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Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America$

Guillermo Cruces, Gary S. Fields, David Jaume, and Mariana Viollaz

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198801085

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198801085.001.0001

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(p.435) Appendix 1 Evolution of Labour Market Indicators over the 2000s by Country

(p.435) Appendix 1 Evolution of Labour Market Indicators over the 2000s by Country

Source:
Growth, Employment, and Poverty in Latin America
Author(s):

Guillermo Cruces

Gary S. Fields

David Jaume

Mariana Viollaz

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Argentina

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

14.78

18.40

17.88

15.41

12.58

10.60

9.30

7.53

7.61

8.60

7.41

7.17

7.25

Share of low-earnings occupations

Share of high-earnings occupations

Share of wage/salaried employees

72.13

71.29

72.07

74.06

74.24

74.40

75.79

76.70

76.28

75.88

76.97

77.08

77.25

Share of self-employed workers

22.07

23.41

22.98

20.78

20.46

20.36

19.01

17.99

18.50

19.07

17.79

17.93

18.04

Share of unpaid family workers

1.19

0.92

0.98

1.40

1.17

1.10

1.02

0.90

0.62

0.73

0.78

0.64

0.54

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

39.7

39.0

35.4

38.3

39.3

39.7

41.0

39.8

40.4

39.9

39.6

39.9

39.5

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

18.3

18.5

20.8

19.5

18.4

18.5

18.4

19.0

19.2

19.9

19.9

19.6

20.5

Share of low-educated workers

37.04

36.17

35.51

34.55

33.59

32.76

31.18

29.09

28.37

27.58

26.38

26.13

24.93

Share of high-educated workers

24.18

25.89

25.24

26.07

26.90

27.80

28.46

28.52

29.33

29.98

30.83

31.49

31.13

Share of workers registered with SS

61.59

61.40

55.95

50.62

52.01

54.42

57.27

60.59

62.96

64.11

65.40

65.55

65.01

Mean labour earnings

761.7

736.0

497.8

578.4

646.1

705.8

732.6

718.5

747.4

756.8

799.0

781.0

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

14.16

18.64

29.17

22.02

16.96

13.32

10.32

8.75

8.21

8.04

6.14

4.60

4.69

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

27.46

32.86

45.54

36.44

30.96

25.80

20.62

19.54

17.26

16.31

14.07

11.55

10.84

GINI of household per capita income

0.504

0.522

0.533

0.526

0.496

0.488

0.475

0.469

0.459

0.449

0.442

0.433

0.423

GINI of labour earnings

0.459

0.476

0.498

0.481

0.463

0.459

0.440

0.434

0.416

0.412

0.403

0.400

0.388

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.436)

Bolivia

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

5.90

6.50

5.76

5.80

7.05

6.53

6.85

4.62

4.81

4.12

3.91

Share of low-earnings occupations

61.77

63.90

63.61

60.56

59.48

56.03

57.33

58.11

55.91

56.43

56.01

Share of high-earnings occupations

4.71

6.67

6.64

5.58

7.32

9.42

9.35

7.99

8.70

11.07

11.66

Share of wage/salaried employees

33.10

34.89

33.04

37.39

36.06

36.61

39.28

38.96

41.78

39.50

40.67

Share of self-employed workers

44.74

39.52

39.43

38.99

38.13

37.48

36.04

35.58

35.36

36.53

38.34

Share of unpaid family workers

20.11

23.18

22.74

18.45

20.11

21.10

18.85

19.29

17.73

18.19

14.20

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

62.12

65.31

63.47

60.18

59.35

55.75

56.62

57.00

54.19

55.71

55.54

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

10.91

10.85

9.89

10.86

12.07

15.31

13.82

14.91

14.46

15.26

16.36

Share of low-educated workers

60.05

59.64

61.33

59.36

55.94

56.04

50.84

50.26

48.15

45.91

43.17

Share of high-educated workers

13.35

14.02

11.83

11.78

14.25

13.12

17.30

14.79

16.77

20.50

21.76

Share of workers registered with SS

12.29

11.85

9.66

10.47

19.83

18.73

13.65

13.03

14.89

17.44

18.06

Mean labour earnings

447.3

415.4

435.7

443.6

471.0

498.9

466.1

503.6

530.9

573.8

589.3

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

43.25

34.72

39.70

30.50

34.81

32.00

30.29

22.84

20.64

16.19

17.05

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

59.90

53.61

57.75

51.43

53.58

48.52

47.43

40.41

35.14

29.16

29.49

GINI of household per capita income

0.619

0.549

0.600

0.549

0.583

0.567

0.553

0.514

0.494

0.462

0.465

GINI of labour earnings

0.594

0.559

0.574

0.529

0.563

0.539

0.536

0.508

0.495

0.454

0.467

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.437)

Brazil

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

9.34

9.10

9.72

8.89

9.30

8.39

8.09

7.09

8.28

6.69

6.15

Share of low-earnings occupations

57.83

58.00

58.09

57.39

57.22

57.20

56.51

56.48

56.75

55.55

Share of high-earnings occupations

13.68

13.71

13.30

13.82

14.47

14.20

14.59

15.09

15.28

16.45

Share of wage/salaried employees

63.00

62.90

62.93

63.66

63.65

64.36

65.51

66.39

66.87

68.44

68.89

Share of self-employed workers

22.72

22.63

22.67

22.27

21.95

21.49

21.41

20.44

20.66

21.20

20.76

Share of unpaid family workers

9.95

10.12

10.12

9.87

10.09

9.62

9.25

8.63

8.11

6.93

6.55

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

36.15

34.72

34.66

35.05

34.78

33.71

32.34

31.53

31.51

28.52

27.59

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

23.01

25.04

25.04

25.13

24.80

25.92

26.08

26.65

26.80

27.42

28.05

Share of low-educated workers

63.79

61.96

59.97

58.56

56.83

54.69

53.05

50.72

48.93

46.38

44.95

Share of high-educated workers

8.68

9.05

9.39

9.56

9.93

10.65

13.23

13.04

13.93

15.45

14.55

Share of workers registered with SS

46.90

46.27

47.36

47.50

48.44

49.60

51.64

52.86

54.27

59.13

60.22

Mean labour earnings

539.9

533.6

503.8

498.4

515.8

546.4

569.1

580.3

593.9

641.3

680.1

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

27.35

26.02

26.66

24.87

22.88

19.59

18.11

15.59

14.88

12.60

10.37

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

43.05

42.13

42.78

40.81

38.37

34.81

31.84

29.14

27.44

24.46

21.49

GINI of household per capita income

0.588

0.583

0.576

0.566

0.564

0.559

0.549

0.542

0.536

0.527

0.523

GINI of labour earnings

0.563

0.560

0.552

0.544

0.540

0.538

0.525

0.518

0.515

0.499

0.496

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.438)

Chile

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

10.37

9.98

7.32

10.22

7.73

Share of low-earnings occupations

42.81

41.64

44.45

45.57

44.13

Share of high-earnings occupations

16.65

16.17

13.42

13.75

17.08

Share of wage/salaried employees

74.39

74.28

75.67

76.28

77.42

Share of self-employed workers

20.00

20.40

20.34

20.13

20.29

Share of unpaid family workers

1.48

1.45

0.91

0.47

0.40

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

35.15

35.15

34.93

34.78

36.17

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

25.25

25.42

25.30

28.37

27.35

Share of low-educated workers

31.29

28.02

27.01

24.47

23.55

Share of high-educated workers

20.69

21.99

22.03

24.40

24.12

Share of workers registered with SS

62.77

63.65

66.66

66.03

68.76

Mean labour earnings

702.6

686.6

685.0

780.0

756.8

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

8.89

7.64

5.12

4.09

2.88

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

22.99

20.58

15.62

11.56

9.88

GINI of household per capita income

0.552

0.547

0.517

0.519

0.508

GINI of labour earnings

0.560

0.546

0.532

0.522

0.510

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.439)

Colombia

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

13.58

14.33

13.57

12.06

11.08

10.88

11.63

10.86

9.92

9.78

9.00

Share of low-earnings occupations

46.15

45.34

46.00

45.20

45.36

39.40

42.64

42.42

41.72

41.47

41.02

Share of high-earnings occupations

10.50

11.49

11.37

11.74

12.16

12.62

11.36

11.95

12.41

12.73

13.62

Share of wage/salaried employees

50.00

50.77

49.58

49.35

52.00

49.06

48.50

47.36

47.07

47.28

48.25

Share of self-employed workers

40.89

40.15

40.54

40.94

38.48

42.55

42.60

43.07

43.74

43.33

42.79

Share of unpaid family workers

4.70

4.47

5.30

4.55

4.22

3.72

3.91

4.56

4.16

4.44

4.37

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

54.03

52.79

52.18

50.58

51.94

48.08

49.01

49.07

48.40

48.45

48.39

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

21.39

21.79

22.71

22.94

22.50

24.45

24.14

23.37

24.11

24.14

25.43

Share of low-educated workers

56.11

54.36

54.24

52.70

50.81

47.09

48.36

48.00

45.30

45.37

42.60

Share of high-educated workers

12.79

13.34

13.62

14.43

15.12

16.88

15.97

15.60

16.51

16.18

17.83

Share of workers registered with SS

33.22

31.87

30.92

32.00

32.61

34.60

Mean labour earnings

402.0

469.3

408.1

452.6

464.9

516.9

537.1

543.5

546.0

545.6

573.5

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

39.04

29.84

31.05

28.37

25.30

24.45

21.92

19.56

16.97

17.50

15.16

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

60.33

49.55

51.96

49.41

45.24

41.64

39.61

36.51

33.14

32.92

30.75

GINI of household per capita income

0.565

0.574

0.543

0.560

0.550

0.558

0.557

0.553

0.535

0.534

0.533

GINI of labour earnings

0.517

0.551

0.510

0.530

0.519

0.502

0.514

0.516

0.504

0.506

0.499

Note: Vertical lines are used to indicate when the series are not fully comparable before and after that line.

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.440)

Costa Rica

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

6.04

6.39

6.65

6.44

6.63

5.92

4.55

4.93

7.82

7.29

7.66

7.77

Share of low-earnings occupations

47.48

48.26

47.86

47.17

47.51

46.58

45.98

43.95

44.27

47.46

48.15

Share of high-earnings occupations

23.73

23.40

24.48

24.37

24.46

24.87

25.26

27.52

27.85

26.04

26.65

Share of wage/salaried employees

69.06

68.53

69.58

68.84

71.56

70.85

73.17

72.95

72.77

76.11

76.00

76.09

Share of self-employed workers

20.38

20.80

19.35

20.77

18.90

19.42

17.93

18.06

18.52

18.87

18.77

18.69

Share of unpaid family workers

2.54

2.74

2.42

2.24

2.04

1.97

1.64

1.46

1.49

1.65

1.50

1.66

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

28.96

28.75

27.52

27.40

28.94

27.71

26.45

24.72

24.14

28.00

27.10

26.44

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

26.21

26.34

26.82

26.28

25.78

26.01

26.57

28.06

28.82

28.21

28.46

30.26

Share of low-educated workers

57.32

55.40

53.23

53.27

53.38

52.25

51.06

49.08

47.55

50.03

48.80

46.53

Share of high-educated workers

15.68

16.45

17.14

17.28

17.59

18.64

18.67

20.02

20.77

19.16

19.73

20.85

Share of workers registered with SS

50.70

50.53

50.35

51.31

50.68

51.23

53.47

54.69

55.26

55.65

54.58

56.06

Mean labour earnings

749.7

736.3

740.3

694.7

675.3

703.5

764.7

784.8

832.2

794.1

812.0

833.0

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

13.78

13.55

13.07

12.26

10.76

10.58

7.27

6.87

7.46

4.53

5.09

4.73

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

26.72

26.45

24.87

25.93

23.07

22.98

17.88

17.01

17.42

12.70

13.01

12.18

GINI of household per capita income

0.501

0.500

0.492

0.482

0.473

0.489

0.492

0.486

0.504

0.480

0.485

0.485

GINI of labour earnings

0.464

0.463

0.454

0.435

0.440

0.454

0.459

0.455

0.459

0.466

0.477

0.471

Note: Vertical lines are used to indicate when the series are not fully comparable before and after that line.

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.441)

Dominican Republic

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

4.72

5.49

4.11

4.92

4.21

4.25

3.64

3.20

2.07

3.85

3.14

3.94

4.92

Share of low-earnings occupations

48.77

48.84

49.98

47.81

48.52

48.63

49.84

50.28

50.42

52.54

52.08

53.59

52.96

Share of high-earnings occupations

15.35

15.53

15.39

17.06

16.47

16.24

16.74

16.34

17.17

17.03

16.81

15.81

16.76

Share of wage/salaried employees

56.90

54.30

53.29

54.80

55.18

52.83

53.56

54.23

52.14

51.07

50.62

51.33

53.18

Share of self-employed workers

38.98

40.26

42.16

40.27

38.57

39.99

40.04

39.14

40.20

42.56

43.36

43.79

41.87

Share of unpaid family workers

1.53

1.58

1.36

1.44

1.53

2.76

2.52

2.41

3.62

1.51

2.27

1.70

1.82

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

31.21

28.51

29.71

27.65

28.66

27.59

27.40

27.55

26.54

25.84

25.55

25.85

25.70

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

15.62

15.77

16.16

17.22

15.74

16.24

15.86

16.20

17.30

16.77

17.28

17.51

16.77

Share of low-educated workers

56.47

57.22

55.21

54.36

53.52

53.69

52.16

50.13

49.63

49.56

48.32

47.27

46.09

Share of high-educated workers

16.15

15.11

16.55

16.91

17.27

16.51

16.84

17.20

19.26

18.76

18.52

17.24

18.71

Share of workers registered with SS

46.66

53.89

64.07

71.43

71.75

74.72

71.18

70.89

Mean labour earnings

330.0

327.0

307.6

263.1

217.3

257.8

270.2

258.9

251.7

271.3

261.1

248.1

241.8

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

15.71

15.84

17.61

21.83

27.77

21.08

18.66

17.90

18.44

16.40

16.14

13.97

14.55

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

32.63

33.27

33.07

41.73

49.50

40.48

37.48

36.41

37.89

34.71

35.12

33.34

33.26

GINI of household per capita income

0.519

0.504

0.500

0.520

0.519

0.499

0.519

0.487

0.490

0.489

0.472

0.474

0.457

GINI of labour earnings

0.499

0.487

0.483

0.481

0.479

0.476

0.484

0.464

0.457

0.471

0.464

0.468

0.451

Note: Vertical lines are used to indicate when the series are not fully comparable before and after that line.

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.442)

Ecuador

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

13.19

8.50

8.37

6.72

5.48

6.43

6.86

5.22

4.50

4.40

Share of low-earnings occupations

57.88

57.42

56.80

57.12

55.56

56.22

56.75

54.43

52.91

52.42

Share of high-earnings occupations

7.78

8.51

8.56

8.44

8.96

8.76

8.61

9.42

8.49

9.65

Share of wage/salaried employees

55.09

51.19

53.41

53.38

54.10

55.74

54.13

55.30

52.93

54.06

Share of self-employed workers

31.29

30.64

30.53

28.90

29.76

29.08

30.68

31.64

34.82

33.16

Share of unpaid family workers

8.73

11.47

9.77

11.70

10.93

9.89

10.99

9.58

8.72

9.01

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

42.39

42.61

42.35

41.55

40.68

39.90

40.07

38.76

38.13

37.92

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

11.24

10.83

11.22

10.72

10.70

12.00

11.42

12.16

12.59

13.12

Share of low-educated workers

54.58

55.04

53.52

52.38

51.93

50.99

50.64

48.69

46.92

45.55

Share of high-educated workers

18.39

18.81

18.73

18.63

19.21

19.56

20.14

21.38

21.31

22.24

Share of workers registered with SS

32.97

33.53

33.15

33.30

34.04

36.00

39.95

45.24

53.30

54.67

Mean labour earnings

457.6

511.1

502.6

529.2

575.1

546.8

515.7

559.7

559.0

589.6

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

31.33

28.81

25.61

20.00

19.81

19.29

18.85

15.88

13.55

12.85

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

51.44

48.03

43.60

38.34

38.11

36.75

37.11

33.43

29.54

27.76

GINI of household per capita income

0.545

0.536

0.536

0.529

0.539

0.502

0.489

0.489

0.458

0.462

GINI of labour earnings

0.515

0.527

0.501

0.489

0.524

0.482

0.466

0.463

0.436

0.431

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.443)

Honduras

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

4.60

4.24

5.54

5.99

4.92

3.58

3.15

3.11

3.28

4.10

4.42

3.73

Share of low-earnings occupations

61.93

62.49

63.07

61.13

62.12

61.71

59.72

61.34

Share of high-earnings occupations

12.86

13.95

14.19

15.03

13.19

12.90

13.54

13.00

Share of wage/salaried employees

47.04

47.25

50.12

49.17

47.24

47.68

48.94

49.00

47.02

44.23

46.83

42.91

Share of self-employed workers

33.58

33.22

32.21

29.34

31.29

31.19

29.06

28.52

31.50

32.07

30.71

34.73

Share of unpaid family workers

9.00

10.20

8.61

9.58

9.91

9.25

8.25

8.81

8.94

10.48

11.34

10.77

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

46.51

52.73

48.94

49.67

48.21

50.91

48.84

47.70

48.66

49.91

49.43

50.11

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

9.83

9.59

9.35

9.83

9.68

10.19

10.22

11.01

9.84

9.94

9.40

9.59

Share of low-educated workers

77.60

79.51

79.24

76.52

76.15

75.48

74.48

72.23

73.22

70.97

69.32

70.19

Share of high-educated workers

5.10

5.63

4.69

5.37

5.22

5.52

5.91

6.52

5.60

6.31

6.63

6.21

Share of workers registered with SS

6.19

5.00

6.34

4.40

5.63

5.42

5.21

Mean labour earnings

430.1

393.2

394.6

404.1

372.1

391.6

431.2

457.9

421.2

416.3

448.4

395.0

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

37.04

47.95

47.89

46.77

47.41

42.04

36.96

34.01

31.34

33.99

37.40

42.42

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

55.91

64.28

64.38

63.29

64.16

58.80

56.00

52.05

50.04

53.30

56.39

61.28

GINI of household per capita income

0.539

0.577

0.583

0.581

0.593

0.573

0.560

0.556

0.516

0.534

0.572

0.573

GINI of labour earnings

0.541

0.545

0.558

0.556

0.575

0.546

0.553

0.554

0.526

0.543

0.582

0.580

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.444)

Mexico

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

2.18

2.95

3.77

3.77

3.31

4.48

5.66

4.23

Share of low-earnings occupations

32.04

31.26

28.91

28.98

29.16

28.98

41.41

43.08

Share of high-earnings occupations

14.95

13.31

14.60

15.26

15.26

15.60

18.94

17.86

Share of wage/salaried employees

66.14

65.73

70.22

68.86

67.16

71.78

72.94

68.31

Share of self-employed workers

21.81

23.21

21.17

21.39

22.61

12.80

12.76

15.06

Share of unpaid family workers

7.26

7.02

5.31

5.94

6.17

5.49

4.87

5.91

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

31.52

30.13

26.74

26.56

26.24

26.11

25.93

28.12

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

20.67

20.74

22.74

22.65

21.92

22.91

23.43

22.24

Share of low-educated workers

49.48

48.48

45.01

44.06

42.69

40.98

37.86

37.19

Share of high-educated workers

15.03

13.38

15.27

15.43

15.39

15.38

17.48

16.56

Share of workers registered with SS

45.63

41.58

40.32

39.38

40.99

39.61

37.15

34.94

Mean labour earnings

598.6

575.4

591.7

616.5

616.6

622.0

554.6

563.9

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

19.54

17.15

14.73

14.98

11.83

13.57

12.61

11.45

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

36.97

34.10

30.82

29.89

27.03

28.54

28.16

27.65

GINI of household per capita income

0.536

0.510

0.507

0.509

0.495

0.502

0.472

0.491

GINI of labour earnings

0.520

0.515

0.497

0.507

0.505

0.508

0.474

0.512

Note: Vertical lines are used to indicate when the series are not fully comparable before and after that line.

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.445)

Panama

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

9.60

9.28

9.60

8.63

8.95

7.75

5.68

5.06

6.11

6.02

4.05

3.66

Share of low-earnings occupations

52.77

53.78

53.43

52.32

53.47

53.34

52.66

51.33

50.15

49.46

49.12

49.62

Share of high-earnings occupations

16.37

16.45

16.82

16.20

16.01

15.57

16.35

16.80

17.56

18.19

23.77

24.61

Share of wage/salaried employees

63.20

62.45

61.71

62.63

61.77

62.99

65.33

66.06

64.67

65.89

68.00

68.06

Share of self-employed workers

29.45

30.29

30.75

30.00

30.33

28.96

26.44

25.87

27.13

26.48

25.20

24.39

Share of unpaid family workers

4.82

4.32

4.64

4.14

4.83

4.97

5.18

4.86

5.09

4.42

3.75

4.80

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

31.72

31.47

31.32

30.27

30.12

30.49

29.83

28.50

28.05

27.07

25.41

25.26

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

20.66

20.31

20.63

20.93

20.25

20.13

20.50

20.36

21.18

21.94

23.72

23.46

Share of low-educated workers

45.35

44.70

43.17

41.60

42.02

40.56

39.27

37.15

36.98

36.59

34.38

33.52

Share of high-educated workers

18.54

18.84

19.89

20.99

20.60

21.30

20.67

21.48

22.19

22.52

25.35

26.03

Share of workers registered with SS

52.82

51.96

53.28

55.40

57.42

58.07

58.71

61.85

62.34

Mean labour earnings

641.7

630.7

637.7

626.7

596.3

605.5

606.2

610.3

637.1

643.7

715.8

730.5

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

28.70

25.41

24.09

22.77

22.48

22.23

15.89

14.45

12.30

13.16

11.60

11.78

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

43.39

40.72

39.04

38.33

37.48

37.14

28.63

26.18

25.34

23.96

21.25

20.90

GINI of household per capita income

0.565

0.564

0.561

0.549

0.538

0.549

0.526

0.526

0.520

0.519

0.518

0.519

GINI of labour earnings

0.501

0.535

0.528

0.521

0.515

0.515

0.491

0.480

0.484

0.472

0.475

0.481

Note: Vertical lines are used to indicate when the series are not fully comparable before and after that line.

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.446)

Peru

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

5.06

5.18

5.16

4.54

4.55

4.41

4.29

3.90

3.77

3.45

Share of low-earnings occupations

61.74

63.18

63.25

61.84

59.37

57.92

55.69

54.82

53.82

52.59

Share of high-earnings occupations

12.95

12.39

11.85

12.60

14.11

13.95

14.47

14.17

14.23

14.99

Share of wage/salaried employees

39.78

40.96

41.33

43.22

44.58

45.09

45.31

45.22

45.26

46.64

Share of self-employed workers

37.34

36.00

36.46

35.22

35.85

36.34

36.04

36.56

36.81

36.42

Share of unpaid family workers

17.57

17.54

16.57

15.96

13.65

12.95

13.00

12.23

12.49

11.35

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

44.44

43.97

44.08

43.02

40.17

39.21

38.04

37.10

36.83

35.83

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

10.89

11.24

11.00

11.90

12.47

12.46

13.16

12.96

13.07

13.76

Share of low-educated workers

45.32

44.20

44.29

42.60

39.80

39.06

38.75

38.43

37.87

36.07

Share of high-educated workers

17.65

18.13

17.99

18.98

20.95

20.83

21.30

21.26

21.88

23.04

Share of workers registered with SS

14.85

20.10

19.71

22.57

25.96

26.47

28.82

29.69

30.49

32.39

Mean labour earnings

408.3

375.3

368.9

386.3

413.7

423.3

449.9

457.8

467.3

486.3

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

28.29

25.24

27.21

22.98

21.22

17.23

14.61

12.64

12.75

11.07

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

47.30

44.64

46.67

41.38

37.62

33.55

30.04

26.87

25.80

22.29

GINI of household per capita income

0.538

0.487

0.493

0.491

0.496

0.469

0.462

0.449

0.457

0.453

GINI of labour earnings

0.559

0.518

0.522

0.514

0.524

0.513

0.509

0.506

0.496

0.489

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.447)

Paraguay

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

5.06

5.18

5.16

4.54

4.55

4.41

4.29

3.90

3.77

3.45

Share of low-earnings occupations

61.74

63.18

63.25

61.84

59.37

57.92

55.69

54.82

53.82

52.59

Share of high-earnings occupations

12.95

12.39

11.85

12.60

14.11

13.95

14.47

14.17

14.23

14.99

Share of wage/salaried employees

39.78

40.96

41.33

43.22

44.58

45.09

45.31

45.22

45.26

46.64

Share of self-employed workers

37.34

36.00

36.46

35.22

35.85

36.34

36.04

36.56

36.81

36.42

Share of unpaid family workers

17.57

17.54

16.57

15.96

13.65

12.95

13.00

12.23

12.49

11.35

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

44.44

43.97

44.08

43.02

40.17

39.21

38.04

37.10

36.83

35.83

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

10.89

11.24

11.00

11.90

12.47

12.46

13.16

12.96

13.07

13.76

Share of low-educated workers

45.32

44.20

44.29

42.60

39.80

39.06

38.75

38.43

37.87

36.07

Share of high-educated workers

17.65

18.13

17.99

18.98

20.95

20.83

21.30

21.26

21.88

23.04

Share of workers registered with SS

14.85

20.10

19.71

22.57

25.96

26.47

28.82

29.69

30.49

32.39

Mean labour earnings

408.3

375.3

368.9

386.3

413.7

423.3

449.9

457.8

467.3

486.3

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

28.29

25.24

27.21

22.98

21.22

17.23

14.61

12.64

12.75

11.07

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

47.30

44.64

46.67

41.38

37.62

33.55

30.04

26.87

25.80

22.29

GINI of household per capita income

0.538

0.487

0.493

0.491

0.496

0.469

0.462

0.449

0.457

0.453

GINI of labour earnings

0.559

0.518

0.522

0.514

0.524

0.513

0.509

0.506

0.496

0.489

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.448)

El Salvador

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

6.86

7.00

6.20

6.95

6.78

7.19

6.50

6.39

5.92

7.34

7.04

6.64

6.06

Share of low-earnings occupations

57.32

56.97

55.78

54.94

55.73

55.11

55.19

54.76

55.86

55.56

55.21

55.54

55.86

Share of high-earnings occupations

12.59

12.19

12.77

12.84

11.98

13.39

12.85

12.91

12.73

12.63

11.83

11.34

11.78

Share of wage/salaried employees

57.35

58.15

56.49

59.26

60.42

57.67

61.17

59.88

58.90

56.88

57.75

57.88

57.65

Share of self-employed workers

30.58

28.78

31.10

28.86

28.65

29.93

27.12

28.15

29.22

30.82

30.42

30.22

29.48

Share of unpaid family workers

6.54

8.32

7.66

7.10

6.55

7.87

7.25

7.48

7.54

8.04

7.78

8.20

8.70

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

38.97

38.39

36.54

34.99

35.47

35.00

34.32

33.78

35.98

36.52

35.92

36.76

36.28

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

14.57

13.72

13.38

13.60

13.63

14.01

13.51

13.95

13.80

13.69

14.03

14.69

14.44

Share of low-educated workers

60.88

59.21

57.68

56.92

55.89

55.65

54.05

53.49

53.63

53.58

52.46

53.27

51.69

Share of high-educated workers

10.57

10.43

11.19

11.11

11.04

12.38

12.03

11.89

12.19

12.32

11.90

11.36

11.95

Share of workers registered with SS

31.07

30.81

31.17

31.28

30.32

30.41

31.50

31.33

30.72

28.65

28.03

28.03

27.65

Mean labour earnings

549.5

523.6

527.6

476.9

487.4

482.7

486.2

464.0

461.2

440.5

423.0

426.3

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

23.78

25.32

25.16

22.34

22.29

18.68

15.16

20.21

18.72

19.75

16.57

14.68

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

41.35

42.29

42.76

41.57

41.77

38.84

35.66

40.99

38.85

39.31

37.87

34.84

GINI of household per capita income

0.513

0.510

0.515

0.473

0.478

0.454

0.452

0.466

0.459

0.445

0.424

0.418

GINI of labour earnings

0.504

0.502

0.520

0.472

0.489

0.475

0.471

0.466

0.498

0.480

0.462

0.470

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.449)

Uruguay

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

13.54

15.24

16.91

16.81

13.05

12.12

11.31

9.55

8.00

7.63

7.04

6.60

6.35

Share of low-earnings occupations

53.17

53.78

52.63

53.76

52.59

52.60

53.95

53.24

52.88

51.62

52.41

50.25

Share of high-earnings occupations

22.09

21.86

22.37

22.59

23.19

23.03

21.67

22.71

22.60

23.72

22.90

24.75

Share of wage/salaried employees

72.86

71.04

69.98

70.15

70.27

71.22

71.28

71.16

71.48

71.84

72.46

73.94

74.24

Share of self-employed workers

21.99

23.65

24.81

25.07

24.65

23.53

22.97

23.00

22.60

22.31

21.95

20.61

20.59

Share of unpaid family workers

1.44

1.37

1.50

1.35

1.56

1.31

1.43

1.41

1.29

1.37

1.06

0.87

0.92

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

26.48

26.10

24.68

24.93

23.60

24.05

24.30

24.70

24.27

23.60

24.12

23.38

21.70

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

23.24

24.23

24.99

24.52

23.79

23.51

22.21

21.76

21.95

22.39

21.76

22.94

23.55

Share of low-educated workers

43.99

39.78

38.87

38.72

37.10

36.85

39.21

39.10

41.22

39.07

40.25

35.39

34.67

Share of high-educated workers

15.40

18.38

19.52

19.52

20.54

20.93

18.67

18.92

17.97

18.86

17.69

21.00

19.57

Share of workers registered with SS

64.14

62.88

60.56

59.39

61.32

64.78

65.24

66.53

67.90

68.37

72.37

73.83

Mean labour earnings

723.6

654.0

582.6

483.8

483.5

486.7

524.2

554.5

591.9

641.2

627.0

668.2

661.3

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

3.59

4.78

6.41

7.73

9.78

8.90

7.25

6.25

4.18

3.51

2.84

2.57

2.61

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

11.22

13.92

17.78

22.76

23.72

21.60

20.76

18.94

14.17

12.00

11.28

8.85

8.32

GINI of household per capita income

0.444

0.462

0.466

0.462

0.471

0.459

0.473

0.478

0.465

0.464

0.454

0.436

0.415

GINI of labour earnings

0.462

0.485

0.495

0.500

0.505

0.499

0.504

0.507

0.502

0.495

0.479

0.450

0.420

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).

(p.450)

Venezuela

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

Unemployment rate

13.23

12.78

16.17

16.78

13.94

11.35

9.33

7.47

6.85

8.05

8.45

7.84

7.41

Share of low-earnings occupations

53.85

50.78

50.75

50.04

49.83

49.91

49.65

49.03

48.96

Share of high-earnings occupations

15.25

17.47

16.66

16.71

17.00

17.41

18.07

18.12

19.08

Share of wage/salaried employees

56.58

56.22

55.17

53.86

55.81

57.79

58.51

59.30

58.43

57.73

56.95

57.19

58.78

Share of self-employed workers

36.60

34.81

36.69

38.34

37.43

35.72

35.77

35.55

36.30

37.72

39.00

38.46

37.19

Share of unpaid family workers

1.71

2.34

2.61

2.72

1.96

1.60

1.22

0.98

1.18

0.77

0.59

0.88

0.77

Share of workers in low-earnings sectors

41.54

41.39

42.58

42.64

41.13

40.39

38.31

37.87

37.52

37.86

37.56

37.03

37.35

Share of workers in high-earnings sectors

17.90

19.51

19.77

19.72

19.33

20.07

20.95

21.39

22.06

22.30

22.76

23.11

23.05

Share of low-educated workers

52.55

50.59

50.37

50.25

49.37

46.21

44.18

42.95

41.24

40.02

38.35

36.75

37.19

Share of high-educated workers

15.72

16.28

16.21

16.40

16.92

18.06

19.63

20.24

21.44

23.38

25.10

26.22

27.51

Share of workers registered with SS

68.56

64.82

61.48

58.83

60.16

60.33

60.85

62.86

66.03

71.13

70.83

72.99

69.12

Mean labour earnings

380.4

402.3

346.0

297.0

330.9

398.2

463.0

501.7

500.4

493.0

469.3

455.7

511.0

Poverty rate 2.5 dollars-a-day

29.83

27.49

36.96

42.56

36.30

28.25

18.09

12.74

11.92

11.92

12.13

12.42

11.05

Poverty rate 4 dollars-a-day

51.67

49.45

58.52

64.79

59.30

48.52

36.33

29.02

27.77

27.57

28.06

28.99

24.66

GINI of household per capita income

0.440

0.464

0.473

0.460

0.453

0.474

0.433

0.415

0.401

0.400

0.384

0.388

0.402

GINI of labour earnings

0.403

0.437

0.438

0.425

0.412

0.436

0.382

0.365

0.352

0.343

0.310

0.319

0.342

Source: Authors’ calculations based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank 2014).