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Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America$

Guillermo Cruces, Gary S. Fields, David Jaume, and Mariana Viollaz

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198801085

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198801085.001.0001

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(p.476) Appendix 3 Evolution of Macroeconomic Variables over the 2000s by Country

(p.476) Appendix 3 Evolution of Macroeconomic Variables over the 2000s by Country

Source:
Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America
Author(s):

Guillermo Cruces

Gary S. Fields

David Jaume

Mariana Viollaz

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Argentina

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

10,290

9,739

8,596

9,271

10,019

10,843

11,658

12,556

13,288

13,285

14,376

15,515

15,672

Share of agriculture in GDP

5.1

4.9

10.8

11.0

10.5

9.5

8.5

9.5

9.9

7.6

10.1

10.7

9.1

Share of industry in GDP

28.1

27.0

32.4

34.9

35.8

35.8

35.9

34.0

32.5

32.1

31.2

31.1

30.5

Share of services in GDP

66.9

68.1

56.8

54.1

53.7

54.7

55.6

56.5

57.5

60.3

58.7

58.2

60.4

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

87.2

77.7

78.2

75.7

75.9

74.5

74.2

75.8

79.7

78.3

78.3

81.0

81.9

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

10.0

10.3

8.9

8.4

8.4

9.3

9.7

10.3

11.1

12.9

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

10.1

10.5

9.8

9.7

9.2

9.1

9.3

10.7

11.1

12.9

Exports (% GDP)

11.0

11.6

28.4

25.9

25.7

25.1

24.8

24.6

24.5

21.4

21.7

21.8

19.7

Terms of trade

100.0

99.3

98.7

107.2

109.2

106.9

113.4

117.5

133.2

127.1

126.6

135.0

130.3

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

3.0

0.7

1.7

1.1

2.3

2.4

2.1

2.0

2.4

1.1

1.7

1.9

2.5

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

3.3

3.1

7.0

7.8

8.6

10.4

9.8

8.1

9.1

5.0

4.9

5.0

4.3

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

37.6

44.9

127.8

117.6

106.0

60.2

51.7

44.2

39.0

39.6

36.1

33.3

35.1

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.477)

Bolivia

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

3,488

3,476

3,492

3,518

3,596

3,688

3,799

3,907

4,081

4,151

4,252

4,400

4,552

Share of agriculture in GDP

15.0

15.2

14.9

15.4

15.4

14.4

13.9

12.9

13.5

13.8

12.9

12.5

13.0

Share of industry in GDP

55.2

55.6

55.8

55.2

53.7

53.6

51.0

50.7

48.2

49.9

49.9

48.5

48.3

Share of services in GDP

29.8

29.2

29.3

29.4

31.0

32.0

35.1

36.4

38.4

36.2

37.3

38.9

38.7

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

90.9

91.0

89.8

87.5

84.2

82.3

77.1

77.3

75.5

80.2

76.1

74.7

72.9

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

6.5

7.0

7.9

8.1

8.0

7.7

7.8

7.7

6.7

7.8

7.5

7.2

6.6

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

4.8

5.1

5.1

5.0

4.8

4.4

4.0

3.7

4.6

5.0

4.7

4.2

4.7

Exports (% GDP)

18.3

20.0

21.6

25.6

31.1

35.5

41.8

41.8

44.9

35.7

41.2

44.1

47.3

Terms of trade

100.0

95.8

96.2

98.5

104.1

111.8

139.8

142.1

143.9

139.4

157.6

175.0

179.1

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

8.8

8.7

8.6

2.4

0.7

−2.5

2.5

2.8

3.1

2.4

3.2

3.6

3.9

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

8.0

8.2

8.0

13.7

20.3

38.8

37.8

36.2

39.9

16.6

18.5

21.3

17.4

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

60.6

72.6

77.1

86.4

81.0

75.4

49.7

37.2

34.0

36.3

34.6

34.5

29.1

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.478)

Brazil

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

7,906

7,898

7,998

7,985

8,338

8,502

8,745

9,187

9,573

9,456

10,079

10,264

10,264

Share of agriculture in GDP

5.6

6.0

6.6

7.4

6.9

5.7

5.5

5.6

5.9

5.6

5.3

5.5

5.2

Share of industry in GDP

27.7

26.9

27.1

27.8

30.1

29.3

28.8

27.8

27.9

26.8

28.1

27.5

26.3

Share of services in GDP

66.7

67.1

66.3

64.8

63.0

65.0

65.8

66.6

66.2

67.5

66.6

67.0

68.5

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

83.5

83.3

82.3

81.3

79.0

80.2

80.3

80.2

79.1

82.3

80.8

81.0

83.9

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

8.8

9.2

7.9

9.3

8.9

8.9

9.3

9.9

10.0

10.9

10.9

10.9

10.9

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

11.2

11.1

12.3

11.6

11.9

12.3

12.9

12.8

12.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

Exports (% GDP)

10.0

12.2

14.1

15.0

16.4

15.1

14.4

13.4

13.7

11.0

10.9

11.9

12.6

Terms of trade

100.0

99.6

98.4

97.0

97.9

99.2

104.4

106.6

110.4

107.8

125.1

134.9

128.9

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

5.1

4.1

3.3

1.8

2.7

1.8

1.8

3.3

3.1

1.9

2.5

2.9

3.4

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

2.5

2.6

3.1

3.6

4.1

5.3

5.5

6.3

7.1

3.7

4.9

5.4

5.1

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

63.5

76.4

78.7

73.1

70.2

67.4

56.7

58.5

58.9

61.3

53.6

53.6

60.5

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.479)

Chile

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

10,990

11,224

11,337

11,655

12,228

12,773

13,201

13,746

14,061

13,784

14,443

15,149

15,848

Share of agriculture in GDP

5.9

5.2

5.5

5.3

4.7

4.6

4.1

3.9

3.6

3.5

3.4

3.7

3.6

Share of industry in GDP

32.2

32.8

33.1

32.7

35.3

36.9

44.2

43.0

38.0

37.6

39.1

38.0

35.5

Share of services in GDP

61.9

62.1

61.4

62.0

60.0

58.5

51.7

53.2

58.4

58.8

57.5

58.3

60.9

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

76.6

77.7

77.5

75.1

71.7

69.9

66.0

66.9

72.1

72.1

71.3

73.1

74.9

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

6.7

7.0

7.2

6.9

6.6

6.2

6.0

6.4

7.1

8.2

7.7

7.6

8.0

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

7.9

7.9

7.8

7.3

6.7

6.4

5.8

5.7

6.0

7.0

6.6

6.4

6.3

Exports (% GDP)

29.3

30.9

31.5

33.9

37.9

38.4

42.4

43.8

41.5

37.2

38.1

38.0

34.2

Terms of trade

100.0

93.3

97.2

102.8

124.9

139.8

183.2

189.5

164.8

166.7

204.0

205.3

182.4

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

6.1

5.8

3.6

5.5

7.1

5.6

4.7

7.2

8.4

7.5

7.2

9.3

10.7

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

7.0

6.5

6.2

7.3

11.8

13.2

21.4

21.2

19.3

14.4

17.8

18.3

15.6

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

13.0

14.4

14.7

12.4

10.5

6.9

4.9

3.9

5.1

5.8

8.7

11.0

11.9

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.480)

Colombia

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

6,597

6,598

6,655

6,808

7,060

7,280

7,651

8,059

8,223

8,241

8,450

8,890

9,143

Share of agriculture in GDP

8.9

9.0

9.2

9.0

8.6

8.4

8.1

7.8

7.5

7.5

7.1

6.9

6.5

Share of industry in GDP

29.4

29.4

29.8

31.4

32.4

32.8

33.8

33.7

35.5

34.5

35.0

37.9

37.5

Share of services in GDP

61.6

61.7

61.0

59.6

59.0

58.8

58.1

58.5

57.0

58.0

57.9

55.3

56.0

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

80.2

82.7

82.6

81.2

80.1

81.1

79.7

80.1

82.2

83.1

82.1

83.0

82.6

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

9.9

10.7

11.4

11.3

10.6

10.3

10.0

10.4

11.7

13.6

13.9

13.7

14.2

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

6.0

6.3

5.6

5.4

5.3

5.3

5.2

5.3

5.5

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

Exports (% GDP)

15.9

15.4

14.8

16.6

16.8

16.8

17.6

16.5

17.8

16.0

15.9

18.9

18.3

Terms of trade

100.0

94.2

92.5

95.2

102.3

111.0

115.2

124.4

138.1

118.8

134.4

150.2

151.1

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

2.6

2.8

3.9

3.3

4.3

4.3

6.5

7.2

7.0

4.6

4.0

5.3

5.9

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

7.1

5.3

5.0

6.4

6.9

8.1

9.1

8.0

9.4

6.6

8.0

10.3

9.4

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

42.3

43.0

43.4

41.1

40.9

37.5

33.3

27.6

24.8

27.4

28.8

30.3

35.1

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.481)

Costa Rica

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

8,116

8,032

8,102

8,462

8,666

9,019

9,649

10,250

10,369

10,110

10,456

10,763

11,156

Share of agriculture in GDP

9.5

8.8

8.5

8.7

8.6

9.0

8.9

8.5

7.2

7.4

7.2

6.5

6.3

Share of industry in GDP

32.1

29.7

29.1

28.6

29.5

29.1

29.2

29.3

28.7

27.4

26.2

25.3

25.1

Share of services in GDP

58.5

61.5

62.4

62.6

61.8

61.9

61.9

62.2

64.1

65.2

66.7

68.2

68.6

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

80.2

82.7

82.6

81.2

80.1

81.1

79.7

80.1

82.2

83.1

82.1

83.0

82.6

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

9.9

10.7

11.4

11.3

10.6

10.3

10.0

10.4

11.7

13.6

13.9

13.7

14.2

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

6.0

6.3

5.6

5.4

5.3

5.3

5.2

5.3

5.5

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

Exports (% GDP)

48.6

41.5

42.4

46.7

46.3

48.5

49.1

48.7

45.4

42.3

38.2

37.4

37.7

Terms of trade

100.0

98.4

96.9

95.5

91.9

88.3

85.8

84.9

81.7

84.4

81.1

78.1

77.7

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

2.6

2.8

3.9

3.3

4.3

4.3

6.5

7.2

7.0

4.6

4.0

5.3

5.9

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

42.3

43.0

43.4

41.1

40.9

37.5

33.3

27.6

24.8

27.4

28.8

30.3

35.1

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.482)

Dominican Republic

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

5,737

5,751

5,991

5,886

5,876

6,326

6,901

7,380

7,660

7,818

8,312

8,573

8,794

Share of agriculture in GDP

7.2

7.5

7.2

6.4

7.0

7.5

7.1

6.6

6.3

6.2

6.2

6.0

6.1

Share of industry in GDP

35.9

34.2

35.0

33.8

33.0

32.1

32.2

31.6

32.2

32.5

32.0

33.1

31.7

Share of services in GDP

56.8

58.4

57.8

59.8

60.0

60.5

60.8

61.9

61.5

61.3

61.7

61.0

62.2

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

85.5

86.2

86.7

85.4

84.3

89.0

89.6

90.2

95.4

93.2

94.7

93.9

92.4

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

3.8

4.2

4.6

3.2

2.6

3.4

3.4

4.1

3.9

3.8

4.3

4.2

4.2

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

1.0

1.4

0.8

1.1

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.0

2.6

2.2

1.8

1.8

1.8

Exports (% GDP)

37.0

33.7

32.5

43.1

42.3

30.0

30.0

28.8

25.5

22.2

23.0

25.0

24.9

Terms of trade

100.0

100.9

101.5

97.9

96.7

95.8

94.9

98.0

93.6

101.3

97.5

92.4

91.5

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

4.0

4.3

3.5

2.9

4.1

3.3

4.3

5.5

6.0

3.6

3.6

4.0

5.8

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

0.7

0.3

0.4

1.2

1.9

1.6

2.6

3.7

1.1

0.1

0.1

0.9

0.7

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

17.8

19.7

23.5

40.4

24.2

21.1

20.1

18.1

24.4

28.0

28.8

30.0

33.2

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.483)

Ecuador

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

6,184

6,307

6,440

6,491

6,895

7,129

7,312

7,344

7,679

7,595

7,692

8,161

8,443

Share of agriculture in GDP

16.3

13.7

12.2

11.7

10.4

10.0

9.9

9.8

9.3

10.5

10.7

10.4

9.9

Share of industry in GDP

35.7

31.5

31.3

30.1

31.8

33.4

35.6

36.2

39.3

34.3

34.9

36.8

36.9

Share of services in GDP

48.0

54.7

56.4

58.2

57.8

56.6

54.5

53.9

51.4

55.2

54.4

52.8

53.3

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

73.9

82.0

82.7

82.5

81.4

79.2

76.6

76.0

73.3

76.0

75.8

72.8

72.7

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

2.3

3.2

3.9

3.5

3.7

3.7

3.8

3.9

4.6

6.1

6.2

6.2

6.5

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.7

0.7

1.1

1.0

1.4

1.7

1.5

1.4

Exports (% GDP)

32.1

23.2

21.5

22.6

24.6

27.6

30.3

31.9

34.2

25.2

28.7

32.2

31.2

Terms of trade

100.0

84.6

86.8

89.8

91.5

102.4

109.9

113.0

124.0

109.7

120.8

132.9

134.7

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

−0.1

2.2

2.7

2.7

2.3

1.2

0.6

0.4

1.6

0.5

0.2

0.8

0.7

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

19.3

12.0

10.1

11.5

17.4

22.8

24.7

23.8

26.8

15.1

17.7

21.4

19.3

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

63.7

49.4

43.9

40.4

36.4

32.4

26.5

25.2

20.6

14.9

17.8

17.3

20.2

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.484)

Honduras

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

2,880

2,898

2,946

3,019

3,143

3,268

3,414

3,554

3,631

3,473

3,531

3,593

3,657

Share of agriculture in GDP

15.9

14.6

13.5

12.8

13.4

13.7

13.0

13.0

13.1

11.7

12.5

15.3

14.8

Share of industry in GDP

32.5

30.7

30.1

30.1

29.1

28.7

30.0

28.6

28.0

28.1

27.6

27.8

27.9

Share of services in GDP

51.7

54.7

56.4

57.2

57.5

57.6

57.0

58.4

58.9

60.3

59.9

56.9

57.3

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

84.2

87.2

88.3

88.8

89.0

90.9

92.7

94.4

97.0

97.2

96.0

93.7

93.9

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

7.6

8.5

8.4

10.0

9.7

9.4

9.4

9.6

9.9

11.5

11.2

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.6

Exports (% GDP)

54.0

51.4

52.7

54.1

58.4

59.0

56.1

53.5

51.3

39.5

45.8

51.3

50.4

Terms of trade

100.0

94.8

92.0

88.0

87.2

87.2

83.2

81.6

76.6

81.9

84.2

91.2

84.3

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

5.4

4.0

3.5

4.9

6.2

6.2

6.6

7.9

8.7

3.4

3.1

5.9

5.8

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

1.3

1.1

0.7

0.6

0.9

0.9

0.8

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

55.5

53.6

55.3

60.5

59.5

44.7

28.7

17.4

20.1

23.9

29.2

31.5

34.9

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.485)

Mexico

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

11,810

11,575

11,440

11,460

11,807

12,017

12,462

12,695

12,711

11,962

12,412

12,747

13,067

Share of agriculture in GDP

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.3

3.5

3.5

3.4

3.6

Share of industry in GDP

35.7

33.9

33.7

34.6

35.8

35.5

36.3

36.1

36.6

34.3

34.8

35.7

35.7

Share of services in GDP

60.8

62.5

62.7

61.9

60.7

61.2

60.3

60.6

60.2

62.2

61.7

60.9

60.7

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

78.1

80.3

81.5

79.6

79.1

79.2

77.8

78.2

77.9

78.6

79.2

79.0

77.9

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

5.4

5.8

5.7

5.9

5.6

5.9

5.9

5.9

6.0

6.7

6.5

6.6

6.2

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

2.3

2.3

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.3

2.5

2.6

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.1

Exports (% GDP)

26.0

23.4

23.2

24.6

26.1

26.4

27.6

27.7

27.9

27.3

30.0

31.5

32.9

Terms of trade

100.0

97.4

97.9

98.8

101.6

103.6

104.1

105.1

105.9

94.0

101.2

108.5

109.1

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

2.6

4.1

3.2

2.6

3.2

2.8

2.2

3.1

2.6

1.9

2.2

2.0

1.5

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

4.5

3.6

3.5

4.8

6.1

8.0

8.6

8.4

10.0

6.4

7.3

8.7

8.3

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

20.6

20.2

21.4

21.7

20.3

19.6

20.2

20.6

24.0

27.2

27.2

27.5

28.2

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.486)

Panama

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

7,869

7,758

7,776

7,947

8,383

8,819

9,396

10,346

11,192

11,424

12,067

13,154

14,320

Share of agriculture in GDP

7.2

7.7

7.5

7.8

8.0

7.0

6.5

6.0

5.4

5.0

4.7

4.1

3.9

Share of industry in GDP

18.9

16.8

15.8

16.9

18.2

16.6

16.6

16.5

17.8

17.2

16.9

16.7

17.8

Share of services in GDP

73.9

75.5

76.7

75.4

73.8

76.5

76.9

77.5

76.7

77.7

78.4

79.2

78.3

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

73.1

75.6

79.1

75.9

77.6

75.2

73.3

70.6

66.0

63.9

74.6

74.2

67.7

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

7.6

8.0

8.2

8.2

8.4

8.3

6.4

5.8

6.1

6.7

6.5

6.6

6.2

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

2.2

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.4

1.5

1.2

1.8

1.6

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.1

Exports (% GDP)

72.6

72.7

67.5

63.6

67.6

75.5

76.7

81.2

85.2

81.0

76.5

84.2

83.5

Terms of trade

100.0

102.7

101.6

97.2

95.3

93.5

90.8

90.0

85.9

90.0

88.3

86.4

86.2

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

5.4

4.0

0.8

6.3

7.2

7.1

17.1

9.6

9.9

4.2

8.8

13.2

8.6

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.6

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

61.4

65.7

64.7

62.4

65.2

61.0

56.5

49.0

41.4

41.7

39.7

37.9

37.0

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.487)

Peru

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

5,514

5,447

5,644

5,797

6,013

6,349

6,765

7,288

7,916

7,904

8,503

8,982

9,431

Share of agriculture in GDP

8.5

8.2

7.8

7.6

7.3

7.2

7.0

7.0

7.2

7.3

6.8

7.0

7.0

Share of industry in GDP

29.9

29.6

30.4

30.8

33.0

34.3

37.0

37.0

36.6

34.2

36.1

36.6

34.6

Share of services in GDP

61.6

62.2

61.8

61.5

59.7

58.5

56.0

56.0

56.2

58.5

57.2

56.4

58.4

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

84.0

85.2

83.5

83.4

80.6

78.4

72.0

70.6

72.3

75.2

71.7

70.2

71.8

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

4.4

4.4

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.3

4.4

4.7

5.4

5.0

4.9

5.3

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

3.6

4.3

4.4

4.3

4.4

4.3

3.8

3.6

3.0

3.3

3.2

3.0

2.9

Exports (% GDP)

16.0

15.7

16.1

17.7

21.5

25.1

28.5

29.1

27.2

23.9

25.7

28.6

25.6

Terms of trade

100.0

95.6

98.4

102.2

111.3

119.4

152.1

157.6

136.6

129.1

152.5

171.9

163.7

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

1.6

2.2

4.0

2.3

2.4

3.5

4.0

5.4

5.7

5.3

5.7

4.8

6.4

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

2.4

1.7

1.5

2.1

4.3

7.0

13.9

14.7

12.9

9.4

12.2

14.4

11.7

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

37.4

35.7

44.7

45.4

41.9

38.4

31.4

27.4

25.6

25.2

22.9

20.1

18.9

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.488)

Paraguay

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

10,290

9,739

8,596

9,271

10,019

10,843

11,658

12,556

13,288

13,285

14,376

15,515

15,672

Share of agriculture in GDP

15.8

14.8

14.9

18.3

20.4

19.6

19.1

21.2

23.5

18.9

22.5

21.4

17.4

Share of industry in GDP

35.7

38.0

40.5

37.3

34.6

34.8

33.3

31.7

29.7

32.0

30.1

27.5

28.1

Share of services in GDP

48.5

47.3

44.6

44.4

45.1

45.7

47.6

47.1

46.7

49.0

47.4

51.0

54.5

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

75.6

74.7

67.5

67.8

70.1

70.8

73.2

74.4

79.1

79.4

80.2

80.7

81.8

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

6.1

4.8

5.4

6.1

6.5

6.6

6.5

8.3

7.6

8.4

10.0

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

1.6

3.7

3.4

4.0

5.2

5.2

4.8

6.6

5.4

6.2

7.3

Exports (% GDP)

46.1

44.2

52.9

54.3

53.8

57.3

58.3

56.3

54.3

51.2

54.6

48.9

46.6

Terms of trade

100.0

100.2

96.7

101.4

104.3

97.4

95.5

100.1

107.3

105.0

105.0

107.5

110.5

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

1.3

1.1

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.1

1.8

0.8

1.4

0.3

1.7

1.8

2.0

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

35.3

33.5

47.0

38.7

34.3

29.3

23.2

15.9

14.3

14.6

14.1

12.1

12.6

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.489)

El Salvador

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

5,155

5,220

5,322

5,425

5,506

5,682

5,880

6,080

6,129

5,906

5,953

6,048

6,125

Share of agriculture in GDP

10.5

10.1

9.1

9.0

9.5

10.6

10.7

11.9

12.5

12.4

12.6

12.5

11.8

Share of industry in GDP

31.4

31.9

32.2

31.8

30.4

29.7

29.1

28.2

27.7

27.0

26.7

26.9

27.2

Share of services in GDP

58.1

57.9

58.7

59.2

60.0

59.7

60.2

59.9

59.7

60.6

60.7

60.6

61.0

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

98.1

99.1

98.3

98.9

101.1

102.4

103.7

106.1

107.6

102.0

103.6

104.3

104.4

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

7.0

7.1

7.4

6.9

7.0

8.1

8.0

8.0

7.9

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

3.5

3.8

4.0

3.6

4.3

4.1

4.2

4.7

4.8

Exports (% GDP)

27.4

25.8

26.4

27.1

27.0

25.6

25.7

25.9

26.9

23.2

25.9

28.0

28.4

Terms of trade

100.0

102.5

101.6

97.7

96.8

96.8

95.5

94.6

91.9

94.9

91.3

91.3

90.2

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

1.3

2.0

3.3

0.9

2.3

3.0

1.3

7.7

4.2

1.8

−0.5

0.5

1.9

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

27.2

30.7

35.2

37.2

38.1

37.5

37.7

34.9

34.4

42.6

42.6

41.7

45.7

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.490)

Uruguay

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

9,551

9,168

8,457

8,530

8,962

9,626

10006

10634

11361

11577

12569

13344

13821

Share of agriculture in GDP

7.0

6.5

8.7

11.1

12.9

10.4

10.7

10.2

10.9

8.4

7.9

9.4

8.4

Share of industry in GDP

24.5

24.5

24.3

26.1

25.6

27.1

26.4

27.2

25.8

25.6

26.1

23.9

24.7

Share of services in GDP

68.5

69.0

67.0

62.8

61.5

62.5

62.9

62.6

63.3

66.0

66.0

66.8

66.9

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

88.9

88.4

85.7

81.7

79.8

80.4

81.9

81.5

81.6

79.6

80.6

81.4

82.3

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

6.0

6.5

6.6

6.4

6.2

6.3

6.9

7.4

8.7

9.6

9.8

10.5

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

13.2

14.1

14.5

12.8

11.7

11.7

11.8

12.9

11.7

12.0

12.2

11.1

Exports (% GDP)

16.7

16.8

20.6

27.4

32.1

30.4

30.3

29.1

30.2

28.3

27.2

27.2

26.3

Terms of trade

100.0

104.0

102.6

103.5

99.9

90.7

88.6

88.7

94.1

96.9

100.0

101.8

104.2

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

1.2

1.4

1.4

3.5

2.4

4.8

7.7

5.8

7.1

5.3

5.6

5.7

5.4

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

31.6

38.9

96.0

95.5

74.7

66.7

61.6

52.9

51.6

46.7

40.9

40.3

39.2

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).

(p.491)

Venezuela

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

GDP per capita (dollars PPP 2005)

9,527

9,667

8,650

7,835

9,104

9,869

10,658

11,396

11,799

11,237

10,894

11,173

11,623

Share of agriculture in GDP

4.2

4.5

4.1

4.6

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.4

6.1

5.8

9.4

8.4

Share of industry in GDP

49.7

46.1

49.8

51.6

55.5

57.8

56.5

53.3

54.1

44.2

52.2

23.9

24.7

Share of services in GDP

46.1

49.4

46.1

43.9

40.5

38.2

39.5

42.6

41.5

49.7

42.1

66.8

66.9

Domestic expenditure (% GDP)

64.2

69.1

66.5

67.7

61.2

57.8

58.7

63.6

63.4

76.6

67.1

66.7

71.5

Public expenditure in education and health (% GDP)

8.5

9.3

9.6

8.8

9.9

9.0

10.7

10.8

9.9

9.8

8.7

9.9

10.5

Public expenditure in social security (% GDP)

3.8

5.0

4.3

5.9

5.8

5.7

7.5

7.7

6.8

6.9

7.1

8.7

9.2

Exports (% GDP)

29.7

22.7

30.4

33.9

36.2

39.7

36.5

31.1

30.8

18.1

28.5

29.9

26.2

Terms of trade

100.0

82.2

87.6

98.7

118.1

154.4

184.4

202.1

249.5

181.7

215.9

259.5

262.1

Foreign direct investment (% GDP)

4.0

3.0

0.8

2.4

1.3

1.9

0.1

1.1

0.4

−0.8

0.5

1.2

0.6

Revenue from natural resources (% GDP)

28.0

22.3

26.8

32.7

39.3

47.5

43.9

34.4

34.9

18.8

20.3

33.7

28.6

Stock of public debt (% GDP)

28.1

31.2

41.7

47.4

38.8

33.1

24.0

19.1

14.0

18.2

32.0

25.1

27.5

Source: Authors’ calculations based on World Development Indicators (World Bank 2014) and CEPALSTAT (UN-ECLAC 2015).