# Curved Space

# Curved Space

This chapter develops the mathematical technology required to understand general relativity by taking the reader from the traditional flat space geometry of Euclid to the geometry of Riemann that describes general curved spaces of arbitrary dimension. The chapter begins with a comparison of Euclidean geometry and spherical geometry. The concept of the geodesic is introduced. The discovery of hyperbolic geometry is discussed. Gaussian curvature is defined. Tensors are introduced. The metric tensor is defined and simple examples are given. This leads to the use of covariant derivatives, expressed in terms of Christoffel symbols, the Riemann curvature tensor and all machinery of Riemannian geometry, with each step illustrated by simple examples. The geodesic equation and the equation of geodesic deviation are derived. The final section considers some applications of curved geometry: configuration space, mirages and fisheye lenses.

*Keywords:*
spherical geometry, hyperbolic geometry, geodesic, Riemann curvature, metric tensor, covariant derivative, Christoffel symbol, fisheye lens, tensor, curved space

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