily, April 1, 2006, www.chinaview.cn 2006-04-01 09:37:05 (accessed July 21, 2010).

(48.) “Are Pandas Spies?” People’s Daily, April 5, 2006, http://english.people.com.cn/ (accessed July 21, 2010). Please note, the PRC newspaper, People’s Daily uses the pinyin system to spell Chen Shui-pien.

(49.) Yang Li, “Taiwan Rejects Pandas,” China Daily, April 1, 2006.

(50.) “Chen Justifies Refusing Gift Pandas,” The China Post, April 7, 2006. http://www.chinapost.comtw/print/79963.htm (Accessed on July 21, 2010).

(51.) Yang Meng-yu, “Xiongmao mei lai; kao ya lai,” BBC Chinese.com, July 6, 2007, http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/pring/news.bbc.co.uk/ch (Accessed on July 22, 2010.)

(53.) “China Renews Panda Offer,” Taipei Times, February 1, 2008, 2.

(54.) Sophie Yu, “Taiwan to Accept Pandas,” The Times (London), March 24, 2008.

(55.) “Chinese Mainland Hopes to Send Panda Pair to Taiwan Soon,” Xinhua, January 31, 2008.

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(56.) Rigger, “Taiwan’s Presidential and Legislative Elections,” 692; Raju Gopalakrishnan and Jonathan Standing, “Taiwan Says Yes to Ma Re-Election and His ‘Three No’s,’” Reuters, January 15, 2012.

(57.) Mo Yan-chih, “Panda Cub Officially Named Yuan Zai, Gets Citizen’s Card,” Taipei Times, October 27, 2013. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2013/10/27/2003575496 (Accessed on July 30, 2015).

(58.) Scarlett Chai, Ku Chuan and Jay Chen, “Chen Deming Visits Panda Cub as He Wraps Up Taiwan Trip,” Focus Taiwan News Channel, February 28, 2014. http://focustaiwan.tw/search/201402280007.aspx?q=visit%20panda%20cub (Accessed July 30, 2015).

Conclusion

(1.) Nathan Yaussy, creator of EUT, Endangered Ugly Things, website, posted purpose of website. http://endangered-ugly.blogspot.com/ (Accessed December, 18, 2010). This site has moved to a new location: http://endangereduglythings.tumblr.com/, which has archives since 2014.

(2.) Ben Blanchard, editing by Bill Tarrant, “Panda Attacks Man Who Wanted a Cuddle,” Reuters, November 24, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-panda-idUSTRE4AN5NF20081124; “Panda Attacks Man in Chinese Zoo,” BBC News, November 22, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7743748.stm (Accessed August 21, 2017).

(3.) Carla Hall, “National Zoo Panda Cam Shuts Down! Bad Idea!” Los Angeles Times, October 1, 2013. http://articles.latimes.com/2013/oct/01/news/la-ol-national-zoo-panda-cam-shuts-down-20131001; Gregory Wallace, “‘Panda Cam’ Goes Dark in Shutdown,” CNN, Money, October 1, 2013. http://money.cnn.com/2013/09/30/news/panda-cam-national-zoo/index.html (Accessed August 21, 2017).

(4.) Blogger on San Diego Zoo site: November 8, 2012, http://blogs.sandiegozoo.org/2012/11/06/exam-12-confident-and-curious/#comments (Accessed November 19, 2012).

(5.) Blogger on San Diego Zoo site: December 1, 2012, http://blogs.sandiegozoo.org/2012/11/29/panda-cub-exam-15/ (Accessed December 3, 2012).

(6.) David Gray, “A Necessary Evil—the Kangaroo Cull,” Photographer’s Blog on Reuters http://blogs.reuters.com/photographers-blog/2013/04/03/a-necessary-evil-the-kangaroo-cull/, April 3, 2013 (Accessed August 21, 2017); “Hunting Kangaroos,” Aussiehunter, https://aussiehunter.org/hunting/where-to-shoot/hunting-kangaroos/ (Accessed August 21, 2017).