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BonobosUnique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior$
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Brian Hare and Shinya Yamamoto

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198728511

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198728511.001.0001

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Social cognition and brain organization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)

Social cognition and brain organization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)

Chapter:
(p.199) Chapter 14 Social cognition and brain organization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)
Source:
Bonobos
Author(s):

William D. Hopkins

Cheryl D. Stimpson

Chet C. Sherwood

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0014

Bonobos and chimpanzees are two closely relates species of the genus Pan, yet they exhibit marked differences in anatomy, behaviour and cognition. For this reason, comparative studies on social behaviour, cognition and brain organization between these two species provide important insights into evolutionary models of human origins. This chapter summarizes studies on socio-communicative competencies and social cognition in chimpanzees and bonobos from the authors’ laboratory in comparison to previous reports. Additionally, recent data on species differences and similarities in brain organization in grey matter volume and distribution is presented. Some preliminary findings on microstructural brain organization such as neuropil space and cellular distribution in key neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in social behaviour and cognition is presented. Though these studies are in their infancy, the findings point to potentially important differences in brain organization that may underlie bonobo and chimpanzees’ differences in social behaviour, communication and cognition. Les bonobos et les chimpanzés sont deux espèces du genus Pan prochement liées, néanmoins ils montrent des différences anatomiques, comportementales et cognitives marquées. Pour cette raison, les études comparatives sur le comportement social, la cognition et l’organisation corticale entre ces deux espèces fournissent des idées sur les modèles évolutionnaires des origines humaines. Dans ce chapitre, nous résumons des études sur les compétences socio-communicatives et la cognition sociale chez les chimpanzés et les bonobos de notre laboratoire en comparaison avec des rapports précédents. En plus, nous présentons des données récentes sur les différences et similarités d’organisation corticale du volume et distribution de la matière grise entre espèces. Nous présentons plus de résultats préliminaires sur l’organisation corticale microstructurale comme l’espace neuropile et la division cellulaire dans des neurotransmetteurs clés et les neuropeptides impliqués dans le comportement social et la cognition. Bien que ces études sont dans leur enfance, les résultats montrent des différences d’organisation corticale importantes qui sont à la base des différences de comportement social, la communication et la cognition entre les bonobos et les chimpanzés.

Keywords:   social cognition, vasopressin, oxytocin, bonobos, chimpanzees, brain evolution, Broca’s area, Amygdala, voxel-based morphometry, insula

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