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Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America$

Guillermo Cruces, Gary S. Fields, David Jaume, and Mariana Viollaz

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198801085

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198801085.001.0001

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(p.493) Index

(p.493) Index

Source:
Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

As most chapters pertain to a particular country, the sub-headings for each country have not been double-entered under main entries.

agriculture10, 24, 61, 70–3
annualized change453–4
Alvaredo, F.9, 105, 110, 115–16
Araujo, M. C.277
Argentina4, 143–58, 398
cash transfers145, 155
countercyclical policies48, 145
currency devaluation155–6
debt default145
domestic crisis110
economic growth14, 144–6, 157
economic sector employment150
educational level150–1, 153–4
fiscal policy156
growth elasticities109–10
growth indicators148–9
household surveys143–4
industry145
inequality155
international crisis45, 51, 150–2, 154, 157–8
labour earnings152–7
labour GICs129, 131, 133
labour market indicators148–9, 157–8, 435
labour unions156
macroeconomic variables476
minimum wage153
occupational positions147
pensions155, 156
poverty154–5, 157–8
poverty elasticities121
public sector employment146
recession144–5, 153–4
recovery146
social expenditure48, 145–6
social security registration152
social security system151–2
taxes156
unemployment97, 146–7
women workers158
young workers150, 158
Atkinson, A. B.136
Azevedo, J. P.156–7, 192, 209, 228, 246, 264, 298, 316, 353, 372, 412
Barros, R.191–2
Battistón, D.157, 192
Beccaria, L.8, 92
Bergolo, M.156, 191
Boada, A. J.431
Bolivia4, 161–75
cash transfers169, 173–4
countercyclical policy165
debt162, 165
economic growth61, 162–5
economic sector employment168, 171
educational level168–9, 171–2, 174
exports78
financial system165
fiscal policy174
growth elasticities109, 111, 113–14
growth indicators163–4
Hydrocarbon Law162
hydrocarbons173
inequality173–4
international crisis51, 167–8, 170, 172, 175
labour earnings170–2
labour GICs129, 131, 133
labour market indicators11, 163–4, 175, 436
macroeconomic variables477
minimum wage171, 174
national surveys161–2
occupational groups166–7, 171
occupational positions167–8
pensions169
poverty172–3
poverty elasticities121, 122–7
remittances162
social security registration169–70
social security system169, 173
social spending174
unemployment165–6
young workers167–8
Bourguignon, F.136
Brambilla, I.128
Brazil4, 178–93
cash transfers187, 190–1
countercyclical policies183
(p.494) currency devaluation162, 179, 398
debt183
demographic transition188
economic growth rate14, 61, 179–83
economic sector employment186, 189
educational level186–7, 189, 192
exports162, 183
GDP volatility179, 183
Growth Acceleration Program179, 183
growth elasticities109, 111, 113–14
growth indicators180–3
inequality191–2
international crisis51, 184–6, 190, 193
labour earnings188–90
labour GICs130, 132
labour market indicators11, 180–3, 192–3, 437
macroeconomic variables478
national surveys178–9
occupational groups184–5
occupational positions185
poverty190–1
poverty elasticities121, 122–7
price stabilization183
social security registered187–8
social security system187
unemployment183–4
women workers189, 193
young workers189, 193
Campos, R.334
Canavire-Bacarreza, G.174
cash transfers, conditional (CCT)9, 13–14, 48, 53
Chacaltana, J.388
Chile4, 51, 196–211
cash transfers208
economic growth197–200
economic sector employment202–3, 206–7
educational level203–4, 206–7, 209
external shocks197
growth elasticities109–11
growth indicators198–9
household survey196–7
inequality208–9
inflation208
international crisis202–3, 205, 207, 210
labour earnings205–7
labour GICs130, 132
labour market indicators198–9, 210–11, 438
Law of Subcontracting205
macroeconomic variables479
occupational groups201, 206–7
occupational positions201–2, 206–7
policy framework197, 200
poverty rate207–8
poverty/earnings elasticities121
social security registered204–5
social security system204
unemployment200
women workers202, 210–11
young workers202, 210–11
Chinese textiles290, 293
Cho, Y.9
Colombia4, 213–30
countercyclical policies218
economic growth214–18
economic sector employment221–2, 225
educational level222–3, 225–6, 228
emigration227
financial and banking crisis214
growth elasticities109
growth indicators215–17
health scheme224
inequality227–8
international crisis51, 220–2, 226, 229
labour earnings225–6, 228
labour GICs129, 131
labour market indicators215–17, 228–30, 439
macroeconomic stability218
macroeconomic variables480
minimum wage219, 225
mining and hydrocarbons214, 221
nationwide surveys213
occupational groups219–20, 225
occupational positions220–1
pension scheme223–4, 228
poverty rates226–7, 229
poverty/earnings elasticities121
remittances214, 227
social security registration223–4
social security system223–4
unemployment rate97, 218–19, 229–30
women workers229–30
young workers229–30
Contreras, D.209
Cornia, G. A.9, 334
Costa Rica4, 232–48
agriculture236
cash transfers236, 245
countercyclical policies48
economic growth15, 233–6
economic sector employment239–40
educational level240–1, 243–4
exports233, 236
fiscal stimulus plan236
foreign direct investment233, 236
growth elasticities109
growth indicators234–5
inequality245–7
interest rates233
international crisis233, 237–42, 244, 246–7
(p.495) labour earnings242–4
labour GICs129, 131, 133
labour market indicators234–5, 247–8, 440
macroeconomic variables481
nationwide surveys232–3
occupational groups237–8, 247
occupational positions238–9
offshore activities239–40
poverty rate244–5, 245–6
poverty/unemployment elasticities121
services78
social security registration241
unemployment rate97, 236–7, 247–8
women workers247–8
young workers238–40, 247–8
countercyclical policies15, 48, 53
Cruces, G.144, 156, 162, 179, 197, 214, 233, 251, 269, 287, 303, 321, 341, 358, 378, 398, 418
Céspedes Reynaga, N.391
Damill, M.62, 115
data sources24
CEDLAS4
ECLAC-ILO8, 34, 43, 91–2
household surveys4, 8
SEDLAC4, 8, 20–1
decomposition studies6, 8, 91–2
domestic consumption61, 70–3, 459–60
domestic crisis110, 265, 433
Dominican Republic4, 250–66
banking crisis254, 257–8, 265–6
countercyclical policies254
economic growth15, 251–4
economic sector employment257–8
educational level258–9, 261
export-oriented growth model251
growth elasticities109, 111–12, 114
growth indicators252–3
household surveys250–1
inequality263–4
international crisis254–9, 261–3, 265
labour earnings260–2
labour force age structure264
labour GICs130, 132–3
labour market indicators252–3, 264–5, 441
macroeconomic variables482
minimum wages261
non-tradeable sector254
occupational groups255–6
occupational positions256–7
poverty rates262–3
poverty elasticities121, 122–7
public debt254
remittances263
social programmes263
social security registration259–60
social security system259–60
unemployment254–5, 259
workers bargaining power261
young workers265–6
earnings see labour earnings
economic growth see GDP per capita; growth
Ecuador4, 268–84
agriculture276
cash transfers276–7, 281–2
dollarization272
economic growth269–72
economic sector employment275–6, 279–80
educational levels276–7, 279–80, 282
exports272, 276
external shocks269
Fiscal Responsibility and Transparency Law269
growth indicators270–1
inequality281–2
internal debt272
international crisis272–8, 280, 283–4
labour earnings278–80
labour GICs130, 132
labour market indicators270–1, 283–4, 442
labour policies278
macroeconomic variables483
nationwide surveys268–9
occupational group273–4, 279
occupational position274–5, 279
oil sector275, 279
poverty rate280–1
remittances272, 281
social security registration277–8
social security system277
unemployment273
wage policy279
women workers274, 283–4
young workers274, 277, 283–4
education
expenditure on10, 24, 62, 70, 78
annualized change461–3
educational level8, 22–4, 34
convergence67
definition23
and employment87, 97–8
general improvement39, 52, 91
and poverty98
El Salvador4, 286–300
agriculture287, 290
dollarization287
economic growth rate15, 34, 61, 287–9
economic sector employment293, 296
educational level293–4, 296–7, 299
fiscal measures290
government transfers298
(p.496) growth elasticities109, 111
growth indicators288–9
inequality298–9
international crisis287, 290–5, 297–300
labour earnings295–7
labour GICs129, 131, 133
labour market indicators288–9, 299–300, 448
macroeconomic variables489
minimum wages296
nationwide surveys286–7
occupational group291–2
occupational position292, 296
poverty rate297–8
remittances287, 298
shocks287
social security registration295
social security system294–5
unemployment97, 290–1
young workers292, 294, 300
elasticities104–39
computation106
earnings/growth106–9
employment/growth106–9
inequality/growth110–15
the literature115
poverty/earnings99, 116–21
poverty/growth99–100, 105, 110–15
poverty/occupational position121–2
poverty/unemployment99, 121
self-employment/growth106
employers see occupational position
employment60, 90
by occupation39–40
by sectoral composition8, 23, 34, 39, 52, 87
channel5–7
definitions5
and earnings138–9
elasticities106–9
findings12
and poverty91–101
quality indicators34
Esquivel, G.334
exports24, 61, 70–3, 78, 101
annualized change465–6
Ferreira, F. H. G.190
Ffrench-Davis, R.209
Fields, G.3, 5
fiscal resources9, 13, 15, 78
foreign direct investment24, 61, 70–3, 78, 469
annualized change469–70
Fosu, A. K.105, 110, 115–16
Frenkel, R.62, 115
Galiani, S.349
Gallo, C. R.431
García Carpio, J. M.391
Gasparini, L.9, 105, 110, 115–16, 156, 192, 228, 246, 282, 299, 316, 353, 372, 412, 431
GDP per capita
by country34–42
convergence or divergence62
initial62–7
and labour market indicators31–53, 78–83
rising104 see also growth
Gillingham, R.315
Gindling, T. H.315
Gini of household per capita income (HPCI)24, 110–11 see also inequality; poverty
Gini of labour earnings (LI)24, 110–11 see also inequality; poverty
growth
annualized rates35
definitions5
elasticities100, 104–15
findings11–12
initial conditions138
and labour market indicators57–61, 137
Latin America/OECD comparison13
negative42–3
recent14–15
and tax revenues6
and welfare improvement56–7 see also GDP per capita; growth–employment–poverty nexus
growth incidence curves (GICs)127–33, 139
growth–employment–poverty nexus
analytical framework5–7
cross-country analysis55–102
during the crisis47–8
elasticities104–39
the literature7–10, 55–6
questions and findings10–12 see also employment; growth; poverty
health
employment in23
expenditure on10, 24, 41, 62, 70–1, 78
public expenditure data461–3
Herrera, R.209
Honduras4, 51, 302–18
cash transfers315
coffee prices303
countercyclical policies48
economic sector employment309–10
educational level310–11, 313–14, 316
fiscal adjustment303, 306
growth15, 61, 303–6
growth elasticities109, 111–12, 114
(p.497) Hurricane Mitch315
inequality316–17
international crisis306–18
labour earnings312–14
labour GICs129, 131, 133
labour market indicators304–5, 317–18, 443
macroeconomic variables484
military coup306
minimum wage307, 312, 317
nationwide surveys302–3
occupational groups307–8
occupational positions308–9
pensions315
poverty elasticities121, 122–7
poverty rate11, 314–15
PRAF programmes315
remittances303, 306, 315
social security registered311–12
social security system311
unemployment306–7
young workers308, 313, 318
Inchauste, G.8, 92
industry10
annualized change457–8
increasing share78
and labour market conditions61, 101, 138
methodology23–4, 70
inequality22, 24, 41, 62, 136–7, 138
cross-country comparisons12–14
elasticities110–15
indicators21–2
OECD31
and poverty100–1
reduction in9
United States4
INTEL233
international crisis11, 42–53, 136–7
post-crisis recovery43–4, 48–52, 137
International Labour Organization (ILO)5, 9, 22, 56
Jaramillo, M.393
job mix60, 109
improvement39, 41, 87, 97
indicators10
and poverty97–8 see also occupational composition
Kakwani, N391–2
Kaldewei, C.55
Katz, L.282
labour earnings60
average40–1
distribution127–33
elasticities106–9, 116
and employment138–9
findings12
labour market indicators88–90
and poverty91–101
rising104 see also wages
labour market indicators11, 21–4
annualized changes65–6
by country34–42
convergence or divergence67–9
direction of change74–5
during the international crisis45–6, 49–50
evolution over time35–9
and GDP per capita growth31–53, 78–83, 137
initial conditions63–9, 138
and the international crisis42–52
and labour earnings88–90
and macroeconomic indicators70–83, 452–74
relationship between83–91
welfare-improving direction41–2, 56–7, 64
welfare-worsening direction47
labour markets
impact of Great Recession44–7
importance of6
Larrañaga, O.209
Latin America
compared to OECD13
impact of international crisis43–52, 136–7
labour market indicators 2000s31–53
post-crisis recovery43–4, 48–52, 137
Lopez-Calva, L. F.128, 329, 334
Lustig, N.9, 128
López Calva, L.9
macroeconomic indicators20
direction of change74–7
and labour market indicators26, 61, 70–83, 101, 452–74
macroeconomic variables
data sources24
external138
notation25
Maurizio, R.192
Mayorca, R.431
Mercosur368
methodology25–6
analytical framework5–7 see also data sources
Mexico4, 320–36
cash transfers324, 329, 333–5
countercyclical policies48
crisis324
depreciation324
economic sector employment327–8
educational level328–9, 332, 335
(p.498) growth11, 15, 34, 61, 321–4
growth elasticities109, 111
growth indicators322–3
inequality334–5
international crisis321, 324–5, 327–32, 334–6
labour earnings330–2
labour GICs129, 131, 133
labour market indicators322–3, 335–7, 444
macroeconomic variables485
nationwide surveys320, 326
occupational groups326
occupational positions327
oil production324
poverty rate332–3
poverty/earnings elasticities121
public spending334
remittances324, 334
social security registration329–30
social security system329–30
stimulus package324
unemployment97, 325
young workers331, 336–7
minimum wage8, 14, 34, 91
Murphy, K.282
Naranjo Bonilla, M.281
natural resources10, 24, 62, 70, 73, 78, 101, 138
revenues from473–4
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)321, 334
occupational composition21–2
occupational group, definition22–3
occupational positions52, 87, 97–8, 121–2
by country39–40
OECD
compared to Latin America13
Employment Outlook4
GDP per capita growth31
negative growth42–3
registered workers31
Olinto, P.115–16
Oosterbeek, H.277
Ortiz-Juarez, E.128
Osorio Amezaga, M. J.383
Osueke, A. I.62, 128
Oviedo, L. A.246
Pagés, C.8, 55
Panama4, 340–54
cash transfers352
Colon Free Trade Zone341
economic sector employment346–7
educational347–8, 350–1
government transfers352
growth11, 15, 34, 60, 341–4
inequality352–3
international crisis341, 344–9, 351–4
labour earnings349–51
labour GICs130, 132
labour market indicators11, 342–3, 354, 445
macroeconomic variables486
nationwide surveys340
occupational group345–6, 350
occupational position346, 350
Panama Canal341
poverty elasticity352
poverty rate351–2
services78
social security registration349
social security system348
unemployment rate97, 344
young workers347, 349
Paraguay4, 357–75
countercyclical policies362
drought362
economic growth358–62
economic sector employment365–6
educational level366–7, 369–70
external shocks358
growth elasticities109
inequality371–2
internal crisis358
international crisis51, 362–74
labour earnings368–70
labour GICs129, 131
labour market indicators359–61, 373–4, 447
macroeconomic variables488
nationwide surveys357
occupational compositions363–4
occupational positions364–5, 369
poverty rate370–1
poverty elasticities121
public transfers371
social security registered367–8
social security system367
soybean production362
terms of trade358
unemployment rate362–3
young workers363, 365–7, 374
pensions6, 24, 48
Pernia, E.392
Peru4, 51, 377–94
countercyclical policies382, 394
economic sector employment385–6, 390–1
educational level386–7, 390–1
exports78, 378, 382
Fiscal Responsibility and Transparency Law382
(p.499) growth11, 34, 60, 378–82
growth/poverty elasticity392
inequality392–3
international crisis382–7, 389–94
labour earnings389–91
labour GICs130, 132
labour market11
labour market indicators379–81, 393–4, 446
macroeconomic variables487
National Tax Authority388
nationwide surveys377
occupational groups383–4, 390–1
occupational positions384–5, 390–1
poverty rate391–2
poverty/unemployment elasticities121
small enterprises387–8
social security registered387–9
social security system387
tax revenues382
terms of trade378
unemployment rate382–3
unemployment/output elasticity383
women workers394
young workers383–4, 386, 389, 394
Pierre, G.8, 55
Pochmann, M.190
political conditions, cross country comparisons13–14
poverty rate22–4, 41, 60, 138
definitions5
and earnings91–101
and educational level98
elasticities99, 105, 110–22
and employment91–101
falling104
findings11–12
and inequality100–1
international crisis53
and job mix97–8
OECD31
public debt62, 70–3
annualized change471–2
Rios-Avila, F.174
Roberts, K.13
Russia378
Saavedra, J.393
Sauma, P.246
Scarpetta, S.8, 55
Schady, N.277
self-employment5, 22–4, 34
decrease in73, 106
elasticities106, 109, 122, 127
and growth55–6
increase in40, 44, 53
and poverty98, 114, 134, 137–8
services10, 23–4, 61, 72–3, 78, 101
annualized change455–6
Soares, S.191
social programmes5–6, 9, 13–15
social security expenditure24, 41, 62, 70–3, 78
annualized change463–4
social security registration22
data sources23
elasticities109, 122
and growth60
increase in31, 40, 52
previous literature8–10, 34
Son, H.392
Stiglitz, J. E.4, 136
Tarp, F.3
tax revenues6, 62
terms of trade15, 61–2, 70–3, 138
annualized change467–8
Terrell, K.315
Tortarolo, D.128
Trejos, J. D.246
Tsounta, E.62, 128
unemployment rate21–2, 60, 62, 138
by country39–40
elasticities121
falling104
impact of Great Recession44
Latin American34
OECD31
United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN–ECLAC)20, 24
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)3
UNU-WIDER3–4
United States
growth31, 43, 321
growth–employment–poverty record4, 12–14
inequality levels136–7
unpaid family workers40, 60, 101
convergence67
elasticities109
methodology22–4
OECD31
reduction73
Urrutia, P. C. C.393
Uruguay4, 397–414
domestic crisis110
economic sector employment404, 409
(p.500) educational level405–6, 409
external shocks398
growth398–401
growth elasticities109–11
inequality411–12
international crisis51, 401–7, 409–14
labour earnings408–10
labour GICs130, 132–3
labour market indicators399–400, 412–14, 449
macroeconomic variables490
nationwide survey397
occupational groups402–3, 408–10
occupational positions403–4, 409
PANES411
poverty elasticities121
poverty rate410–11
social security registration407
social security system406–7
stabilization policy398
unemployment97, 401–2
women workers414
young workers404, 414
Venezuela4, 218, 417–33
countercyclical policies422
domestic crisis110, 433
economic sector employment425–6
educational level426–7, 428–9
fiscal policy418
growth14, 34, 418–22
growth elasticities109–10
inequality431
international crisis422–7, 429–33
labour earnings428–9
labour GICs130, 132
labour market indicators419–21, 432, 450
macroeconomic variables491
nationwide surveys417
occupational groups423–4
occupational positions424–5
oil sector418, 422
poverty elasticities121
poverty rate430–1
social security registration427–8
social security system427
unemployment97, 422–3
women workers433
young workers423–6, 433
Vidal Bermúdez, A.388
wage/salaried employees22–4
annualized changes90–1
elasticities106, 109
and exports73, 78
fall in40, 44
and growth60, 137
post-crisis48, 52
and poverty98, 114, 122, 127, 134
previous literature8, 34, 55–6
wages6, 87
and employment47
minimum8, 14, 34, 91
rising34, 43, 62, 92
skill premium8
stagnant13 see also labour earnings
Weller, J.7, 55, 106
World Bank43, 62, 92, 105, 128, 383, 388
World Development Indicators (WDI)20, 24
World Development Report 20133
Yamada, G.388, 393