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Indefinite Pronouns$

Martin Haspelmath

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780198235606

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198235606.001.0001

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(p.318) Appendix B. The Data of the 100-Language Sample

(p.318) Appendix B. The Data of the 100-Language Sample

Source:
Indefinite Pronouns
Author(s):

Martin Haspelmath

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

1. The sample

The languages of the 100-language sample are listed in Table B.1 (for the selection of the sample from the world’s languages, see § 2.4.3.2). The numbers in parentheses after genetic groupings are the numbers of languages from each grouping that the sample should contain according to the selection procedure. A number of the form ‘(n>m)’ means that the number should have been n, but owing to readjustment (resulting from the lack of data for certain groupings) the actual number is m.

The geographical distribution of the languages of the 100-language sample is shown on map B.1.

Table B.1. The languages of the 100-language sample

I. Afro-Asiatic (6>7)

Ancient Egyptian (1)

Ancient Egyptian

Berber (1)

Kabyle

Chadic (1>2)

Biu-Mandara

Margi

West

Hausa

Cushitic (1)

Harar Oromo

Semitic (1>2)

West

Amharic

East

Akkadian

Omotic (1>0)

II. Altaic (2>3)

Altaic proper (1>2)

Mongolian-Tungusic

Khalkha Mongolian

Turkic

Bashkir

Korean-Japanese (1)

Ainu

III. Amerind (17>19)

Northern Amerind (5>7)

Almosan-Keresiouan (1)

Keresiouan

Siouan-Yuchi

Lakhota

Iroquoian

Cayuga

Penutian (2)

Gulf

Koasati

Mexican

Huastec

Oregon

Takelma

(p.319) Hokan (2)

Seri-Yuman

Maricopa

Northern

Eastern Pomo

Central Amerind (2)

Uto-Aztecan

Classical Nahuatl

Oto-Manguean

Mixtec

Chibchan-Paezan (2)

Chibchan (1)

Sumu

Paezan (1)

Paez

Andean (1>2)

Aymaran

Jaqaru

Southern

Mapuche

Equatorial-Tucanoan (4>2)

Macro-Tucanoan (2>0)

Equatorial (2)

Kariri-Tupi

Guarani

Macro-Arawakan

Goajiro

Ge-Pano-Carib (3>4)

Macro-Carib (1>2)

Peba-Yaguan

Yagua

Carib

Panare

Ge-Pano (2)

Macro-Panoan (1>0)

Macro-Ge (1>2)

Unclassified

Iatê

Ge-Kaingang

Kaingang

IV. Australian (7)

Unclassified

Mangarayi

Maran

Warndarang

Bunaban

Gooniyandi

Pama-Nyungan (1>4)

Dyirbalic

Dyirbal

Kalkatungic

Kalkatungu

Wiradhuric

Yuwaalaraay

South-West

Djaru

V. Austric (15>17)

Miao-Yao (1)

Hmong Njua

Austro-Asiatic (2>3)

Mon-Khmer (1>2)

North

Xinh Mul

East

Khmer

Munda (1)

Santali

(p.320) Austro-Tai (12>13)

Daic (1)

Thai

Austronesian (11>12)

Atayalic (1)

Atayal

Tsouic (1>0)

Paiwanic (1)

Paiwan

Malayo-Polynesian (8>10)

Western Malayo-Polynesian (4>5)

Meso-Philippine

Tagalog

Celebes

Bugis

Borneo

Malagasy

Sundic

Indonesian

Unclassified

Palauan

Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (4>5)

Central Malayo-Polynesian (1>0)

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (3>5)

S Halmahera-NW New Guinea (1>0)

Oceanic (2>5)

Siassi

Takia

Milne Bay-Central Province

Kilivila

Southern New Hebrides

Kwamera

Remote Oceanic

Micronesian

Yapese

Central Pacific

Samoan

VI. Caucasian (1>2)

Nakh-Daghestanian

Lak

Abkhaz-Adyghean

Abkhaz

VII. Chukchi-Kamchatkan (1)

Koryak

VIII. Elamo-Dravidian (1)

Telugu

IX. Eskimo-Aleut (1)

W. Greenlandic Eskimo

X. Indo-Hittite (4>5)

Anatolian (1)

Hittite

Indo-European (3>4)

Indo-Iranian

Pashto

Celtic

Welsh

Italic

Romansh

Balto-Slavic

Upper Sorbian

XI. Indo-Pacific (12>4)

Trans-New Guinea

Main section

Central and Western

(p.321) East New Guinea Highlands

Kalam

Kobon

East-Central

Hua

Madang-Adelbert Range

Madang

Amele

Sepik-Ramu

Haruai

XII. Khoisan (1>0)

XIII. Na-Dene (1)

Slave

XIV. Niger-Kordofanian (11>12)

Kordofanian (1>0)

Niger-Congo (10>12)

Mande (1>2)

Unclassified

Bobo

Northern-Western

Bambara

Niger-Congo proper (9>10)

West Atlantic (1)

Fula

Central Niger-Congo (8>9)

North Central Niger-Congo (4>3)

Kru (1>0)

Dogon (1)

Dogon

Gur=Voltaic (1)

Koromfe

Adamawa-Ubangian (1)

Gbeya

South Central Niger-Congo (4>6)

Ijo-Defaka (1>0)

Western (1)

Ewe

Eastern (2>5)

Yoruba-Northern Akoko

Yoruba

Lower Cross

Ibibio

Benue-Zambesi

Nyima

Wel

Bantoid

Broad Bantu

Babungo

Narrow Bantu

Northwest Bantu

Ntomba

Central Bantu

Xhosa

XV. Nilo-Saharan (5>6)

Songhai

Songhai

Saharan

Kanuri

Maban

Masalit

(p.322) East Sudanic (1>2)

Eastern

Dongolawi

Nilotic

Lango

Central Sudanic

Logbara

XVI. Sino-Tibetan (3>4)

Sinitic (1)

Chinese

Tibeto-Karen (2>3)

Karen (1>0)

Tibeto-Burman (1>3)

Tibetic

Newari

Burmic

Kuki-Naga

Manipuri

Burmese-Lolo

Burmese

XVII. Uralic-Yukaghir (1>2)

Yukaghir

Yukaghir

Uralic

Ingrian

XVIII. Yeniseyan (1)

Ket

XIX. Pidgins and Creoles (2)

Pacific

Tok Pisin

Indian Ocean

Seychelles Creole

XX. Isolates

Sumerian (1)

Sumerian

Nahali (1)

Nahali

Burushaski (1)

Burushaski

Basque (1)

Basque

Nivkh (1)

Nivkh

Hurrian (1>0)

Meroitic (1>0)

Etruscan (1>0)

2. The data

Table B.2 summarizes the data of the 100-language sample. The following abbreviations are used:

Q

interrogative-based indefinite

N

North

G

generic-noun-based indefinite

S

South

sf

suffixed indefiniteness marker

W

West

pf

prefixed indefiniteness marker

E

East

rd

reduplication

C

Central

‘sth’

‘something’

PNG

Papua New Guinea

‘sb’

‘somebody’

The reference works consulted for the 100-language sample are not integrated into the main Bibliography, and follow immediately after the data below. (p.323)

Appendix B. The Data of the 100-Language Sample

Map B.1. Locations of the 100 languages. (The language numbers are the same as in Table B.2.)

(p.324)

Table B.2. Indefinite pronouns in the 100-language sample

Indefinite type

Example

1. Abkhaz

N

a-ʒ°ə ‘someone’, a-k’ə ‘something’

2. Ainu

Q-sf, Q/rd

nen ‘who’: nen-ka ‘sb’

3. Akkadian

Q-sf

minû ‘what’: min-ma ‘sth’

4. Amele

G

dana oso ‘sb’ (‘a man’)

5. Amharic

Q-sf

mən ‘what’: mən-əm ‘sth’

6. Atayal

Q

imaʔ ‘who; anyone’: nanuʔ ‘what; anything’

7. Bambara

G

fèn ‘thing; sth’

8. Bashkir

Q-sf, pf-Q

kem ‘who’: kem-dyr ‘sb’

9. Basque

Q-sf, pf-Q

nor ‘who’: nor-bait ‘sb’

10. Bobo

G

sǒn ‘person; sb’

11. Bugis

Q-sf, Q/rd

niga ‘who’: niga-re ‘sb’

12. Burmese

N, Q-sf

badhu ‘who’: badhu-məshou ‘anybody’

13. Burushaski

Q

men ‘who; sb’, bo ‘what; sth’

14. Cayuga

Q-sf

sǫ: ‘who’: sǫ-kwa ‘sb’

15. Chinese

Q, Q-sf

shenme ‘what; sth’: shenme-y ‘anything’

16. Djaru

Q

nyamba ‘what; sth’

17. Dogon

G

kidé ‘thing; something’

18. Dongolawi

G

hāǧa ‘thing; sth’, wέ‎r ‘one; sb’

19. Dyirbal

Q

wanya ‘who; sb’

20. Ancient Egyptian

G

s ‘person; sb’: ht ‘things; sth’

21. Ewe

G

ame ‘person; sb’

22. Fula

G

huunde ‘thing; sth’

23. Gbeya

G

mɔ´ ‘thing; sth’

24. Goajiro

Q

kasa’ ‘what; sth’

25. Gooniyandi

Q, Q-sf

ngoorndoo ‘who; sb’: ngoorndoo-ngaddaya ‘sb’

26. W. Greenlandic

Q-sf

suna ‘what’: suna-luunniit ‘anything’

27. Guarani

G,Q

ava ‘who; person; sb’, mba-e ‘what; thing; sth’

28. Haruai

G

ap=y ‘sth’ (‘thing-INDEF’);

nöbö=y ‘sb’ (‘man-INDEF’)

29. Hausa

G,pf-Q

koo-mee ‘anything’; wani abu ‘sth’ (cf. A.32)

30. Hittite

Q-sf

kuiš ‘who’: kuiš-ki ‘sb’

31. Hmong Njua

Q

leej twg ‘who; sb’

32. Hua

G

vi-ka ‘someone’ (man-2SG)

33. Huastec

Q, Q-sf

hit ‘who’: hitaʔ ‘sb’

34. Iatê

Q-sf

‘what’: to:-ná ‘sth’

35. Ibibio

G

áwó ‘person; sb’, mkpɔ´ ‘thing; sth’

36. Babungo

G

wə mɔ´ ‘sb’ (‘person some’)

37. Indonesian

G Q-sf

sese-orang ‘sb’ (‘one person’); siapa-pun ‘anyone’

(p.325) S, O, V

N, G

Pr/Po

Location

Source

1. SOV

GN

Po

NW Georgia

Hewitt 1979: 158

2. SOV

GN

Po

Hokkaido (Japan)

Refsing 1986: 103–9

3. SOV

NG

Pr

Mesopotamia

Ryckmans 1960: 35

4. SOV

GN

Po

New Guinea

Roberts 1987: 209

5. SOV

GN

Pr/Po

NC Ethiopia

Cohen 1936: 125–6

6. VSO

NG

Pr

N Taiwan

Egerod 1980

7. SOV

GN

Po/Pr

SW Mali

Bailleul 1981

8. SOV

GN

Po

SW Urals (C Russia)

Juldašev 1966: 182

9. SOV

GN

Po

NE Spain, SW France

Saltarelli 1988

10. SOV

GN

Po

W Burkina Faso

Le Bris and Prost 1981: 42

11. VSO

NG

Pr

SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

Sirk 1979

12. SOV

GN

Po

SWC Burma

Richter 1983

13. SOV

GN

Po

N Jammu and Kashmir (India)

Berger 1974: 26

14. ?

?

?

New York State, S Ontario

Hans-Jürgen Sasse, p.c.

15. SVO

GN

Pr

China

Li and Thompson 1981; Li 1992

16. SVO/SOV

?

?

NE Western Australia

Tsunoda 1981

17. SOV

GN

Po

SC Mali

Vladimir Plungian, p.c.

18. SOV

GN

Po

N Sudan

Armbruster 1960: 176–7

19. OSV

NG

NW Queensland (Australia)

Dixon 1972: 265

20. VSO

NG

Pr

Egypt

Gardiner 1957: 79–80

21. SVO

GN

Po/Pr

S Benin, S Togo, SE Ghana

Westermann 1907: 62

22. SVO

NG

Pr

W Africa

Jungraithmayr and Abu-Manga 1989: 119

23. SVO

NG

Pr

W Central African Republic, NW Zaire

Samarin 1966

24. VO

?

Pr

NE Venezuela, N Colombia

Olza Zubiri and Jusayú 1986: 92

25. SOV(?)

NG

Po

N Western Australia

McGregor 1990

26. SOV

GN

Po

W Greenland

Fortescue 1984: 254–6

27. SVO

?

Po

E Paraguay

Ortiz Mayans 1980

28. SOV

GN

Po

NE PNG, Madang Province

Bernard Comrie, p.c.

29. SVO

NG

Pr

NW Nigeria, S Niger

Kraft and Kirk-Greene 1973

30. SOV

GN

Po

ancient Anatolia

Friedrich 1940

31. SVO

?

Pr

S China, N Vietnam, Laos

Harriehausen 1990: 132

32. SOV

GN

Po

Eastern Highlands (PNG)

Haiman 1991

33. VSO

GN(?)

Pr

E San Luis Potosí, N Veracruz (Mexico)

McQuown 1984

34. OV

?

Pr

Pernambuco (Brazil)

Lapenda 1968

35. SVO

NG

Pr

SE Nigeria

Kaufman 1972

36. SVO

NG

Pr

NW Cameroon

Schaub 1985: 197

37. SVO

NG

Pr

Indonesia

Kähler 1965

(p.326) Indefinite type

Example

38. Ingrian

Q-sf

ken ‘who’: ken-ikke ‘sb’

39. Jaqaru

Q-sf

qachi ‘who’: qach-psa ‘sb’

40. Kabyle

G

lxelq ‘person; sb’

41. Kaingang

Q

ne ‘what; sth’

42. Kalkatungu

N

min̪aŋara ‘sth’

43. Kanuri

G,Q-sf

aví ‘what’: aví-yȧye ‘anything’

44. Ket

pf-Q

anœ ‘who’: tam anœ ‘sb’

45. Khmer

Q

qwəy ‘what; sth’

46. Kilivila

G,pf-Q

te-tala (‘man-one’) ‘sb’

47. Koasati

Q

ná:si ‘what; sth’

48. Kobon

G

bɨ ap (‘a man’) ‘sb’

49. Koromfe

G

a fo ‘person; sb’

50. Koryak

Q-sf

meki ‘who’: meki-ŋən ‘b’

51. Kwamera

G

nari riti (‘thing one’) ‘sth’

52. Lak

Q-sf

cu ‘who’: cu-unugu ‘anyone’

53. Lakhota

Q, Q-sf

tuwe ‘who; sb’ tuwe-hci ‘anyone’

54. Lango

G

ŋàt ‘person; sb’

55. Logbara

G

àfa ‘thing; sth’

56. Malagasy

G pf-Q/red

olona ‘person; sb’; iza ‘who’, na iza na iza ‘anyone’

57. Mangarayi

Q

ŋiñja ‘who; anybody’

58. Manipuri

Q-sf

kədaydə ‘where’: kədaydə-no ‘somewhere’

59. Mapuche

Q, Q-sf

chem ‘what; sth’: chem-rume ‘anything’

60. Margi

G pf-Q(-sf)

mdù̥ ‘person; sb’ ‘what’, kó mì(-yé) ‘anything’

61. Maricopa

Q

mki ‘who; sb’ kawish ‘what; sth’

62. Masalit

Q

ŋgaw ‘who; sb’

63. Mixtec

N,G

ñiyɨvɨ ‘people; sb’, sa ‘sth’

64. Khalkha Mongolian

G

neg xün (‘one person’) ‘sb’

65. Nahali

Q-sf

nāni ‘who’: nāni-kā ‘anyone’

66. Classical Nahuatl

Q-sf

āc ‘who’: ac-ah ‘sb’

67. Newari

Q

su ‘who; anyone’

68. Nivkh

Q-sf

‘who’: aŋ-lu, aŋ-laq ‘sb’

69. Ntomba

G

moto ɔˇmɔ (‘person one’) ‘sb’

(p.327) S,O,V

N,G

Pr/Po

Location

Source

38. SVO

?

Po/Pr

St Petersburg region (W Russia)

Laanest 1966: 109

39. SOV?

GN

Po

SC Peru

Hardman 1983: 133

40. VSO

NG

Pr

N Algeria

Dallet 1985

41. SOV?

?

?

S Brazil (Paraná, Sta Catarina, R.G. do Sul)

Wiesemann 1972

42. SOV

GN

?

W Queensland (Australia)

Blake 1979: 105

43. SOV

NG

Pr

NE Nigeria

Lukas 1937

44. SOV

GN

Po

Yenisey River (Siberia)

Krejnovič 1968b: 462

45. SVO

NG

Pr

Cambodia

Huffman 1967: 153–6

46. SVO

GN/NG

Pr

Trobriand Islands (SE PNG)

Senft 1986: 67

47. SOV

GN

Po

SW Louisiana (USA)

Kimball 1991: 423–8

48. SOV

GN

Po

C PNG (W Highlands and Madang Province)

Davies 1981: 156

49. SVO

GN

Po/Pr

SC Burkina Faso

Rennison 1986

50. SVO

?

Po

Kamchatka peninsula (Russian Far E)

Žukova 1968: 273

51. SVO

NG

Pr

Tanna Island (S Vanuatu)

Lindstrom 1986: 183

52. SOV

GN

Po

SC Daghestan (S Russia)

Murkelinskij 1967: 498

53. SOV

GN

Po

N and S Dakota (USA)

Schmidt 1980: 128

54. SVO

NG

Pr

N Uganda

Noonan 1992: 166

55. SVO

GN/NG

Po

NE Zaïre

Crazzolara 1960: 65

56. VOS

NG

Pr

Madagascar

Korneev 1966

57. OVS

NG/GN

Pr

NC Northern Territory (Australia)

Merlan 1982: 118–19

58. SOV

GN

Po

Manipur (E India)

Bhat and Ningomba 1995: 123

59. SVO

GN

Po

C Chile

de Moesbach 1963: 60

60. SVO

GN

Pr

NE Nigeria

Hoffmann 1963

61. SOV

GN

Po

C Arizona (near Phoenix) (SE USA)

Gordon 1986: 61–5

62. SOV

NG

Po

W Sudan, E Chad

Edgar 1989: 60

63. VSO

NG

Pr

SW Oaxaca (SC Mexico)

Pensinger 1974

64. SOV

GN

Po

Mongolia

Luvsanvandan 1982

65. SOV

GN

Po

W Madhya Pradesh (C India)

Kuiper 1962: 30–1

66. SOV

GN

Po

Mexico

Andrews 1975: 175

67. SOV

GN

Po

C and W Nepal

Korolev 1989: 62

68. SOV

GN

Po

Lower Amur, N Sakhalin (E Russia)

Panfilov 1968: 419

69. SVO

NG

Pr

W Zaire (Lake Tumba)

Mamet 1955

(p.328) Indefinite type

Example

70. Harar Oromo

G

namá ‘person; sb’

71. Paez

Q-sf

kim ‘who’: kim-pa ‘sb’

72. Paiwan

G,Q-sf

tsautsau ‘person;sb’, a-nema ‘what’, nema-nga ‘thing; sth’

73. Palauan

G

chad ‘person; sb’

74. Panare

Q

?

75. Pashto

Q

cok ‘who; sb’

76. Eastern Pomo

Q

čhi ‘how; somehow’

77. Romansh

pf-Q

tgi ‘who’: insa-tgi ‘somebody’

78. Samoan

G

se tangata ‘sb’ (‘any man’); se mea ‘sth’ (‘any thing’)

79. Santali

Q

?

80. Seychelles Creole

G

keksoz ‘thing; sth’

81. Slave

G

t’asį´ ‘thing; sth’, łéé ‘sb’ (łéé ‘one’)

82. Songhai

G

boro ‘person; sb’

83. Upper Sorbian

pf-Q, Q-sf

što ‘what’, ně-što ‘sth’, što-žkuli ‘anything’

84. Sumerian

Q-sf

ana ‘what’: na.me ‘anything’ (< ana-me)

85. Sumu

G

di (as) ‘sth’ (thing (one))

86. Tagalog

Q-sf

sino ‘what’: sinu-man ‘anything’ (§2.3.2)

87. Takelma

Q

nekc ‘who, sb’

88. Takia

G

tamol ‘man; sb’; mel ‘thing; sth’

89. Telugu

Q-sf

evaru ‘who’: evar-oo ‘sb’

90. Thai

Q

khray ‘who; anyone’

91. Tok Pisin

G

wanpela man (‘one person’) ‘sb’

92. Warndarang

Q, pf-Q

-ngaŋa ‘what; sth’; ṛa-ngaŋa ‘sth’

93. Welsh

G

peth ‘thing’, rhyw-beth ‘sth’

94. Yagua

Q

tą´ą´(ra) ‘what?’, tara ‘sth’; chį´į´(ra) ‘who’, tį´į´ ‘sb’

95. Yapese

N,G

beaq ‘sb’; ba-nean ‘sth’ (ba ‘a’, nean ‘thing’)

96. Yoruba

G

ohun ‘thing; sth’

97. Yukaghir

pf-Q

kin ‘who’: me-kin ‘sb’

98. Yuwaalaraay

Q-sf

ŋa:n- ‘who’: ŋa:n-du-wa: (ERG) ‘somebody’

99. Xinh Mul

Q

nôh ‘who; sb’

100. Xhosa

G

umntu ‘man; sb’, into ‘thing; sth’

(p.329) S,V,O

N,G

Pr/Po

Location

Source

70. SOV

NG

Po

NE Ethiopia

Owens 1985: 192

71. SOV

GN

Po

SW Colombia

Jung 1989: 218, 306

72. VSO

?

?

S Taiwan

Ferrell 1982

73. SVO

NG

Pr

Palau Islands (W Micronesia)

Josephs 1975: 459

74. OVS

?

?

Venezuela

Thomas Payne, p.c.

75. SOV

GN

Pr/Po

NE Pakistan, Afghanistan

Lorenz 1979: 99

76. SOV

GN

N

California (E USA)

McLendon 1975: 130

77. SVO

NG

Pr

Graubünden (E Switzerland)

Gartner 1883: 105–6

78. VSO

NG

Pr

Samoa

Mosel and Hovdhaugen 1993

79. SOV

NG

Po

E Bihar (India)

Vermeer 1969

80. SVO

NG

Pr

Seychelles Islands

D’Offay and Lionnet 1982: 162

81. SOV

GN

Po

N Alberta, NE British Columbia (E Canada)

Rice 1989: 259

82. SVO

GN

Po

C Mali, SW Niger

Prost 1956

83. SVO

NG

Pr

E Saxony (=Lusatia) (E Germany)

Fasske 1981: 591–605

84. SOV

NG/GN

Po

Mesopotamia

Thomsen 1984

85. ?

?

?

N Nicaragua, E Honduras

von Houwald 1980

86. VOS

NG

Pr

S Luzon, N Mindoro (N Philippines)

Schachter and Otanes 1972

87. SOV

?

Pr/Po

Oregon (NE USA)

Sapir 1922: §105

88. SOV

GN

Po

Karkar Island, N PNG

Malcolm Ross, Bruce Waters, p.c.

89. SOV

GN

Po

Tamil Nadu (SE India), N Sri Lanka

Bhat 1989

90. SVO

NG

Pr/Po

S Thailand

Hudak 1987: 770

91. SVO

NG

Pr

PNG

Mihalic 1971

92. SVO

?

?

SE Arnhemland (N Australia)

Heath 1980: 88

93. VSO

NG

Pr

Wales (United Kingdom)

S. Williams 1980

94. VSO

GN

Po

NE Peru

Payne and Payne 1990; p.c.

95. SVO

NG

Pr

Yap Island (Micronesia)

Jensen 1977: 182

96. SVO

NG

Pr

SW Nigeria

Schmid 1980

97. SOV

GN

Po

Kolyma river (Russian Far E)

Krejnovič 1968a: 448

98. SOV

NG

?

S Queensland, N New South Wales (Australia)

C. J. Williams 1980

99. SVO

NG

Pr

Vietnam

Pogibenko and Buj 1990: 59

100. SVO

NG

Pr

E South Africa

Fischer et al. 1985

(p.330) B.3. References

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