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Nanoscale Device PhysicsScience and Engineering Fundamentals$
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Sandip Tiwari

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198759874

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198759874.001.0001

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Phase transitions and their devices

Phase transitions and their devices

Chapter:
(p.237) 4 Phase transitions and their devices
Source:
Nanoscale Device Physics
Author(s):

Sandip Tiwari

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198759874.003.0004

Phase transitions as a collective response of an ensemble, with appearance of unique stable properties spontaneously, is critical to a variety of devices: electronic, magnetic, optical, and their coupled forms. This chapter starts with a discussion of broken symmetry and its manifestation in the property changes in thermodynamic phase transition and the Landau mean-field articulation. It then follows it with an exploration of different phenomena and their use in devices. The first is ferroelectricity—spontaneous electric polarization—and its use in ferroelectric memories. Electron correlation effects are explored, and then conductivity transition from electron-electron and electron-phonon coupling and its use in novel memory and device forms. This is followed by development of an understanding of spin correlations and interactions and magnetism—spontaneous magnetic polarization. The use and manipulation of the magnetic phase transition in disk drives, magnetic and spin-torque memory as well as their stability is explored. Finally, as a fourth example, amorphous-crystalline structural transition in optical, electronic, and optoelectronic form are analyzed. This latter’s application include disk drives and resistive memories in the form of phase-change as well as those with electochemical transport.

Keywords:   Broken symmetry, Phase transition, Peierls instability, Order of transition, Landau theory, Mean-field theory, Ferroelectricity, Ferroelectric memory, Depolarization, Electron correlation, Correlation effects, Mott-Hubbard transition, Conductivity transition, Magnetism, Spin, Ising model, Antiferroelectricity, Exchange interaction, Transition metals, Spin valve, Domains, Read-write head, Magnetic bit, Spin, Spin-torque, Amorphous-crystalline transition, Optical memory, Phase change memory, Resistive memory

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