Bodily disorders are not rare. There are very few pure cases but they often accompany psychiatric and neurological syndromes (after brain lesion, peripheral lesion, migraine, and epileptic seizure) to such an extent that it has been found that half of the stroke patients in a neurological department was impaired at least at one level of bodily awareness (Denes, 1990; Schwoebel and Coslett, 2005). There seems to be no dimension of bodily awareness that cannot be disrupted. Here is a description of the main disorders.
Alice in Wonderland syndrome Distorted awareness of the size, mass, shape of the body, or its position in space (including macro/microsomatognosia and OBE).
Allesthesia See Allochiria.
Allochiria Mislocalization of sensory stimuli (tactile, visual, auditory) to the corresponding opposite half of the body or space.
Allodynia Pain due to a stimulus that does not normally produce pain.
Alien hand sign See Somatoparaphrenia.
Anarchic hand sign Unintended but purposeful and autonomous movements of the upper limb and intermanual conflict.
Anorexia nervosa Eating disorder characterized by self-starvation.
Anosodiaphora Lack of concern for one’s deficits.
Anosognosia Lack of awareness of one’s deficits, such as hemiplegia.
Apotemnophilia See Xenomelia.
Asomatognosia See Somatoparaphrenia.
Autoscopy Experience of seeing one’s body in extrapersonal space.
Autoprosopagnosia Inability to recognize one’s own face.
Autotopagnosia Mislocalization of body parts and bodily sensations.
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) See Xenomelia.
Body-specific aphasia Loss of lexical knowledge of body parts.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Chronic pain condition usually after an injury or trauma to a limb characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and mild or dramatic changes in skin colour, temperature, and/or swelling in the affected area.
Congenital pain insensitivity Inability to experience pain from birth.
Conversion disorder (hysteria) Functional disorder with no organic cause.
Cotard syndrome Delusional belief that one is dead, does not exist, is putrefying, or has lost one’s blood or internal organs.
Deafferentation Loss of tactile and proprioceptive information.
Delusional parasitosis ( or Ekbom syndrome) Tactile hallucination associated with the delusion that small creatures are infesting one’s skin.
Depersonalization Altered, detached, or estranged subjective experience.
Dyschiria See Allochiria.
Dysmorphophobia Distorted perception of one’s self-appearance.
Embodiment delusion Feeling another individual’s left arm as being one’s own.
Fading limb Lack of awareness of the presence and position of the limb if not seen.
Finger agnosia Inability to individuate and recognize the fingers.
Gerstmann’s syndrome Finger agnosia, agraphia, acalculia, and left-right confusion.
Heautoscopy Seeing a double of oneself at a distance.
Hemi-depersonalization Feeling of absence or of separation of body parts.
Heterotopagnosia Designation of parts of the body of another person when asked to point towards one’s own body.
Hyperalgesia Increased response to a stimulus that is normally painful.
Hypochondrias Excessive somatic concern.
Ideomotor apraxia Inability to execute or carry out skilled movements and gestures.
Internal heautoscopy Visual experience of one’s inner organs.
Interoceptive agnosia Loss of pain feeling.
Macro/Micro-somatognosia Distorted awareness of the size of the whole body or of body parts (bigger or smaller).
Medically unexplained symptoms Somatoform illness.
Mirror sign Inability to recognize one’s own image in the mirror.
Misoplegia Hatred towards one’s own body parts.
Motor neglect Underutilization of one side of the body.
Munchausen syndrome Chronic factitious disorder, in which a person repeatedly acts as if she had a bodily disorder.
Negative heautoscopy Inability to see one’s reflection in a reflecting surface.
Numbsense Loss of tactile awareness with preserved tactually guided movements.
Pain asymbolia Lack of affective and motor responses to nociceptive sensations.
Personal neglect Lack of attention towards one side of the body.
Phantom limb Awareness of a non-existing limb, often after amputation.
Pseudopolymyelia Delusion of reduplication of body parts.
Pusher syndrome Postural deviation towards the contralesional side.
Somatoparaphrenia Denial of ownership of one’s own body part.
Supernumerary limb Illusory experience of a supplementary limb.
Synchiria Visual or tactile stimulation on the ipsilesional side of the body resulting in the perception of stimuli on both the ipsilesional and contralesional side.
Tactile extinction Lack of awareness of tactile stimuli on the contralesional limb during simultaneous bilateral stimulation.
Vestibular disorder Dysfunction of the vestibular system that can induce vertigo, loss of balance, and blurred vision.
Xenomelia Urge to be amputated of one’s own perfectly healthy limb.