Primary Sources: Periodicals
For the first stage of this project I examined all American music periodicals applicable to the topic of opera performance or reception published during the period 1860 to 1900 with a run of at least five years. I also examined other serials in a less systematic manner, if they were published outside of New York. I examined most of these periodicals at the Library of Congress, either in hard copy or on microfilm; I also used the periodicals collections at the Newberry Library (Chicago), the American Antiquarian Society (Worcester, Massachusetts), and several other repositories. The dates indicate issues examined.
Periodicals Examined Systematically
Amateur: A Repository of Music, Literature, and Art (Philadelphia), 1870–1875
American Art Journal (NY) (formerly Watson’s Art Journal), 1876–1897
American Musical Times (Youngstown, OH), 1891–1895
Amphion (Detroit), 1874–1885 (sporadic holdings)
Boston Musical Times (Boston and New York), 1861–1871
Brainard’s Musical World (Cleveland, OH), 1864–1895 (1864–1868: Western Musical World; 1891: Musical World; after 1895: absorbed by Etude
Dexter Smith’s Pictorial, Musical, Dramatic, Literary, Humorous, Art, Household and Fashion Magazine (Boston), 1872–1878
Figaro (NY), 1869–1873
Folio (Boston), 1869–1892
Freund’s Music and Drama (New York), 1883–1892
Kunkel’s Musical Review (St. Louis), 1880–1888
Loomis’ Musical Journal (New Haven, CT), 1867–1890
Musical Bulletin (Troy, NY), 1867–1873
Musical Courier (New York), 1880–1900
Musical Echo (Milwaukee, WI), 1873–1875
Musical Herald of the United States (Boston), 1880–1886
Musical Pioneer (New York), 1860–1871
Musical Messenger (Cincinnati, OH), 1891–1895
Opera Glass (Boston), 1895
Orpheus (New York and Boston), 1865–1877
Sherman & Hyde’s Musical Review (San Francisco), 1875–1879
Song Journal (Detroit), 1871–1877
Song Messenger of the Northwest (Chicago),1863–1875
Southern Musical Advocate and Singers’ Friend (Mountain Valley [Singer’s Glen, Virginia], 1860–1861, 1868
Watson’s Weekly Art Journal (New York), 1864–1875 (became American Art Journal)
Whitney’s Musical Guest (Toledo, OH), 1867–1877
Appleton’s Journal of Literature, Science and Art
Dwight’s Journal of Music
Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper
Musical Independent: A Monthly Magazine
Musical World (London)
National Police Gazette
New York Clipper
New York Dramatic Mirror (before 1889: New York Mirror)
Song Messenger Monthly
Spirit of the Times
Primary Sources: Serials
The vast majority of American newspapers cited in this book were accessed through digitized databases, including America’s Historical Newspapers (Readex), Nineteenth Century U. S. Newspapers (Gale Cengage Learning), Chronicling America (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/), Historical Newspapers Online (Bowling Green State University Library; http://libguides.bgsu.edu/c.php?g=227435), and Proquest Historical Newspapers (New York Times, Washington Post, and the Chicago Tribune). I consulted some newspapers on microfilm. For the most part only signed articles (sometimes by pseudonyms) are included in this bibliography. (p.567) Some unsigned articles were of particular importance, however, and I include them in the bibliography and identify their probable authors in square brackets.
For U.K. newspapers, I used the 19th Century British Newspapers database, the Edinburgh Scotsman, the Times [London] Digital Archives (Gale/Cengage Learning) (all available online), and microfilm copies of other newspapers at the Newspapers Collection of the British Library.
The list of cited newspapers is included in the list of abbreviations at the beginning of this volume. I consulted many more newspapers than I cited.
Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco) (also Evening Bulletin)
Evening News (San Jose)
Los Angeles Times
San Francisco Bulletin
San Francisco Call
San Jose Daily News
Daily News (Denver)
Rocky Mountain News (Denver)
Daily Constitution (Middletown)
New Haven Daily Palladium
New Haven Evening Register (also Register)
Atlanta Constitution Georgia Weekly Telegraph and Georgia Journal & Messenger (Macon)
Idaho Daily Statesman (Boise)
Chicago Evening Post
Chicago Herald (also Sunday Herald)
Chicago Tribune(also Daily Tribune)
Illustrated Chicago News
Inter Ocean (also Daily Inter Ocean, Sunday Inter Ocean)
Sunday Times (Chicago)
Daily State Register (Des Moines)
Atchinson Daily Globe
Kansas City Journal
Kansas City Star
Kansas City Times
Kansas Semi-Weekly Capital (Topeka)
Daily Picayune (New Orelans) (also Times-Picayune)
Bangor Daily Whig & Courier
Portland Daily Press
Boston Daily Advertiser
Boston Evening Sunday Gazette
Boston Journal (also Daily Journal, Evening Journal, Morning Journal, Sunday Journal)
Lowell Daily Citizen and News (also Daily Citizen)
Springfield Daily Republican (also Springfield Republican Sunday Republican)
Worcester Daily Spy
Duluth Daily News
Duluth Daily Tribune (also Sunday Tribune)
Duluth News Tribune
St. Paul Globe
Evening Star-Mail (Kansas City)
St. Louis Evening Chronicle
St. Louis Globe-Democrat
St. Louis Republic
Territorial Enterprise (Virginia City)
Brooklyn Eagle (microfilm)
National Police Gazette
New York Clipper
New York Herald
New York Letter
New York Mirror
New York Post
New York Sun (also Evening Sun)
New York Times (also Daily Times)
New York Tribune (also Daily Tribune)
New York World (also Evening World)
Pomeroy’s Democrat (New York City)
Sunday Mercury (New York City)
Grand Forks Daily Herald
Cincinnati Commercial (and Cincinnati Commercial Tribune)
Cincinnati Daily Gazette
Cincinnati Enquirer (also Cincinnati Daily Enquirer)
Daily Cleveland Herald (also Cleveland Morning Daily Herald, Cleveland Morning Herald)
Morning Oregonian (Portland)
Daily Age (Philadelphia)
North American and United States Gazette (Philadelphia) (also North American)
Philadelphia Evening Telegraph
Public Ledger (Philadelphia)
Weekly News and Courier (Charleston)
Aberdeen Daily News
Dallas Morning News
Galveston Daily News
Houston Daily Union
Richmond Daily Dispatch
Critic (also Daily Critic)
Daily National Intelligencer
Daily National Republican
Wheeling Register (also Sunday Register)
Milwaukee Sentinel (also Daily Sentinel, Morning Sentinel)
Wisconsin Daily Patriot
Wisconsin State Register (Portage)
Illustrated London News
Other Cities (mostly examined on microfilm at the British Library)
Birmingham Daily Post
Dublin Freedman’s Journal
Nottingham Daily Guardian
Sheffield Evening Star and Daily Times
Primary Sources: Collections at Libraries and Archives
I visited scores of libraries, archives, and historical societies all over the country in my quest for information related to this book. My principal archival sources were repositories in major urban centers (Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and San Francisco) and important collections (p.572) of theatre and music materials and other primary documents (diaries, journals, scrapbooks) such as the American Antiquarian Society; Tams-Witmark Collection in Madison, Wisconsin; and the Harry Ransom Humanities Center in Austin, Texas. I also visited many other libraries, archives, and historical societies throughout the country where I read and examined countless diaries, journals, scrapbooks, daybooks, ledgers, and collections that are not listed individually in the bibliography.
Repositories in the United States
Alabama Department of Archives and History (Montgomery)
Birmingham Public Library Department of Archives and Manuscripts
Historic Mobile Preservation Society Archives
Mobile Public Library, Local History Room
University of Alabama Library (Tuscaloosa), W. S. Hoole Special Collections
Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley
Huntington Library (Los Angeles)
Performing Arts Library and Museum (now Museum of Performance + Design), San Francisco
San Francisco Public Library, Music and Art Division and SF History Room
Connecticut Historical Society (Hartford)
New Hartford Town Hall, Archival Records
District of Columbia
Folger Shakespeare Library
Historical Society of Washington
Library of Congress: Manuscript Division, Performing Arts Reading Room: Music Division; Rare Books and Special Collections; Geography and Maps; Newspapers and Serials; Prints and Photographs; Microform Reading Room
Atlanta History Center
Georgia State Archives (Atlanta)
Chicago History Museum and Research Center (formerly Chicago Historical Society)
Chicago Public Library, Special Collections and Preservation Division
Peoria Public Library
Indiana University, Lilly Library
Historic New Orleans Collection
Louisiana State Museuem, Louisiana Historical Center
Tulane University, Special Collections
Maryland Historical Society (Baltimore), Special Collections
American Antiquarian Society (Worcester)
Boston Public Library, Rare Books and Manuscripts Department
Harvard University, Harvard Theatre Collection
Worcester Historical Museum
Alfred Gregory Theatre Program Scrapbooks (1875-1927)
Kansas City Public Library
Missouri History Museum Library and Research Center (St. Louis)
St. Louis Public Library
State Historical Society of Missouri
Washington University Library, Ernst Krohn Collection
Columbia University, Butler Library, Rare Books and Manuscripts
Metropolitan Opera Archives
New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives; United States History, Local History, and Genealogy Division; Art, Prints, and Photographs (Main Building); Mid-Manhattan Picture Collection; Billy Rose Theatre Collection and Music Division (esp. American Music Collection), Library for the Performing Arts (Lincoln Center)
Cincinnati Historical Society
Cleveland Public Library
Western Reserve Historical Society (Cleveland)
Free Library of Philadelphia, Theatre Department
Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Library Company of Philadelphia
University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Library, Special Collections
Library Company of Charleston
South Carolina Historical Society (Charleston)
Harry Ransom Center for the Humanities, University of Texas at Austin
Library of Virginia (Richmond)
Virginia Historical Society (Richmond)
University of Wisconson (Madison), Mills Music Library, Tams-Witmark Collection
Repositories in the United Kingdom
British Library. Manuscripts and Archives and Newspaper Division (formerly at Colindale)
Covent Garden Archives
London Theatre Museum
Royal Academy of Music (London), Special Collections
University of Bristol, Theatre Collection
University of Manchester, Rylands Library
Primary Materials: Pre-1900 Publications, Memoirs, Letters, Scrapbook Collections, Libretti, Scores.
“A Year of Opera at the Castle Square Theatre, May 6 1895 to May 6, 1896.” Boston: Charles Elwell French, 1896. https://archive.org/details/yearofoperaatcas00frenuoft.
“American Opera: Glimpses into the Earlier History of English Opera in This Country.” DIO, 26 December 1877, 8.
Auber, Daniel François-Esprit Fra Diavolo, or the Inn of Terracina. As Performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Auber, Daniel François-Esprit. The Crown Diamonds. Grand English Opera Combination. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1870.
Autograph Letters Collection, HTC, Houghton Library. Letters to Effie Ober catalogued under names of individual singers, including Pierre Bernard, Mary Beebe, Pasquali Brignoli, Annie Louise Cary, William Castle, George Frothingham, William MacDonald, Max Maretzek, Adelaide Phillipps, Marie Stone, Tom Karl, Clara Louise Kellogg, Myron Whitney, and others.
A. W. Jr., “The Thomas Concerts. Their Origin, Difficulties, and Triumph. Great Musical Project for the Future.” NYES, 27 August 1873 .
Balfe, Michael William. The Bohemian Girl. As Performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Balfe, Michael William. The Enchantress. First Performed by the Celebrated Richings Opera Troupe. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Balfe, Michael William. Rose of Castile. As Performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Barnabee, Henry Clay. “The Bostonians.” Sunday Magazine, ES, 19 August 1906, 3–4, 18.
Barnabee, Henry Clay. Reminiscences of Henry Clay Barnabee. Edited by George Leon Varney. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1913/1971.
Beatty-Kingston, William. “Our Music-Box.” In The Theatre: A Monthly Review of the Drama, Music, and the Fine Arts, edited by Clement Scott, vol. 15. London: Carson & Comerford, 1885.
Benedict, Jules. Lily of Killarney. As Performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Benedict, Sir Jules. Lily of Killarney. The Kellogg Grand English Opera. Baltimore: The Sun Printing Establishment, 1874.
Berrell, George Barton. Journals. Missouri History Museum Library and Research Center, St. Louis.
C. G. “The Future of Opera in this Country I.” MH, i:3 (March 1880): 55–56; i:4 (April, 1880), 78–79; i:5 (May, 1880), 101–102; i:6 (June, 1880), 127; i:7 (July, 1880), 150–151.
Castle, William. “Reminiscences of English Opera.” Philharmonic, i:1 (January 1901): 36–40.
Cather, Willa. “As You Like It,” NSJ, 25 November 1894, 13. In The World and the Parish: Willa Cather’s Articles and Reviews. Edited by William M. Curtin. University of Nebraska Press, 1970.
Cole, Catharine. “An American Opera Experiment.” DP, 23 May 1886, 5.
Curtis, George William. “Editor’s Easy Chair.” HNMM, ccx (November 1867): 803–805.
Curtis, John. “Grand Opera in Philadelphia.” Unpublished typescript, HSP.
De Vivo, Diego. “Grand Opera in America.” NYS, 6 September 1896, 5.
De Vivo, Diego. “A Manager’s Memories.” NYS, 11 October 1896, 4.
De Vivo, Diego. “De Vivo. A Manager Born.” NYS, 10 January 1897, 5.
De Vivo, Diego. “De Vivo’s Reminiscences.” NYS, 28 February 1897, 3.
De Vivo, Diego. “Parepa Rosa’s Triumphs. Her Concert Tour of the Whole Country in 1868–69.” NYS, 20 June 1897, 7.
De Vivo, Diego. “Parepa Rosa’s Triumphs, First Season of her Grand English Opera, 1869-70.” NYS, 25 July 1897, 10.
De Vivo, Diego. “Parepa Rosa’s Triumphs. Manager De Vivo Tells of Her Trip to the Pacific Coast.” NYS, 15 August 1897, n.p.
De Vivo, Diego. “The Opera of 1870-71.” NYS, 22 August 1897, 6.
De Vivo, Diego. “A Notable Music Season (1872-73).” NYS, 3 October 1897, 7.
De Vivo, Diego. “Emma Abbott’s Career.” NYS, 10 October, 1897, 5.
De Vivo, Diego. “New York Was Music Mad.” NYS, 26 December 1897, 6.
Drown, F. Henry, “English Opera,” S&HMR, ii:7 (July 1875), 318–319.
Eichberg, Julius. Doctor of Alcantara. As Performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Flotow, Frederic von. Martha: An Opera in Four Acts . . . Adapted by C. M. Richings. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Flotow, Friedrich von. Martha. Emma Abbott Libretto and Parlor Pianist. New York Theatre Ticket Office, n.d.
D’Ivry, Richard. Les Amants de Vérone. Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden. London: J. Miles & Co, n.d.
Donizetti, Gaetano, Jean-François-Alfred Bayard and Henri de Saint-Georges, La fille du régiment. Paris: Henriot, 1840. http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1216
Donizetti, Gaetano. La Figlia del Reggimento (Published for the Academy of Music). New York: Frederick Rullman, 1857); http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/22457923.html
Donizetti, Gaetano. Linda of Chamounix. As performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Donizetti, Gaetano. Lucia. Opera in Five Acts. Adapted to the uses of the Emma Abbott Opera Company by J. H. Rosewald. New York: Theatre Ticket Office,1883.
Donizetti, Gaetano. Lucia di Lammermoor. As revised and adapted by Clara Louise Kellogg. Baltimore: Sun Printing Establishment, 1874.
Fisake, Harrison Grey, ed. The New York Mirror Annual and Directory of the Theatrical Profession. New York: New York Mirror, 1888.
Formes, Karl. “How it Looks to the Man in California” (letter from San Francisco, 9 October 1886), AAJ, xlvi: 2 (30 October 1886), 18.
[Foulon, I. D.] “American Opera,” KMR, ix:3 (March 1886), 84.
[Foulon, I. D.] “‘The Musical Herald’ on ‘National Opera,’” KMR, x:4 (April 1887), 125.
Glase, Paul. Scrapbook Collection, Theatre Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia.
Gookins, James F. “The Eleventh Indiana Volunteers Swearing to Remember Buena Vista at Indianapolis, May, 1861” (sketch) and “Remember Buena Vista” (story). HW, 22 June 1861, 388–389.
Gounod, Charles. Roméo et Juliette. Opera en 5 Actes. Paris: Choudens Père & Fils .
Gounod, Charles. Romeo and Juliet. The Emma Abbott Libretto and Parlor Pianist. New York: Theatre Ticket Office, n.d.
Gounod, Charles. Faust. As Translated and Adapted by Caroline Richings Bernard. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1870.
Gounod, Charles. Faust. English Translation as Performed by the Emma Abbott Grand English Opera Company. New York: Theatre Ticket Office, n.d.
Grau, Robert. Forty Years Observation of Music and the Drama. New York: Broadway Publishing, 1909.
Grau, Robert. “From ‘Variety’ to ‘Vaudeville.’ How that Great Change Came About,” IDS, 7 November 1912, 4.
Greenwood, Grace (Mrs. Leander Lippincott). “Notes from Over the Sea. American Singers,” NYT, 17 September 1876, 1.
Greenwood, Grace “Emma Abbott, Prima Donna.” New York: [no publisher identified], 1878.
Hatton, J. L. “Simon the Cellarer.” Troy, NY: E. P. Jones, n.d.
Hauk, Minnie. “Minnie Hauk’s Plea for American Opera.” NYH, 29 March 1891, 14.
Hauk, Minnie. Memories of a Singer. London: A. M. Philpot, 1925.
Hess, C. D. “Early Opera in America.” Cosmopolitan, xxxii:2 (December 1901): 139–152.
Hobbins, Alice. “The Story of a Prima Donna. The Life of Emma Abbott.” Buffalo, NY: Maerz Lithograph, 1880.
Hopkins, Jerome. “Indigenous Opera in New York,” AAJ, xxviii:24 (13 April 1878), 323–324.
Keith, B. F. “Amusements,” PI, 13 February 1898, 15.
Kellogg, Clara Louise. Memoirs of an American Prima Donna. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1913.
Logan, Olive. Before the Footlights and Behind the Scenes: A Book about “The Show Business” in All Its Branches. Philadelphia: Parmalee, 1870.
Ludlow, Noah. Diary, 1870. Ludlow-Field-Maury Papers, Missouri History Museum Library and Research Center, St. Louis, Missouri.
Maretzek, Max. Revelations of an Opera Manager in 19th Century America: Crotchets and Quavers and Sharps and Flats (two volumes bound as one). Edited by Charles Haywood. New York: Dover Publications, 1855 and 1890/1968.
Maretzek, Max. Further Revelations of an Opera Manager in 19th Century America. Edited and annotated by Ruth Henderson. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2006.
Massé, Victor. Paul et Virginia. Popular Edition. Paris: Théodore Michaelis Editor, n.d.
Massé, Victor. Paul and Virginia. The Emma Abbott Libretto and Parlor Pianist. New York: The Theatre Ticket Office, n.d.
Massé, Victor, Paul et Virginie, deuxième edition. (piano vocal score) Paris: Théodore Michaelis .
Massé, Victor. Paul and Virginia. Vocal Selections. New York: G. Schirmer, 1878.
Massé, Victor. Paul and Virginia. Expressly adapted for and originally performed by Emma Abbott and the Hess Grand Opera Company. Caryl Florio, translator. New Orleans: Varieties Theatre, 1879.
Mathews, John Lathrop. “Mr. Edward A. MacDowell.” Music, x (May-Oct 1896): 31–36.
Mathews, W. S. B. “A Notice from Another Pen,” CT, 27 May 1886, 5.
Mathews, W. S. B. “Subjected to Analysis,” CT, 6 June 1866, 17.
Meyerbeer, Giacomo. The Huguenots. As translated and adapted by Caroline Richings Bernard. Philadelphia: Job Ledger Printing Office, 1870.
Meyerbeer, Giacomo. Star of the North. As revised and adapted by Clara Louise Kellogg. Baltimore: Sun Printing Establishment, 1874.
Miner, Harry. Harry Miner’s American Dramatic Directory: Season of 1884-85. New York: Wolf & Palmer Dramatic Publishing, 1884. https://archive.org/details/harryminersameri00mineiala.
Morris, Charles, ed. Men of the Century: An Historical Work. Philadelphia: L. R. Hamersly, 1896.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Marriage of Figaro. As revised and adapted by Clara Louise Kellogg. Baltimore: Sun Printing Establishment, 1874.
Nielsen, Alice. “Born to Sing.” Collier’s, 11 June (9, 44–46), 18 June (19, 36, 39), 25 June (22, 41), 2 July (14–15, 49), and 9 July 1932 (27–29 37).
Orlou, Elm, “Deserving Women of America.” PD, 13 January 1872, .
Parks, Katherine S. “Trilby of the Opera,” KS-WC, 14 September 1897, .
Peregrine Pickle [pseudonym for George Upton]. “The Opera. Some Reflections on the Season,” CT, 16 January 1870, 2.
Phelps, Henry P. Players of a Century: A Record of the Albany Stage. Albany: Joseph McDonough, 1880.
Planquette, Robert. Les Cloches de Corneville. (Paris: Alcan-Levy, Rue de Lafayette, n.d.
Planquette, Robert. The Bells of Corneville (Les cloches de Corneville). Boston: Oliver Ditson Company, 1879.
Pond, James B. Eccentricities of Genius: Memories of Famous Men and Women of the Platform and Stage. New York: G. W. Dillingham, 1900.
Pond, James B. “The Lyceum.” Cosmopolitan, xx:6 (April 1896): 596.
Pond, James B. “Memories of the Lyceum.” In Modern Eloquence: Library of After-Dinner Speeches, Lectures, [and] Occasional Addresses. Fifteen volumes, edited by Thomas B. Reed, vol. I: 893–917. Philadelphia: John D. Morris, 1900–1903.
Questor, “Musical Mirror,” NYM, 10 April 1886, 2.
Questor, “American Opera,” DIO, 5 June 1886, 13.
Reed, Myron W. Temple Talks. Indianapolis, IN: Bowen- Merrill, 1908.
Ricci, Luigi. Crispino and the Fairy. Translated and adapted . . . by Caroline M. Richings. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1868.
Ritter, Frédérick Louis. Music in America, 1st and 2nd editions. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1884/1895.
Rockwood, George G. “Stories from an Old Album.” NYPL Clipping File (Emma Abbott).
Root, George Frederic. The Story of a Musical Life. Cincinnati, OH: John Church, 1891.
Rosa, Carl. “English Opera.” Murray’s Magazine, April 1884.
Rossini, Gioachino. Cinderella: or The Fairy Queen and the Glass Slipper. [Michael Rophino Lacy, arr.] As Performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Rudersdorff, Erminia. “English Opera. What it is and What it Ought to Be,” DS, vii:5 (May 1875): 313.
Savage, Henry W. “Opera in English for America.” Independent, 10 May 1900, 1110.
Savage, Henry W.. “Henry W. Savage Discusses Americanisms for Americans on the Stage.” Unnamed paper, 11 September 1904. HTC Clipping File.
Seguin, Zelda. “American Opera. Glimpses into the Earlier History of English Opera in this Country” (about Richings). IO, 26 December 1877, 8.
Seguin, Zelda. “Zelda Seguin Talks of Old Opera Days.” NYT, 26 June 1911, 9.
Soldene, Emily. My Theatrical and Musical Recollections. London: Downey, 1897.
Thomas, S. E., ed. Celebrities of the Day: British and Foreign. A Monthly Repertoire of Contemporary Biography. London: W. Poole, 1881.
Thomas, Rose Fay. Memoirs of Theodore Thomas. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1911/1971.
Thomas, Theodore. Theodore Thomas: A Musical Autobiography. Edited by George P. Upton. Chicago: McClurg, 1905/New York: Da Capo, 1964.
[Thoms, William.] “Some Wholesome Truths About the ‘American Opera,’ the ‘National Conservatory,’ etc.,” AAJ, xlv:23 (25 September 1886), 370.
[Thoms, William.] “The Operatic Ring Under American Colors,” AAJ, xlv:24 (2 October 1886), 386–387.
[Thoms, William.] “Our Franco-German Conservatory and German Opera Co. Are Anti-National, Anti-Republican, Anti-Patriotic and Anti-American,” AAJ, xlv:25 (9 October 1886), 402–403.
[Thoms, William.] “Franco-German Conservatory and German Opera,” AAJ, xlv:26 (16 October 1886), 418–419.
[Thoms, William.] “Change from ‘American Opera’ to ‘National Opera Company,’” AAJ, xlvi:1 (23 October 1886), 4–5.
[Thoms, William.] “The Outlook for American Opera Composers,” AAJ, xlvi:3 (6 November 1886), 36.
Thurber Papers (Jeannette). Special Collections, Music Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts.
Tucker, Blanche (stage name: Bianchi Rosevalla), “Music in Paris,” [Paris], ST, 25 October 1874, 2.
Upton, George Putnam. Musical Memories: My Recollections of Celebrities of the Half Century, 1850-1900. Chicago: A.C. McClurg, 1908.
Veritas, “Music. American Opera Company,” DIO, 13 June 1886, 13.
Verdi, Giuseppe. Cecilia’s Love. Stage Manager’s Guide (piano-vocal score), Arthur Sullivan and J. Pittman, eds. London and New York: Boosey and Co., n.d.
Verdi, Giuseppe. Cecilia; or, a Woman’s Sacrifice. Adapted to Verdi’s Music of La Traviata by Emma Abbott. The Emma Abbott Grand English Opera Company. New York: Theatre Ticket Office,1881.
Verdi, Giuseppe. Ernani. As revised and adapted by Clara Louise Kellogg. Baltimore: Sun Printing Establishment, 1874.
Wallace, William Vincent. Maritana. As performed by the Richings English Opera Company. Philadelphia: Ledger Job Printing Office, 1867.
Waterston, Anna Cabot. Adelaide Phillipps: A Record. Boston: A. Williams, 1883.
Wemyss, Francis Courtney. Twenty-Six Years of the Life of an Actor and Manager. New York: Burgess, Stringer, 1847.
White, Richard Grant. “Opera in New York.” Century Magazine, xxiii:5 (March 1882): 686–703; xxiii:6 (April 1882): 865–882; xxiv:1 (May 1882): 31–43; and xxiv:2 (June 1882): 193–210.
There are multiple citations in this bibliography from encyclopedias and multi-volume dictionaries; for the sake of concision I have abbreviated them as shown here and as listed in the Abbreviations List, pp. xxiii–xxix, this volume. Abbreviations for periodicals and serials appearing in the chapter notes (as indicated in the Abbreviations List) are the same as in this bibliography.
American National Biography Online (ANBO). New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. www.anb.org.
Cambridge Companion to the Musical (CCM). Second edition. Edited by William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Cambridge History of American Theatre. Volume One: Beginnings to 1870. (CHAT I). Edited by Don B. Wilmeth and Christopher Bigsby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Cambridge History of the American Theatre. Volume Two: 1870-1945. (CHAT II). Edited by Don B. Wilmeth and Christopher Bigsby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Dictionary of American Biography. (DAB). Edited by Duncan Malone and Allen Johnson. 20 volumes. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928.
Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. (EMT). Second edition. Edited by Kurt Gänzl. New York: Schirmer Books, 2003.
Grove Dictionary of American Music. (GDAM). Second edition. Charles Hiroshi Garrett, editor-in-chief. 8 volumes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Citations in this book are for the print edition; in 2016, many of the articles had not yet been incorporated into the GMO.
Grove Music Online. (GMO). Oxford Music Online. www.oxfordmusiconline.com.
National Cyclopedia of American Biography. (NCAB). New York: James T. White, 1899.
New Grove Dictionary of American Music. (NGDAM). 4 volumes. Edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. New York: Macmillan, 1986.
Notable American Women 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Volumes 1–3. Edited by Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, and Paul Boyer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1971.
Notable American Women: The Modern Period: A Biographical Dictionary. (NAW 4). Volume 4. Edited by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1980.
Notable Black American Women. (NBAW). Edited by Jessie Carney Smith. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992.
Oxford Companion to American Theatre. (OCAT). Third edition. Edited by Gerald Bordman and Thomas S. Hischak. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (ODNB). New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. www.oxforddnb.com.
Who’s Who on the Stage, 1908. (WWoS). Edited by Walter Browne and E. de Roy Koch. New York: B. W. Dodge, 1908.
Ahlquist, Karen. Democracy at the Opera: Music, Theater, and Culture in New York City, 1815-60. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Ahlquist, Karen. “Grau, Maurice.” ANBO.
Alexander, J. Heywood. “Brainard’s (Western) Musical World.” MLA Notes, xxxvi:3 (March 1980): 601–614.
American Antiquarian Society. “Big Business: Food Production, Processing & Distribution in the North, 1850-1900.” Online exhibit. www.americanantiquarian.org/Exhibitions/Food/foodhome.htm.
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