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Indefinite Pronouns$

Martin Haspelmath

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780198235606

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198235606.001.0001

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(p.244) Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.244) Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Source:
Indefinite Pronouns
Author(s):

Martin Haspelmath

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The distributional schemas of the languages of the 40-language sample were presented in § 4.4. In this appendix I list the indefinite pronouns of the 40 languages and give examples of the most important uses of these indefinites. These data are not complete and conclusive, especially for those languages for which I could not consult with native speakers (Latin, Catalan, Serbian/Croatian, Yakut, Nanay, Hausa, Swahili). But the data of the 33 languages for which I consulted native speakers are also probably deficient in some respects. Clearly, one individual cannot control data from so many languages in a perfect way. As I observed in § 2.1, typological breadth necessarily implies some loss of depth in individual languages. I add this appendix to my work in order to make it easier for the reader to link the abstract typological generalizations with concrete data.

A.1. German

A.1.1. Inventory

German (Germanic, Indo-European) has three main series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the irgend-series, (ii) the negative n-series, and (iii) the defective etwas-series.

interrogative

etwas-series

irgend-series

n-series

person

wer

jemand

irgend-wer, irgend-jemand

niemand

thing

was

etwas

irgend-was, irgend-etwas

nichts

place

wo

irgend-wo

nirgends

time

wann

irgend-wann

nie

manner

wie

irgend-wie

(auf keine Weise)

determiner

welcher

(ein)

irgend-ein, irgend-welche

kein

In addition, there is the determiner jeder ‘any, every’ (§ 6.5) and the time adverb je ‘ever’, which do not belong to any of the series. Also, the bare interrogatives wer, was, and wo (and marginally wann) are used as indefinites in the colloquial language (§ 7.3.1).

A.1.2. Origins

Middle High German had three series, a non-emphatic ete-series (ete-wer ‘someone’, ete-waz ‘something’, ete-wâ ‘somewhere’, etc. the origin of ete- is unknown), and a negative-polarity series marked by ie (‘ever’) (ie-man ‘anyone’; cf. man ‘man’; iht ‘anything’ < ie-wiht ‘ever-thing’; iergen ‘anywhere’ < ie- + hwar-gin ‘where-PT’). This distinction was given up, and etwas and jemand are now in the same series. A new series was created on the basis of the particle irgend (< iergen ‘anywhere’), combined with the bare interrogatives or with jemand/etwas/ein. The n-series consists of the old negator ne combined with the old ie-series. The negative determiner kein (< dehhein) was formerly used in all negative-polarity environments and became restricted to negation only 200 years ago. On the history of jeder, see Kolb (1983).

(p.245) A.1.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.1. The data are from my native speaker knowledge and observations. The etwas-series is possible in all non-emphatic functions. It can always be replaced by the irgend-series, except in the specific-known function.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.1

(A1)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A2)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the question/conditional and indirect-negation functions, a possible alternative to irgend-wann is je ‘ever’.

(A3)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A4)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the comparative function, only the irgend-series and je are possible (the etwas-series would yield a different sense). The irgend-indefinite must be stressed.

(A5)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the free-choice function, the irgend-series may occur, but it must be stressed. However, jeder ‘any, every’ is generally preferred.

(A6)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.246) The determiner jeder may be used in the free-choice, comparative and indirect-negation functions. Jeder is also used as a distributive universal pronoun/determiner, so one might claim that A7–8 do not belong here. However, its use in the indirect-negation function indicates that it should also be regarded as an indefinite.

(A7)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A8)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A9)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Direct negation is expressed by the n-series, which does not co-occur with verbal negation.

(A10)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.2. Dutch

A.2.1. Inventory

Dutch (Indo-European, Germanic) has three series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the non-emphatic iets-series, (ii) the non-specific dan ook-series, and (iii) the negative niets-series.

interrogative

iets-series

dan ook-series

niets-series

person

wie

iemand

wie dan ook

niemand

thing

wat

iets

wat dan ook

niets

place

waar

ergens

waar dan ook

nergens

time

wanneer

ooit

wanneer dan ook

nooit

manner

hoe

hoe dan ook

determiner

welke

een ‘one’

welke dan ook

geen

A colloquial variant of iets is wat, i.e. the bare interrogative (but the other interrogatives cannot be used as indefinites). The WH dan ook series has the alternatives WH ook and WH ook maar, which have the same distribution.

The indefinite determiner enig ‘any’ is the only member of its series.

A.2.2. Origins

The forms of the iets-series originally all contained Proto-Germanic *ajw ‘ever’ (= German je): iemand < *ajw + *mann ‘man’; iets < *ajw + wiht ‘thing’ (cf. older German iht); ergens < *ajw + *hwar-gin ‘where-PT’; ooit < *ajw + jet ‘still’ (cf. English yet). The niets-series has in addition the negator *ne. Geen goes back to Old Saxon nigên, i.e. nih ‘neither, not even’ + ên ‘one’. The particle ook is ‘also’, dan is ‘then’. Enig is etymologically identical to English any.

(p.247) A.2.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.2. The data are from Paardekooper (1978, 1979); Geerts et al. (1984) (G84), and from native speakers (Leon Stassen, Kees Hengeveld, Jan Rijkhoff). See also Rullmann (1995). The iets-series is used in all non-emphatic functions, from specific-known to indirect negation.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.2

(A11)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In non-specific functions, the dan ook-series is a possible alternative.

(A12)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A13)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A14)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the comparative and the free-choice functions, only the dan ook-series is possible:

(A15)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A16)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, niets-indefinites are used alone, without verbal negation. As in German and English, only one negative indefinite per clause is used in the standard language unless multiple negation is intended.

(A17)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.248) The determiner enig is used in the comparative, indirect-negation, and question/conditional functions:

(A18)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A19)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A20)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.3. English

A.3.1. Inventory

English has three main series of indefinite pronouns: the non-emphatic some-series, (ii) the emphatic any-series, and (iii) the negative no-series. These are formed by combining the determiners some, any and no with generic nouns or interrogative pronouns.

interrogative

some-series

any-series

no-series

person

who

some-body, some-one

any-body, any-one

no-body, no one

thing

what

some-thing

any-thing

no-thing

place

where

some-where

any-where

no-where

time

when

some-time

any-time

never

manner

how

some-how

any-how

no way

determiner

which

some

any

no

The indefinite ever forms a series of its own. Note that English spelling does not distinguish between the indefinite determiner some [sᴧm] and the indefinite article some [sm]. The latter only combines with mass nouns and plurals (some sand, some books).

A.3.2. Origins

On the history of English indefinites, see Einenkel (1903). Some (Old English sum, Gothic sums; cf. Behaghel 1917) is an old indefinite adjective and has Indo-European cognates meaning ‘one’ (e.g. Latin semel ‘once’). Any (Old English œnig) is derived from Old English an ‘one’ plus -ig (cf. § 8.3.2.1). The uses of sum and œnig in Old English were much like the modern English uses, so that not much can be said on the diachronic development. However, the free-choice use of any developed only later (Einenkel 1903).

A.3.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.3. No further examples are given here, because they can be found throughout this work (cf. § 4.3.1). There is of course an extensive literature on English indefinites. Monographic treatments are Sahlin (1979) and Tesch (1990), and the list of papers on English indefinites includes Stoffel (1899), Bolinger (1960; 1977), Klima (1964), Lakoff (1969), Borkin (1971), Lawler (1971), Horn (1972), Labov (1972), Warfel (1972), Ferrer (1973), Savin (1974), Fauconnier (1975a), (p.249) Anthony (1977), McCawley (1977), Ladusaw (1980), Davison (1980; 1981), Carlson (1980; 1981), Hintikka (1980; 1986), Léonard (1980; 1983), Linebarger (1980; 1981; 1987), Aldridge (1982), Hirtle (1982; 1988), Strickland (1982), Kadmon and Landman (1993). Diachronic issues are dealt with in Einenkel (1903), Raumolin-Brunberg (1994), Tottie (1994).

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.3

A.4. Swedish

A.4.1. Inventory

Swedish (Germanic, Indo-European) has three series of indefinite pronouns, only one of which is based on interrogatives: the non-emphatic någon-series, (ii) the negative ingen-series, and (iii) the free-choice som helst-series.

interrogative

någon-series

ingen-series

som helst-series

person

vem

någon

ingen

vem som helst

thing

vad

någon-ting, något

ingen-ting, intet

vad som helst

place

var

någon-stans

ingen-stans

var som helst

time

när

någon gång

aldrig

när som helst

manner

hur

på något vis

hur som helst

determiner

vilken

någon

ingen

vilken som helst

The word någonsin ‘ever’ formally belongs to the någon-series, but it it used differently.

A.4.2. Origins

Någon is said to go back to *ne hwait ik hwarir ‘I don’t know who’ (cf. § 5.3.1.1). Ingen goes back to *ain-gi- ‘one-particle’. Någon and ingen are combined with generic nouns (ting ‘thing’, etc.) Som helst is literally ‘that (is) dearest’, so it represents the type discussed in § 6.6.2. Aldrig ‘never’ is from the dative of alder ‘age, time’ plus the emphatic particle -gi (also found in ingen).

A.4.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.4. The data are from various reference works and a native speaker (Östen Dahl). See also Thelander (1980). The någon-series is used in all non-emphatic functions and in the negative functions, and also in the comparative function. WH som helst is a possible alternative only in the comparative function.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.4

(p.250) (A21)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A22)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A23)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A24)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A25)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, there is competition between någon (which co-occurs with verbal negation) and ingen (which does not co-occur with verbal negation). When the negated indefinite occurs preverbally, ingen must be used (cf. § 8.2.5):

(A26)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

When the negated indefinite occurs postverbally, någon is now generally preferred to ingen (cf. Thelander 1980 for discussion of the various factors contributing to the choice).

(A27)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.251) In the free-choice function, WH som helst is used.

(A28)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The indefinite någonsin ‘ever’ is only used in negative-polarity environments:

(A29)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.5. Icelandic

A.5.1. Inventory

Icelandic (Germanic, Indo-European) has five main series of indefinite pronouns, two of which are based on interrogatives: the non-emphatic ein-series, (ii) the negative-polarity nokkur-series, (iii)–(iv) the negative enginn- and neinn-series, and (v) the free-choice series marked by sem er.

interrogative

ein-series

nokkur-series

enginn-series

neinn-series

sem er-series

person

hver

ein-hver

nokkur

enginn

neinn

hver sem er

thing

hvað

eitt-hvað

nokkuð

ekkert

neitt

hvað sem er

place

hvar

einhvers staðar

nokkurs staðar

hvergi

hvar sem er

time

hvenœr

einhvern tíma

nokkurn tíma

aldrei

hvenœr sem er

manner

einhvern veginn

engan vegin

nein leið

determiner

einhver

nokkur

enginn

neinn

A.5.2. Origins

Three series use generic nouns in combination with indefinite determiners for the adverbial categories place, time and manner. Only in the sem er-series are all indefinites based on the corresponding interrogatives. Sem is a relative marker, and er is a form of the verb ‘be’ (§ 6.2.3). The ein-series consists of ein- ‘one’ plus hver7.5.2). For nokkur, going back to Old Norse nekkver, it has often been claimed that this derives from *ne wait ik hwarir ‘I don’t know who’ (§ 6.2.1.1). The enginn-series was originally marked by the emphatic particle -gi, which is currently recognizable only in hver-gi: enginn < *ein-gi ‘even one (person)’; ekkert < *eitt-gi [?] ‘even one (thing)’; aldrei < *aldri-gi (aldri, dative of aldr ‘age’) ‘even at age, i.e. at any time’. Neinn must be from the ancient negator *ne plus einn ‘one’.

A.5.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.5. The data are from a native speaker (Halldór Sigurðsson). See also Jónsdottir (1991). The ein-series is (p.252) used in all non-emphatic functions. However, in the specific–known function a generic noun would be more natural.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.5

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A31)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A32)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In questions, the nokkur-series is a possible alternative (nokkur is used in questions when a negative answer is expected). However, nokkur is not used in conditionals, nor is it used in the irrealis non-specific function (see A32).

(A33)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The nokkur-series is also used in the comparative and indirect-negation functions.

(A34)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A35)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The enginn-series is used in the direct-negation function, without co-occurring verbal negation.

(p.253) (A36)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

An alternative to the enginn-series is the neinn-series, which co-occurs with verbal negation. However, it cannot precede the negation (cf. § 8.2.5, n. 10), so in subject position only enginn is possible. Neinn is also used in indirect negation:

(A37)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the free-choice function, the sem er-series is used.

(A38)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.6. Latin

A.6.1. Inventory

Latin (Italic, Indo-European) has a rich system of five major series of indefinite pronouns, four of which are mostly derived from interrogatives: (i) the non-emphatic ali-series, (ii) the negative-polarity series marked by -quam, (iii–iv) the two free-choice series marked by -vis and -libet. The negative n-series (v) is not derived from interrogatives. The bare interrogatives are also commonly used as indefinites. In the following table, the -libet-series is omitted because it does not differ from the -vis-series.

interrogative

ali-series

-quam-series

n-series

-vis-series

person

quis

ali-quis

quis-quam

nemo

qui-vis

thing

quid

ali-quid

quid-quam

nihil

quid-vis

place

ubi

ali-cubi

usquam

nusquam

ubi-vis

time

quando

ali-quando

umquam

numquam

determiner

qui

ali-qui

ullus

nullus

qui-vis

dual determiner

uter

neuter

uter-vis

In addition, there is the specific-known determiner qui-dam ‘a certain’ (also quid-dam ‘something’, qui-dam ‘somebody’); an old-fashioned negative-polarity series marked by -piam (quis-piam ‘anybody’, quid-piam ‘anything’, uspiam ‘anywhere’); and two series which are most commonly used as relative pronouns in non-specific free relatives, but may also be used as free-choice indefinites: the -cumque-series (qui-cumque ‘whoever; anyone’, ubi-cumque ‘wherever; anywhere’, etc.), and a reduplicated series (quis-quis ‘whoever; anyone’, ubi-ubi ‘wherever; anywhere’, etc.).

A.6.2. Origins

The etymologies of ali-, -dam, -piam, and -quam are uncertain. The suffix -vis is identical to vis ‘you want’, and -libet is identical to libet ‘it pleases’. The suffix -cumque seems to go back to *quom-que ‘anytime, ever’. The negative indefinites consist of the old negator ne plus a general noun (*ne-homo ‘not man’ > nemo; ne hilum ‘not string’ (p.254) nihil), or plus usquam/umquam/ullus of the -quam-series (cf. § 8.2.3.3). The origin of the roots us- and um- is also unclear, but ullus can be traced back to an extension of unus ‘one’ (un-elos > un-lus > ullus) (cf. § 8.3.2.1).

A.6.3. Distribution

The distribution of the five major series and the -dam-indefinites is shown in Fig. A.6. The data are from Kühner and Stegmann (1914: I.i.633ff.), Hahn (1933), Orlandini (1981; 1983), Serbat (1985), Mellet (1992, 1994). (For convenience, many of the examples are from the New Testament.) The indefinite qui-dam is used when the referent is known to the speaker, whereas the ali-series is used when it is not known. Some counterexamples to this generalization can apparently found in Latin texts, but I know of no better description of the distinction between ali- and -dam. In any event, -dam is absolutely never used non-specifically.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.6

(A39)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A40)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The ali-series is also used non-specifically in irrealis contexts and in questions and conditionals.

(A41)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

However, in questions and conditionals the bare interrogatives are more common. But bare interrogatives can be used as indefinites only when they are enclitic upon an element (such as si ‘if’, num ‘question particle’) early in the sentences as shown in (A423) (a). When an indefinite in a question or conditional cannot be enclitic, the ali-series is used (A.423 (b)).

(A42)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.255) (A43)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -quam-series is used in all negative-polarity contexts, except direct negation.

(A44)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A45)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A46)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The n-indefinites occur only in the function of direct negation. As in standard English, there is no verbal negation in such sentences. When more than one indefinite is in the scope of negation, only the first is from the n-series; the others are from the -quam-series (again, as in standard English).

(A47)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Here are some examples of the free-choice function, where the -vis-series (A48a), the (p.256) -libet-series (A48b), the -cumque-series, and the reduplicated interrogatives can be used.

(A48)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.7. Portuguese

A.7.1. Inventory

Portuguese (Romance, Indo-European) has three major series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the non-emphatic alg-series, (ii) the non-specific qualquer-series, and (iii) the negative n-series.

interrogative

alg-series

qualquer-series

n-series

person

quem

alguém

qualquer pessoa

ninguém

thing

que

alguma coisa, algo

qualquer coisa

nada

place

onde

algures, em algum lugar

em qualquer lugar

nenhures

time

quando

alguma vez

em qualquer altura

nunca, jamais

manner

como

de algum modo

de qualquer modo

determiner

que, qual

algum

qualquer

nenhum

A.7.2. Origins

The alg-series goes back to the Latin ali-series (cf. § A.6) (algum < *alic-unus, alguém < *ali-quem, algo < *ali-quod, algures < alicubi). Qualquer is from qual ‘which’ plus quer ‘wants’ (§ 6.2.2).

A.7.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.7. The data are from my own observations and from a native speaker (Lourenço C. Finatti). (My data are mostly from Brazilian Portuguese. It is possible that European Portuguese differs from this in some respects.) The alg-series is used in all non-emphatic functions. In the specific–known function, only the alg-series is possible, but in other functions the qualquer-series is a possible alternative.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.7

(A49)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.257) (A50)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A51)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A52)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the comparative and free-choice functions, only the qualquer-series is used.

(A53)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A54)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The qualquer-series may also be used in the negation functions (co-occurring with verbal negation in the direct-negation function). However, the n-series is more common in both functions. The n-series also co-occurs with verbal negation, except when an n-indefinite precedes the verb.

(A55)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A56)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.258) A.8. Catalan

A.8.1. Inventory

Catalan (Indo-European, Romance) has three rather heterogeneous series of indefinite pronouns which are synchronically unrelated to interrogatives: (i) the non-negative-polarity algun-series, (ii) the negative-polarity cap-series, and (iii) the qualsevol-series.

interrogative

algun-series

cap-series

qualsevol-series

person

qui

algú

ningú

qualsevol

thing

què

alguna cosa

res, gens

qualsevol cosa

place

on

en algun lloc

enlloc

time

quan

alguna vegada

mai, en ma vida

determiner

quin

algun

cap

qualsevol

A.8.2. Origins

The algun-series is based on the determiner algun plus a general noun (cosa ‘thing’, lloc ‘place’, etc.). Algun is from late Latin alicunus ‘some(one)’ (cf. French aucun, Latin aliquis). Ningú is from Latin nec unus ‘not even one’ (cf. § 8.3.1); res is from Latin res ‘thing’; gens is from Latin gens ‘people’; enlloc is from in loco ‘at a place’; mai is from magis ‘more’; en ma vida is literally ‘in my life’; cap is said to be from caput ‘head’, but the semantic development is obscure. Qualsevol (cf. Italian qualsivoglia) is from Latin qualis ‘which, what kind’ plus vol- ‘want’ (see Lombard 1947–48; Meier 1950).

A.8.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.8. The data are from Lleó (1983) (L83), Solà (1973) (S73), Espósito (1988) (E88), and Hualde (1992) (H92). The algun-series is used in non-negative polarity contexts.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.8

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A58)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In negative-polarity contexts, the cap-series is used, but except in the direct-negation function, the algun-series is a possible alternative.

(A59)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.259) (A60)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, only the cap-series may be used. When the indefinite follows the verb, it always co-occurs with verbal negation. When the indefinite precedes it, the prescriptive norm also requires verbal negation, but in the colloquial language, verbal negation is always absent (cf. Solà 1973, Espósito 1988 for discussion).

(A61)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the comparative function, both the cap-series and the qualsevol-series are possible (José Hualde, p.c.).

(A62)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

An example for qualsevol in the free-choice function is the following:

(A63)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.9. French

A.9.1. Inventory

French (Romance, Indo-European) has five major series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the non-emphatic quelque-series, (ii) the negative-polarity series of personne etc., (iii) the free-choice series marked by n’importe, and (iv–v) the two emphatic series marked by que ce soit and -conque.

interrogative

quelque-series

personne-series

-conque-series

person

qui

quelqu’un

personne

qui-conque

thing

quoi

quelque chose

rien

place

quelque part

nulle part

time

quand

(en quelque temps)

jamais

manner

comment

(en quelque sorte)

aucunement

determiner

quel

quelque

aucun

quel-conque

(p.260) The n’importe-series and the que ce soit series are regularly derived from the interrogatives (n’importe qui, n’importe quoi, etc., and qui que ce soit, quoi que ce soit, etc., but note that the determiner here is quelque … que ce soit). In addition, there is a marginal je ne sais-series (cf. § 6.2.1.1).

A.9.2. Origins

On the origin of the determiner quelque, see Foulet (1919) (que is the general subordinator, § 6.2.3.1). Personne and rien go back to earlier generic nouns (Latin persona ‘person’, rem ‘thing(ACC)’). Aucun is from late Latin alicunus (cf. Portuguese algum, Catalan algú). Nul continues the Latin negative pronoun nullus. Jamais is from jam ‘already, anymore’ + magis ‘more’. N’importe literally means ‘it doesn’t matter’ (§ 6.2.4). The indefiniteness marker -conque seems to come from qu’onques ‘that ever’ (§ 6.2.3.1), although some have claimed that it goes back directly to Latin -cumque (Foulet 1919). The marker que ce soit literally means ‘that it be’ (§ 6.2.3.1).

A.9.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.9. The data are from Gaatone 1971 (G71), Culioli (1983), Muller (1991) (M91), and my own observations. The quelque-series is used in all non-emphatic functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.9

(A64)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A65)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

However, as Culioli (1983) notes, the determiner quelque behaves somewhat differently from quelqu’un etc. in that it can only be used non-specifically.

In the question and conditional functions, the personne- and que ce soit-series are also possible, but only in rhetorical questions that imply a negative answer.

(A66)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.261) (A67)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The personne-series is most often used in the direct-negation function, co-occurring with the preverbal negative particle ne, but not with the postverbal negative particle pas. Furthermore, it is used in the indirect-negation and comparative functions. In all these functions, the que ce soit-series is a possible alternative.

(A68)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A69)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A70)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The que ce soit-series is also used in the free-choice function.

(A71)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The range of functions of the -conque-series (i.e. quiconque and quelconque) is very similar to that of the que ce soit-series.

(A72)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.262) The n’importe-series is used in the free-choice and comparative functions.

(A73)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.10. Italian

A.10.1. Inventory

Italian (Indo-European, Romance) has a rather heterogeneous system, consisting of three major series. Of these only one, the free-choice series in -unque, is formally homogeneous, but it is quite incomplete. The other two are the negative nessuno-series and the general qualche-series.

interrogative

qualche-series

nessuno-series

-unque-series

person

chi

qualcuno

nessuno

chiunque

thing

che

qualche cosa, qualcosa

niente, nulla

place

dove

in qualche luogo

in nessun luogo

dovunque

time

quando

qualche volta

(mai)

manner

come

in qualche modo

determiner

quale

qualche

nessuno

qualunque

There is an important determiner qualsiasi ‘any’ which forms a series of its own. Other indefinites are archaic and therefore marginal: two forms in -chessia (chicchessia ‘anyone’, chec-chessia ‘anything’), the determiners qualsivoglia ‘any’ and veruno ‘any’, as well as the three negative indefinites from the stem alcun- (alcuno ‘nobody’, alcunché ‘nothing’, alcuno ‘no’).

A.10.2. Origins

The etymology of Italian qualche is analogous to French quelque. Nessu-no is from the negation nec plus uno ‘one’. Nulla is from Latin nulla (res) ‘no (thing)’, and niente is probably from nec gentem ‘not people’ (cf. the discussion in Zanuttini 1987). Mai is from Latin magis ‘more’. The suffix -unque is identical to old Italian unque ‘ever’ (< Latin unquam ‘ever’). The forms in -chessia are analogous to the French forms in que ce soit.

A.10.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.10. The data are from various reference works (e.g. Brunet 1981, Longobardi 1988), and native speakers (Paolo Ramat, Davide Ricca). See also Zanuttini (1987; 1991). The most general series is the qualche-series.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.10

(A74)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.263) (A75)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A76)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the question (but not the conditional!) function and in indirect-negation functions, the nessuno-series is also possible.

(A77)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A78)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A79)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -unque-series is restricted to the free-choice and comparative functions.

(A80)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A81)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, only the nessuno-series is possible. When the negative pronoun follows the verb, it co-occurs with verbal negation (except in colloquial northern Italian), but when it precedes the verb, verbal negation is not possible.

(A82)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Alcuno/alcunché may replace nessuno/niente only in the direct/indirect negation function, not in the question function.

A.11. Romanian

A.11.1. Inventory

Romanian (Indo-European, Romance) has four major series of indefinite pronouns, three of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the non-emphatic -va-series, (ii) the free-choice ori-series, (iii) the negative ni-series, and (iv) the oare-series.

(p.264)

interrogative

-va-series

ori-series

oare-series

ni-series

person

cine

cine-va

ori-cine

oare-cine

nimeni

thing

ce

ce-va

ori-ce

oare-ce

nimic

place

unde

unde-va

ori-unde

oare-unde

nicăieri

time

cînd

cînd-va

ori-cînd

oare-cînd

niciodată, nici-cînd

manner

cum

cum-va

ori-cum

oare-cum

nici-cum

amount

cît

cît-va

ori-cît

oare-cît

determiner

care

care-va

ori-care

oare-care

nici un

In addition, there is the indefinite determiner vre-un ‘any’ (Graur 1939).

A.11.2. Origins

The particle ori also means ‘or’ and derives from Latin velis ‘you want (subjunctive)’. The particle oare also occurs as a question particle and as a disjunctive particle (‘be it … be it’); it derives from late Latin *volet ‘wants’ (classical vult) > voare > oare. The suffix -va has the same origin (voare > vare > va), or perhaps it derives from vrea, which also means ‘want’. Some of the members of the ni-series are from nici ‘neither, not even’ plus interrogative or general noun (dată ‘time’), but nimeni goes back directly to Latin nemo (Accusative neminem). Nimic is from nec mica ‘not even a bit’.

A.11.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.11. The data are from Manoliu-Manea (1966), Berea Găgeanu (1980), Graur (1939), various reference works, the New Testament, and a native speaker (Beatrice Primus). The -va-series is used in non-emphatic functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.11

(A83)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A84)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A85)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.265) The ori-series is used in the comparative and free-choice functions.

(A86)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A87)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The ni-series is used for direct and indirect negation. In the direct-negation function, it co-occurs with verbal negation.

(A88)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A89)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The determiner vre-un is used in questions/conditionals, and in indirect negation (cf. Graur 1939 for discussion).

(A90)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.12. Modern Greek

A.12.1. Inventory

Modern Greek (Greek, Indo-European) has three main series of indefinite pronouns. One of these is based on interrogative pronouns (the specific ka-series), one is based on relative pronouns (the free-choice series marked by -dhípote), and one is formally very heterogeneous (the non-specific típota-series).

interrogative

ka-series

típota-series

-dhípote-series

person

pjos

ká-pjos

kanénas, kanís

opjos-dhípote

thing

ti

ká-ti

típota

oti-dhípote

place

pu

ká-pu

puthená

opu-dhípote

time

póte

ká-pote

poté

opote-dhípote

manner

pos

ká-pos

(me kanénan trópo)

(p.266) A.12.2. Origins

The prefix ka- comes from kan ‘even, at least’ (< kaì eán ‘even if’). The típota-series is quite diverse not only synchronically, but also in terms of its origins: kanénas consists of kan plus énas ‘one’; the suffix -pota in típota probably goes back to poté ‘ever, never’; poté survives from Ancient Greek, where indefinites were identical to interrogatives except that they were unstressed or had final stress. Likewise, puthená is said to go back to póthen ‘whence’. The -dhípote-series is not originally part of the Demotic (i.e. vernacular) language—it came into the modern standard language from the older, archaizing Katharévousa variety and can effectively be regarded as a borrowing from Ancient Greek dḗpote (consisting of the ‘emphatic’ particle dḗ plus poté ‘ever’).

A.12.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.12. The data are from my own observations, Veloudis (1982), Dhelverúdhi (1989), Giannakidou (1993; 1994; 1995), Tsimpli and Roussou (1993; 1996) and from native speakers (Anastasia Christofidou, Soteria Svorou, Axel Theofilidis, Artemis Alexiadou). The ka-series is used in all non-emphatic functions (except apparently ‘specific known’). However, in the nonspecific functions (irrealis, question, conditional) the típota-series is preferred.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.12

(A91)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A92)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A93)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The típota-series is also used in the negation functions, co-occurring with verbal negation (p.267) in the case of direct negation. See §§ 5.7.3 and 8.2.5 for the role of stress.

(A94)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A95)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -dhípote-series is used in the free-choice function and in the comparative function.

(A96)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A97)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -dhípote-series is also possible in the conditional function with an emphatic value, but not in the question function.

(A98)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.13. Bulgarian

A.13.1. Inventory

Bulgarian (Indo-European, Slavic) has three major series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the general nja-series, (ii) the negative ni-series, and (iii) the free-hoice series in -to i da e.

interrogative

nja-series

ni-series

-to i da e-series

person

koj

nja-koj

ni-koj

koj to i da e

thing

što

ne-što

ni-što

što to i da e

property

kakâv

nja-kakâv

ni-kakâv

kakâv to i da e

place

kâde

nja-kâde

ni-kâde

kâde to i da e

time

koga

nja-koga

ni-koga

koga to i da e

manner

kak

nja-kak

ni-kak

kak to i da e

amount

kolko

nja-kolko

ni-kolko

kolko to i da e

The nja-series has an alternative form where the particle si follows the base (njakoj si, nešto si, etc.). The -to i da e-series has the more emphatic alternative form -to i da bilo (kojto i da (p.268) bilo, etc.). Marginal series are the ne znam si-series (ne znam si koj ‘someone’, lit. ‘I don’t know who’), the -gode-series (koj-gode ‘anyone’, etc.), and the -da e-series (koj da e, etc.).

A.13.2. Origins

The nja- and ni-series go back to Old Church Slavonic - (cf. § 6.2.1) and ni- (cf. § 8.3.1). The -to i da e-series originates in a parametric concessive conditional clause (cf. Kojto i da e, može da vleze. ‘Whoever she is, she may come in.’). The particle si is perhaps cognate with Polish -ś (cf. A.15).

A.13.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.13. The data are from Dončeva (1970) (D70), Nicolova (1972; 1978; 1986), Dogramadžieva (1974), Blažev (1980), Guentchéva (1981), Kirova (1986), Mostovska (1988), and from native speakers (Tania Kuteva, Pavlina Vlajkova). See also Pašov (1965), Xaralampiev (1977). The nja-series can be specific or non-specific:

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.13

(A99)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A100)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A101)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In conditionals, but not in questions, the more emphatic -to i da e-series may alternatively be used.

(A102)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -to i da e-series is also used in the free-choice, comparative, and indirect-negation functions.

(p.269) (A103)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A104)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A105)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The ni-series is used in the direct-negation function (cf. A106), and also in some cases in the indirect-negation function (cf. A105).

(A106)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.14. Serbian/Croatian

A.14.1. Inventory

Serbian/Croatian (Slavic, Indo-European) has four major series of indefinite pronouns, all of which are derived from interrogatives: (i) the non-emphatic ne-series, (ii) the negative-polarity series marked by i-, (iii) the free-choice and negative polarity series marked by bilo, and (iv) the negative ni-series.

interrogative

ne-series

i-series

ni-series

bilo-series

person

ko

ne-ko

i-tko

ni-(t)ko

ko bilo

thing

što

ne-što

i-šta

ni-što

što bilo

property

kakav

ne-kakav

i-kakav

ni-kakav

kakav bilo

place

gdje

ne-gdje

i-gdje

ni-gdje

gdje bilo

time

kada

ne-kada, ne-gda

i-kad(a), i-gda

ni-kada

kada bilo

manner

kako

ne-kako

kako

ni-kako

kako bilo

determiner

koji

ne-koji, ne-ki

koji

ni-koji

koji bilo

A.14.2. Origins

The prefix ne- has the same origin as Russian ne-, Bulgarian nja- and Polish nie- (§ 6.2.1). The prefix i- is from the conjunction and focus particle i ‘and; also; even’ (§ 7.1.1). For ni-, see § 8.3.1 (cf. Russian ni-). The particle bilo is the perfect tense of ‘be’, so the bilo-series is an example of an ‘it-may-be’ indefinite (§ 6.2.3).

A.14.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.14. The data are from Progovac (1988; 1990; 1991a; 1991b; 1991c; 1992; 1994) and reference works. The ne-series is used in the specific and irrealis non-specific functions. (p.270)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.14

(A107)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A108)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The i-series is used in negative-polarity contexts, i.e. in the question/conditional, indirect-negation and comparative functions. In all these functions, the bilo-series is a possible alternative.

(A109)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A110)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A111)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The bilo-series is also used in the free-choice function.

(A112)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, only the ni-series is used, co-occurring with verbal negation.

(p.271) (A113)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.15. Polish

A.15.1. Inventory

Polish (Indo-European, Slavic) has three major series of indefinite pronouns, all derived from interrogatives: (i) the general ś-series, (ii) the free-choice series in -kolwiek, and (iii) the negative ni-series. The marginal nie-series is also shown in the following table:

interrogative

-series

-kolwiek-series

ni-series

nie-series

person

kto

kto-ś

kto-kolwiek

ni-kto

thing

co

co-ś

co-kolwiek

nic

nie-co

quality

jaki

jaki-ś

jaki-kolwiek

ni-jaki

nie-jaki

place

gdzie

gdzie-ś

gdzie-kolwiek

ni-gdzie

time

kiedy

kiedy-ś

kiedy-kolwiek

ni-gdy

nie-kiedy

manner

jak

jako-ś

jak-kolwiek

ni-jak

(niejako)

determiner

który

który-ś

który-kolwiek

żaden

nie-który

The three major series are quite regular, except for a few phonological alternations (jak : jako-ś, kiedy : ni-gdy) and the negative determiner żaden (from a different root). The nie-series is incomplete. A variant of it is the X-nie-X-series: gdzie-nie-gdzie ‘here and there’, kiedy nie-kiedy ‘once in a while’, co nie-co ‘a little something’ (§ 8.3.4.2). There are three further marginal free-choice series, formed with byle (byle kto ‘anyone’, etc.), lada (lada kto ‘anyone’), and (nie) bądź (kto (nie) bądź ‘anyone’, etc.). Finally, the bare interrogatives are commonly used as indefinites in the colloquial language (cf. § 7.3.2).

A.15.2. Origins

The suffix -ś (< -si; cf. Czech -si) perhaps goes back to *sit ‘(it) be’ (cf. § 6.2.3). The origin of the suffix -kolwiek (cf. Slovak -kol’vek, Czech -koli(v(ěk)), Sorbian -kuli) is not clear (cf. Cieślikowa 1965: 80–3 for some discussion), but a plausible possibility is that koli is identical to the older interrogative-indefinite pronominal adverb koli ‘when?; ever’, and -wiek is derived from wiek ‘age’. The prefix nie- is identical to Russian ne-, Bulgarian nja- (cf. § 6.2.1), and (nie) bądź is identical to Russian -nibud’. Byle (also ‘if only’) seems to be connected with the modal hypothetical particle by (originally a subjunctive form of być ‘be’), and the origin of lada is unknown.

A.15.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.15. The data are from Grzegorczykowa (1972a), various reference works, and a native speaker (Thomas

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.15

(p.272) Bak). See also Grzegorczykowa (1972b) and Mostovska (1988). The ś-series is used in all functions from ‘specific-known’ to ‘indirect negation’.

(A114)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A115)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the question/conditional and in the indirect-negation functions, the -kolwiek-series is a possible more emphatic alternative (except in questions, where it sounds a bit odd).

(A116)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A117)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -kolwiek-series is most typically used in the free-choice function, as well as the comparative function.

(A118)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A119)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The ni-series occurs only in the direct-negation function, co-occurring with verbal negation.

(A120)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.16. Russian

A.16.1. Inventory

Russian has seven major series of indefinite pronouns: (i–ii) the specific to- and koe-series, (iii)-(iv) then non-specific -nibud’- and -libo-series, (v) the negative ni-series, (vi) the negative-polarity series marked by WH by to ni bylo, and (vii) the free-choice series marked by ugodno. In the following table, the by to ni bylo-series is omitted for lack of space.

(p.273)

interrogative

-to-series

-nibud’-series

-libo-series

ni-series

koe-series

person

kto

kto-to

kto-nibud’

kto-libo

ni-kto

koe-kto

thing

čto

čto-to

čto-nibud’

čto-libo

ni-čto

koe-čto

place

gde

gde-to

gde-nibud’

gde-libo

ni-gde

koe-gde

time

kogda

kogda-to

kogda-nibud’

kogda-libo

ni-kogda

koe-kogda

manner

kak

kak-to

kak-nibud’

kak-libo

ni-kak

koe-kak

amount

skol’ko

skol’ko-to

skol’ko-nibud’

ni-skol’ko

determiner

kakoj

kakoj-to

kakoj-nibud’

kakoj-libo

ni-kakoj

koe-kakoj

In addition, there are some forms of the marginal ne-series (ne-kto ‘somebody’, ne-čto ‘something’, ne-kogda ‘once’, ne-skol’ko ‘several’), and some little grammaticalized series (xot’ kto ‘anyone’; Bog vest’ kto ‘God knows who’). The determiner ljuboj ‘any’ is the only member of its series.

A.16.2. Origins

On the diachrony of Russian indefinite pronouns, see especially Malovickij (1971: 60–111). The origin of -to is unclear, but it is probably identical with to ‘now’ (< Old Russian , ≠ to ‘that’). The suffix -nibud’ goes back to ni budi ‘it may be’ (§ 6.2.3.1), and -libo (Old Russian ljubo) comes from ljubo ‘dear, pleasant’ (§ 6.2.2.1). Ni means ‘neither, not even’ (§ 8.3.1). Koe is the neuter form of koj ‘which?’—why it is used as an indefiniteness marker is not clear to me. Ugodno is from ugodno ‘suitable, pleasing’ (§ 6.2.2.1), and by to ni bylo is a more modern form of ni budi6.2.3.1).

A.16.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.16. The data are from my own observations, from native speakers (especially Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Vera Podlesskaya, Elena Kalinina), and from the huge literature on Russian indefinites. Some references are Galkina-Fedoruk (1963), Veyrenc (1964), Seliverstova (1964; 1988), Rybák (1965; 1975), Dahl (1970), Malovickij (1971), Růžička (1973), Padučeva (1974; 1985), Ward (1977), Fontaine (1978), Ponomareff (1978), Kobozeva (1981), Markowich and Paillard (1981), Giusti (1982), Paillard (1983; 1984), Nikolaeva (1983; 1985), Bonnot-Saoulski (1983), Kreisberg (1986), Kuz’mina (1989). The -to-series is mainly used specifically, when the referent is not known to the speaker.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.16

(A121)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the irrealis–non-specific and question/conditional functions, normally the -nibud’-series is used, for which the -libo-series is a more formal alternative.

(p.274) (A122)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A123)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -to-series is also not excluded from the above contexts, though it is associated with a different pragmatics in questions and conditionals (§ 4.7.3). In the irrealis contexts, -to-indefinites show a strong tendency to be interpreted specifically if such an interpretation is possible; cf. (A124). However, a non-specific reading seems to be possible as well, although the -nibud’-series is clearly preferred in this case.

(A124)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -libo-series has a wider application than the -nibud’-series: it is also used in the indirect-negation and comparative functions, where -nibud’ is not possible. However, -libo can be replaced by by to ni bylo in these cases.

(A125)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A126)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The by to ni bylo-series is also possible as an emphatic variant in conditionals, but not in questions.

(A127)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the free-choice function, either the determiner ljuboj or the ugodno-series is used. Marginally the by to ni bylo-series is also possible.

(A128)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.275) In the direct-negation function, only the ni-series is possible.

(A129)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The koe-series may be used when the referent is specific and the speaker knows its identity, as in (A130) (cf. § 3.2.4).

(A130)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.17. Lithuanian

A.17.1. Inventory

Lithuanian (Indo-European, Baltic) has five major series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the specific kaž-series, (ii) the nonspecific nors-series, (iii) the free-choice series in bet-, (iv) the negative nie-series, and (v) the kai-series.

interrogative

kaž-series

nors-series

bet-series

nie-series

kai-series

person/thing

kas

kaž-kas

kas nors

bet kas

nie-kas

kai kas

property

koks

kaž-koks

koks nors

bet koks

kai koks

place

kur

kaž-kur

kur nors

bet kur

nie-kur

kai kur

time

kada

kaž-kada

kada nors

bet kada

nie-kada

kai kada

manner

kaip

kaž-kaip

kaip nors

bet kaip

nie-kaip

kai kaip

amount

kiek

kaž-kiek

kiek nors

bet kiek

determiner

kuris

kaž-kuris

kuris nors

bet kuris

kai kuris

There is also a marginal X-ne-X-series (kas-ne-kas ‘someone’, kuris-ne-kuris ‘some’; cf. § 8.3.4), and the determiner joks ‘any’, which forms a ‘series’ of its own.

A.17.2. Origins

The prefix kaž- has the variant kažin (kažin kas, etc.), which shows that it goes back to kas žino k- ‘who knows wh-‘(cf. § 6.2.1). The indefiniteness marker nors is identical to nors ‘although; if only, at least’, and it goes back to a converb form (noris) of the verb norėti ‘want’. The marker bet is identical to bet ‘but, nevertheless’, but there may also be a connection to bent ‘at least, even’. The prefix nie- is a phonological variant of ne ‘neither, not even’. The marker kai is identical to kai ‘when’.

A.17.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.17. The data are from Pilka (1984) (P84), Ambrāzas (1985), and native speakers (Emma Geniušienė, Greta Lemanaitė). The kaž-series is primarily used in the specific–unknown function, but

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.17

(p.276) it is also possible in the question/conditional function. In non-specific functions, the nors-series is generally used, see § 3.2.3, examples (69), (71), (75), (77), (79), (82). In questions (cf. ex. 88) and conditionals, the nors-series is normal:

(A131)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the indirect-negation function, only the nors-series is possible.

(A132)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The direct-negation function is generally expressed by the nie-series, which co-occurs with verbal negation.

(A133)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The free-choice and comparative functions are expressed by the bet-series. In the comparative function, the nors-series is also possible.

(A134)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A135)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The single determiner joks is used in both the direct-negation and the indirect-negation functions:

(A136)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A137)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The kai-series indicates that the referent is known to the speaker, much like the Russian koe-series (see ex. 100 in § 3.2.4).

(p.277) A.18. Latvian

A.18.1. Inventory

Latvian (Indo-European, Baltic) has three major series of indefinite pronouns, all derived from interrogatives: (i) the general kaut-series, (ii) the negative ne-series, and (iii) the free-choice jeb-series.

interrogative

kaut-series

ne-series

jeb-series

person

kas

kaut kas, kāds

ne-viens

jeb-kāds

thing

kas

kaut kas

ne-kas

jeb-kas

place

kur

kaut kur

ne-kur

jeb-kur

time

kad

kaut kad

ne-kad

jeb-kad

manner

kaut kā

ne-kā

determiner

kāds, kurš

kaut kāds

ne-kāds

jeb-kāds, jeb-kurš

There is also a marginal X ne-X-series (kur ne-kur ‘here and there’, kāds ne-kāds ‘some(one) or other’), and the bare interrogatives may also be used as indefinites (especially kāds in the meaning ‘somebody’).

A.18.2. Origins

The particle kaut also means ‘at least, even’; cf. § 7.1. The particle jeb also means ‘or’; cf. § 7.2. The prefix ne- seems to be identical to the verbal prefix ne- ‘not’.

A.18.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.18. The data are all from reference works and from a native speaker (Ivonna Wagner). The kaut-series is used in all non-emphatic functions:

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.18

(A138)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A139)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A140)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.278) The jeb-series is used in the free-choice, comparative, and indirect-negation functions.

(A141)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A142)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A143)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, the ne-series co-occurs with verbal negation.

(A144)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.19. Irish

A.19.1. Inventory

Irish has three series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from generic nouns: (i) the non-emphatic éigin-series, (ii) the negative-polarity series marked by aon, and (iii) the emphatic ar bith-series.

interrogative

éigin-series

aon-series

ar bith-series

person

duine (éigin), neach

aon duine

duine ar bith

thing

cad, cén

rud (éigin), ní

aon rud/ní

rud ar bith

place

cá, cár

in áit éigin, i mball éigin

in aon bhall, in aon áit

in áit ar bith

time

cathain

manner

conas

ar chaoi éigin, ar dhóigh éigin

in aon chor

ar chor/dhóigh ar bith, ar chaoi ar bith

determiner

éigin

aon

ar bith

In addition, there is one isolated indefinite pronoun dada ‘anything’, and several expressions for ‘ever’: riamh, go brách (referring to past events), choíche, go deo (referring to future events).

Irish indefinites show a very low degree of grammaticalization, and perhaps only two indefinite determiners (éigin, aon) and one indefinitizing prepositional phrase (ar bith) should be recognized.1 However, the above paradigm makes it easier to see the parallels (p.279) with other languages (where some slots are also occupied by weakly grammaticalized expressions).

A.19.2. Origins

Aon is originally ‘one’, ar bith is ‘in the world’, dada is ‘jot, tittle’.

A.19.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.19. The data are from De Bhaldraithe (1959) (B59), Ó Dónaill (1977) (D77), and a native speaker (Dónall P. Ó Baoill). The éigin-series is used in specific and irrealis non-specific functions (perhaps there is a preference to omit éigin and use the bare generic nouns when the referent is known to the speaker):

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.19

(A145)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A146)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In all negative-polarity functions, the aon-series or the ar bith-series may be used:

(A147)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A148)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.280) (A149)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A150)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, the indefinites co-occur with verbal negation.

(A151)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the free-choice function, too, either the aon-series or the ar bith-series is used:

(A152)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The indefinite dada and the various worlds for ‘ever’ are only used in the negative-polarity functions. They are not possible in the free-choice function.

(p.281) A.20. Ossetic

A.20.1. Inventory

Ossetic (Indo-European, Iranian) has five major series of indefinite pronouns, all of them based on interrogative pronouns: (i) the specific -dær-series, (ii) the non-specific is-series, (iii)–(iv) the two negative series in ni- and ma-, and (v) the free-choice series in -dæriddær.

interrogative

-dær-series

is-series

ni-series

ma-series

-dæriddær-series

person

či (obl. kœj)

či-dær

is-či

ni-či

ma-či

či-dæriddær

thing

cy (obl. cæj)

cy-dær

is-ty

ni-cy

ma-cy

cy-dæriddær

place

kæm

kæm-dær

is-kæm

ni-kæm

ma-kæm

kæm-dæriddær

time

kœd

kæd-dær

is-kæd

ni-kæd

ma-kæd

kæd-dæriddær

manner

kuyd

kuyd-dær

is-kuyd

ni-kuyd

ma-kuyd

kuyd-dæriddær

determiner

kæcy

kæcy-dær

is-kæcy

ni-kæcy

ma-kæcy

kæcy-dæriddær

There is another free-choice series marked by -fændy which seems to be equivalent to the -dæriddær-series: či-fændy ‘anyone’, cy-fændy ‘anything’, etc.

A.20.2. Origins

The suffix -dær is identical to the focus particle dær ‘also, even’. The prefix is- is originally the 3rd person singular of ‘be’. I have no information on the origin of -dæriddær. The two negative prefixes are related to the negative particles ‘not’ and ma ‘not’.

A.20.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.20. The data are from Kulaev (1958) (K58), Axvlediani (1963), Bagaev (1965), and a native speaker (Zarema Xubecova). The -dær-series is used only in specific functions:

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.20

(A153)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The is-series is used in non-specific functions, in irrealis contexts, in questions and conditionals, and in indirect-negation contexts.

(A154)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A155)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.282) (A156)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -dæriddær-series is used in the free-choice and comparative functions.

(A157)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A158)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, the ni-series or the ma-series is used. The choice depends on the modality of the clause, like the choice between the corresponding verbal negators and ma. Næ is used in indicative clauses, and ma is used in imperative and subjunctive clauses. Ossetic is like Latin, standard English and standard German in that negative pronouns do not co-occur with verbal negation. (However, unlike Latin, English and German, Ossetic allows more than one negative pronoun in one clause; see § 8.2.6.1.)

(A159)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.21. Persian

A.21.1. Inventory

Persian (Indo-European, Iranian) has only two series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the generic-noun-based -i-series, and (ii) the negative hi-series.

interrogative

i-series

hič-series

person

ki

kas-i

hič kas(-i)

thing

če

čiz-i

hič čiz(-i)

place

koǰâ

Ĵâ-yi

hič Ĵâ(-yi)

time

key

vaqt-i

hič vaqt

manner

hič gune

determiner

kodâm

yek X-i

hič (yek)

The indefinites of the i-series may also be preceded by yek ‘one’ (yek kas-i, yek čiz-i, yek Ĵâ-yi, etc.).

(p.283) A.21.2. Origins

The i-series is nothing but generic nouns (‘person’, ‘thing’, ‘place’, etc.) suffixed with the indefinite article -i. The determiner yek is identical to yek ‘one’. The hič-series is also based on generic nouns. The particle hič originally meant ‘anybody’ and appears to go back to Old Persian aiva ‘one’ plus čiy (an emphatic particle cognate with Sanskrit cit; cf. A.22.2).

A.21.3. Distribution

The distribution of the two series is shown in Fig. A.21. The data are from reference works and from a native speaker (Parviz Rostampour). The i-series can be used in all functions except for the comparative and free-choice functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.21

(A160)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A161)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the question function, but not in the conditional function, hič is also possible (yielding an emphatic reading).

(A162)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A163)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

While hič in the question and indirect-negation functions is possible, but not preferred, it is quite normal in the direct-negation function. However, not even here it is required. (For the case of two negated indefinites in one clause, see § 8.2.6.2.)

(A164)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.284) For the free-choice and the comparative series, har ‘every’ has to be used:

(A165)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A166)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.22. Hindi/Urdu

A.22.1. Inventory

Hindi/Urdu (Indo-European, Indic) has only two major series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the koii-series, which is morphologically similar to, but not synchronically derivable from, the interrogative pronouns; (ii) the bhii-series, derived from the koii-series.

interrogative

koii-series

bhii-series

person

kaun (obl. kis)

koii (obl. kisii)

koii bhii

thing

kyaa

kuch

kuch bhii

place

kahã

kahĩ

kahĩ bhii

time

kab

kabhii

kabhii bhii

Besides these, there is a peripheral X na X series (koii na koii ‘someone or other’, kuch na kuch ‘something or other’); cf. § 8.3.4.2.

A.22.2. Origins

The indefiniteness marker bhii is identical to the focus particle bhii ‘also, even’. The koii-series is etymologically derived from the interrogative series: koii < Sanskrit ko ’pi, sandhi form of kaḥ api (kaḥ ‘who’, api ‘particle’), kuch < Sanskrit kiṁcit (kiṁ ‘what’, cit, a particle) (Beames 1875: ii. §72).

A.22.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.22. The data are from Bhatia (1978) (B78), Davison (1978a) (D78), (1978b), Mahajan (1990), Lahiri (1995), and a native speaker (Sangeeta Sharma). See also Dayal (1995) on bhii. The koii-series may be used in all functions except the comparative and the free-choice functions. However, in the direct-negation function the bhii-series seems to be preferred.

(A167)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A168)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.285)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.22

(A169)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In irrealis contexts, the bhii-series is always non-specific.

(A170)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In questions and conditionals, the bhii-series differs from the koii-series in being more emphatic (‘any … at all’).

(A171)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The free-choice and comparative functions are only expressed by the bhii-series:

(A172)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A173)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.286) A.23. Turkish

A.23.1. Inventory

Turkish (Turkic) has three major series of indefinite pronouns, all of them based on generic nouns and bir ‘one’: (i) the non-emphatic bir-series, (ii) the negative hiç-series, and (iii) the free-choice series marked by herhangi:

interrogative

bir-series

hiç-series

herhangi-series

person

kim

biri(si)

hiçbiri, hiç kimse

herhangi biri

thing

ne

bir şey

hiç bir şey

herhangi bir şey

place

nerede

bir yerde

hiç bir yerde

herhangi bir yerde

time

ne zaman

bir zaman

hiç bir zaman

herhangi bir zaman

manner

nasıl

bir şekilde

hiç bir şekilde

herhangi bir şekilde

determiner

hangi

bir

hiç bir

herhangi bir

In addition, there is the isolated indefinite (bir) kimse ‘someone, anyone’, which can only be used non-specifically.

A.23.2. Origins

Bir is identical to the numeral ‘one’. Some of the combinations of bir plus generic nouns are strongly lexicalized; bir şey is felt as a single word (cf. § 1.2.2). The indefiniteness marker hiç was borrowed from Persian (cf. A.21). Herhangi consists of her ‘every’ (also borrowed from Persian) and hangi ‘which?’. Kimse seems to be derived from kim ‘who’ and the conditional suffix -se.

A.23.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.23. The data are from Xovratovič (1989) and from a native speaker (Fethi İnan). In the specific–known function, only the bir-series is possible:

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.23

(A174)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In all the functions from specific–unknown to direct negation, either the bir-series or the herhangi-series are possible.

(A175)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.287) (A176)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A177)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the question function (cf. A177a) and in the negation functions, the hiç-series is another possible alternative.

(A178)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, the hiç-indefinites are the most usual form. They always co-occur with verbal negation. (For the case of two negated indefinites in one clause, see § 8.2.6.2.)

(A179)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the free-choice and comparative functions, only the herhangi-series is possible:

(A180)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A181)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.24. Kazakh

A.24.1. Inventory

Kazakh (Turkic) has four major series of indefinite pronouns, three of which are based on interrogatives: (i) the non-emphatic bir-series, (ii) the specific älde-series, (iii) the negative e-series, and (iv) the free-choice series marked by baɣarar.

A.24.2. Origins

The bir-series is based on bir ‘one’ and generic nouns (except for birew and birnärse, birdeme, whose origin is not clear to me). The prefix - is etymologically (p.288) identical to Turkish hiç and goes back to Persian hič (see A.21). The origin of the prefix älde- is obscure, but a connection with Tatar and Bashkir ällä ‘possibly; question particle; indefiniteness marker’ seems possible.

interrogative

bir-series

älde-series

-series

baɣarar-series

person

kim

birew

älde-kim

eš-kim

kim baɣarar

thing

ne

birnärse, birdeme

älde-ne

eš-närse eš-teme

ne baɣarar

place

qajda

bir žerde

älde-qajda

eš-qajda

qajda baɣarar

time

qašan

bir kezde

älde-qašan

eš-qaan

qašan baɣarar

manner

qalaj

qalaj baɣarar

determiner

qandaj

älde-qandaj älde-bir

eš-qandaj eš-bir

qandaj baɣarar

A.24.3. Distribution

The distribution of the four series is shown in Fig. A.24. The data are from a native speaker (Kusain Rsaldinov) and from Sauranbaev (1954) (S54). The älde-series is used only in specific functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.24

(A182)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The bir-series is used in specific functions, both known and unknown.

(A183)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

It is also used non-specifically in irrealis contexts, in questions and conditionals, and in indirect-negation contexts.

(A184)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.289) (A185)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A186)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, only the e-series is possible, co-occurring with verbal negation.

(A187)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The baɣarar-series is used in the free-choice function, and also (though much less commonly than the bir-series) in questions and conditionals. (I lack data for the comparative function.)

(A188)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A189)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.25. Yakut

A.25.1. Inventory

Yakut (Turkic) has four major series of indefinite pronouns, all of which are derived from interrogatives: (i) the specific ere-series, (ii) the non-specific eme-series, (iii) the negative da-series, and (iv) the free-choice series marked by baɣarar.

interrogative

ere-series

eme-series

da-series

baɣarar-series

person

kim

kim ere

kim eme

kim da

kim baɣarar

thing

tuox

tuox ere

tuox eme

tuox da

tuox baɣarar

place

xanna

xanna ere

xanna eme

xanna da

xanna baɣarar

time

xahan

xahan ere

xahan eme

xahan da

xahan baɣarar

manner

xajdax

xajdax ere

xajdax da

xajdax baɣarar

determiner

xannyk

xannyk ere

xannyk da

xannyk baɣarar

xaja

xaja ere

xaja eme

xaja da

xaja baɣarar

A.25.2. Origins

The particle ere is also used with the meaning ‘or’ (cf. § 7.2). The particle eme is also used with the meaning ‘at least’ (cf. § 7.1). The particle da is also used (p.290) with the meaning ‘and, also, even’ (cf. § 7.1). The indefiniteness marker baɣarar is derived from baɣar ‘want’.

A.25.3. Distribution

The distribution of the four series is shown in Fig. A.25. The data are from Afanas’ev and Xaritonov (1968) (AX68) and from Ubrjatova (1982) (U82). The ere-series is restricted to specific functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.25

(A190)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The eme-series is used in non-specific functions in irrealis contexts, questions, and conditionals.

(A191)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A192)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The da-series is used in the direct-negation function (co-occurring with verbal negation), the comparative function and the free-choice function. Unfortunately, I lack data on the indirect-negation function, but my implicational map predicts that the da-series is also possible in this function.

(A193)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A194)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.291) The baɣarar-series may also be used in the free-choice function.

(A195)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.26. Hungarian

A.26.1. Inventory

Hungarian (Finno-Ugrian) has four major series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the general vala-series, (ii) the negative sem-series, and (iii-iv) the two free-choice series in akár- and bár-.

interrogative

vala-series

sem-series

akár-series

bár-series

person

ki

vala-ki

sen-ki

akár-ki

bár-ki

thing

mi

vala-mi

sem-mi

akár-mi

bár-mi

property

milyen

vala-milyen

sem-milyen

akár-milyen

bár-milyen

place

hol

vala-hol

se-hol

akár-hol

bár-hol

time

mikor

vala-mikor

sem-mikor

akár-mikor

bár-mikor

manner

hogy(an)

vala-hogy(an)

se-hogy(an)

akár-hogy(an)

bár-hogy(an)

amount

hány

se-hány

akár-hány

mennyi

se-mennyi

akár-mennyi

bár-mennyi

determiner

mely(ik)

mely(ik)

akár-mely(ik)

bár-mely(ik)

There is also a marginal -series (né-mi ‘something, a little’, né-hol ‘in some places, here and there’, né-hány ‘some, a few’, né-melyik ‘some’).

A.26.2. Origins

The indefiniteness prefix vala- is probably related to van/vol- ‘be’. The prefix akár- is identical to akár ‘or; at least’, related to akar ‘want’. The prefix bár is identical to bár ‘although; if only’. The prefix sem- (se-) is identical to sem ‘not either, neither’ (< is ‘too’ plus nem ‘not’). The prefix - was borrowed from Slavic (cf. Russian ne- Polish nie-, Bulgarian nja-).

A.26.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.26. The data are from Stephanides (1983;1985), Hunyadi (1987), dictionaries, the New Testament, and a native speaker (Edith Moravcsik). (See also Szarvas 1892; Beke 1914; Pálfy 1982.) The vala-series is used in all functions from ‘specific’ to ‘indirect negation’.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.26

(A196)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.292) (A197)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A198)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The sem-series can only be used in the direct-negation function:

(A199)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The akár- and bár-series are used mainly in the free-choice function, but also in the comparative function, the indirect-negation function, and with an emphatic value in the conditional function. However, these series cannot be used in questions.

(A200)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A201)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A202)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A203)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A204)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.27. Finnish

A.27.1. Inventory

Finnish (Finno-Ugrian) has three main series of indefinite pronouns, (p.293) two of which are derived from interrogatives: (i) the mainly negative -kaan-series and (ii) the free-choice series marked by hyvänsä. The non-emphatic -kin-series (iii), by contrast, is based on relative pronouns.

interrogative

series

series

series

person

kuka

jo-ku (jo-n-ku-n)

kuka-an

kuka hyvänsä

thing

mikä, mitä

jo-kin, jota-kin

mikä-än

mikä hyvänsä

place

missä

jossa-kin

missä-än

missä hyvänsä

time

milloin

jolloin-kin

milloin-kaan

milloin hyvänsä

manner

miten, kuinka

joten-kin

miten-kaan

miten hyvänsä

dual determiner

kumpi (‘which of two’)

jompi-kumpi

kumpi-kaan

kumpi hyvänsä

Note that the members joku and jompikumpi of the -kin-series do not contain the suffix -kin, but are compounds of the roots jo- and ku- and inflect doubly: joku, Partitive jotakuta, Inessive jossakussa, etc.; jompikumpi, Partitive jompaakumpaa, etc. An equivalent of hyvänsä is tahansa. In addition, there is eräs ‘a certain’.

A.27.2. Origins

The suffix -kin also means ‘also, even’. The suffix -kaan also means ‘not either; not even’. Hyvänsä is somehow related to hyvä ‘good’, and tahansa is somehow related to tahtoa ‘want’.

A.27.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.27. The data are from native speakers (Juhani Rudanko, Angela Bartens, Hannu Tommola). See also Karttunen and Peters (1980). The -kin-series is used in non-emphatic functions, but not in the specific-known function, where eräs ‘a certain’ must be used.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.27

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.294) (A207)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In questions, the -kaan-series is a possible alternative (cf. Schmid 1980: 139), but the hyvänsä-series is impossible. In conditionals, the hyvänsä-series is a possible (more emphatic) alternative, but the -kaan-series is impossible.

(A208)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A209)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -kaan-series is used in the negation functions and in the comparative function. In the direct-negation function, it co-occurs with verbal negation.

(A210)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A211)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A212)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The hyvänsä- (or tahansa-) series is used mainly in the free-choice function.

(A213)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Since the hyvänsä-series also occurs in the conditional function (cf. A209), the implicational map predicts that it can be used in the comparative function. This is indeed the case, but only in the standard of equative comparison:

(A214)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the standard of comparison of inequality, the -kaan-series is used; cf. (A212). In my data (p.295) Finnish is the only case of a language where comparison of equality behaves differently from comparison of inequality. Maybe this case shows that eventually the map will have to be refined, with the equative comparative being further away from the negation functions.

A.28. Nanay

A.28.1. Inventory

Nanay (Manchu-Tungusic) has three major series of indefinite pronouns: the specific -nuu-series, (ii) the non-specific -daa-series, and (iii) the free-choice series marked by -daa xem aja. The data are given in § 4.3.3.

A.29. Lezgian

A.29.1. Inventory

Lezgian (Nakh-Daghestanian) has three major series of indefinite pronouns, two of which are derived from interrogatives: (i) the general sa X jat’ani-series, and (ii) the free-choice x̂ajit’ani-series. The third series is the negative sa X-ni-series.

interrogative

jat’ani-series

x̂ajit’ani-series

sa X-ni-series

person

wuž/ni-

sa wuž jat’ani

wuž x̂ajit’ani

sa kas-ni

thing

wuč/kü-

sa wuč jat’ani

wuč x̂ajit’ani

sa zat’-ni

property

hix̂tin

sa hix̂tin jat’ani

hix̂tin … x̂ajit’ani

place

hina

sa hina jat’ani

hina x̂ajit’ani

sana-ni

time

mus

sa mus jat’ani

mus x̂ajit’ani

sadra-ni

manner

hik’

sa hik’ jat’ani

hik’ x̂ajit’ani

sak’-ni

determiner

hi

sa hi jat’ani

hi … x̂ajit’ani

sa …-ni

The sa in the sa X jat’ani-series and in sa kas-ni/sa zat’-ni may optionally be absent. Perhaps also a special specific sa-series (sa kas ‘somebody’, sa zat’ ‘something’, sadra ‘once’, etc.) must be recognized.

A.29.2. Origins

Sa is identical to the numeral sa ‘one’. Both jat’ani and x̂ajit’ani consist of ‘be’ (ja ‘be (standard copula)’, x̂un ‘become; be’), the conditional suffix -t’a, and the focus marker -ni ‘also, even’. Kas is ‘person’, zat’ is ‘thing’.

A.29.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.29. The data are from Haspelmath (1993a: 194–9). The sa X jat’ani is used for all functions from specific-known to question/conditional:

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.28

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.296) (A216)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A217)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The x̂ajit’ani-series is used in the free-choice and comparative functions.

(A218)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A219)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The sa X-ni-series is used in the indirect-negation and direct-negation functions (co-occurring with verbal negation in the latter).

(A220)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A221)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.30. Maltese

A.30.1. Inventory

Maltese (Afro-Asiatic, Arabic) has two series of indefinite pronouns which are not related to interrogatives: (i) the non-negative xi-series, and (ii) the negative ebda-series. There is also a marginal free-choice determiner kwalunkwe ‘any’ (a recent loan from Italian qualunque).

A.30.2. Origins

The determiner xi goes back to Classical Arabic šayɁ ‘thing, something’. Some of the second elements in the xi-series are synchronically existing generic nouns (ħaġa (p.297) ‘thing’, darba ‘time, i.e. French fois’, mod ‘manner’). The root ħadd goes back to Classical Arabic ?aħad ‘one’ (related to waaħid, Maltese wieħed ‘one’), and mkien goes back to makaan ‘place’. Qatt goes back to Arabic qaṭṭu ‘never’, and ebda goes back to Ɂabadan ‘(n)ever’, the adverbial accusative of Ɂabad ‘eternity’.

interrogative

xi-series

ebda-series

person

min

xi ħadd

ħadd

thing

xi

xi ħaġa

xejn

place

fejn

xi mkien

imkien

time

meta

xi darba

qatt

manner

kif

b’xi mod (u manjiera)

bl’ ebda mod

determiner

liema

xi

ebda

A.30.3. Distribution

The distribution of the two series is shown in Fig. A.30. The data are from Haspelmath and Caruana (1996). The xi-series is used in non-negative functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Figure A.30.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A223)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A224)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The ebda-series is used in the negative and comparative functions.

(A225)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A226)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.298) (A227)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The free-choice function is not expressed by indefinite pronouns. Either universal pronouns (kulħadd ‘everyone’) or circumlocutions like min trid ‘whoever you want’ (cf. §§ 3.3.3–4) are used. The use of kwalunkwe ‘any’ is marginal.

A.31. Hebrew

A.31.1. Inventory

(Modern) Hebrew (Afro-Asiatic, Semitic) has three major series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the -šehu-series, which is derived from interrogative pronouns, (ii) the negative-polarity -series ( ‘man’, davar ‘thing’), (iii) the kol-series, and (iv) the negative af/šum-series.

interrogative

-šehu-series

-series

kol-series

af/šum-series

person

mi

mi-šehu/-šehi

af eħad

thing

ma

ma-šehu

davar

šum davar

place

eyfo

eyfo-šehu

kol makom

be-šum/af makom

time

matay

paʕam, matay-šehu

kol zman

af paʕam, leʕolam

manner

ex

ex-šehu

determiner

eyze/eyzo

eyze-šehu

kol

af, šum

Besides šum davar ‘nothing’, there are also two non-derived expressions; klum ‘nothing’, and meɁuma ‘nothing’, which behave in the same way. The kol-series and the -series almost occur in complementary distribution, so they could perhaps be regarded as forming one formally heterogenous series.

A.31.2. Origins

Two of the three series are formally rather heterogeneous. Pronouns from the negative af/šum-series are generally made up of one of the determiners af and šum plus a generic noun (eħad ‘one’, davar ‘thing’, makom ‘place’, paʕam ‘time, fois’), but leʕolam is literally ‘in eternity’. Two of the pronouns of the -series are originally general nouns ( ‘man’, davar ‘thing’), and kol ‘any’ is originally ‘all’. The suffix of the -šehu-series stems from a parametric concessive conditional clause (cf. mi-šehu yihiye ‘whoever he is …’; cf. § 6.2.3).

A.31.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.31. The data are from Glinert (1982) (G82); (1989) (G89), and a native speaker (David Gil). The -šehu-series is normal for the specific functions and up to the indirect-negation function.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.31

(p.299) (A228)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A229)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the question, conditional and indirect-negation functions, the -šehu-series and the -series overlap. The -series is rather formal or literary—the colloquial language prefers the -šehu-series.

(A230)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A231)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A232)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

2

When the negation is in the same clause, either the -series or the af/šum-series may be used:

(A233)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

For the free-choice function, kol ‘every, any’ or kolšehu is used:

(A234)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.300) A.32. Hausa

A.32.1. Inventory

Hausa (Chadic, Afro-Asiatic) has two series of indefinite pronouns, (i) the emphatic koo-series which is based on interrogative pronouns, and (ii) the non-emphatic wani-series, which consists of the determiner wani plus generic nouns.

interrogative

koo-series

wani-series

person

wàa, wàanee

koo-waa

wani/wata

thing

mèe, mèenee

koo-mee

wani àbù (‘some thing’)

place

ìnaa

koo-’ìnaa

wani wurii (‘some place’)

time

yàushè/yàushe

koo-yàushè, -yàushe

wani lookàcii (‘some time’)

manner

yàayàa

koo-yàayàa

determiner

wànè/wàcè

koo-wànè/-wàcè

wani/wata

A.32.2. Origins

The particle koo has a plethora of other uses, described in Meyers (1974): ‘or’, question particle, ‘whether’, ‘even’, ‘even though’. In all likelihood its use as a scalar additive focus particle (‘even’) is responsible for its use as indefiniteness marker. The determiner wani is from the same pronominal root wa- as the interrogatives wàa, wànè (cf. Attouman and Caron 1984: 12–13), but it need not be interrogative-based because this root is also used for demonstratives (wannàn ‘this’) and relatives (wandà ‘(the one) which’).

A.32.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.32. The data are from Abraham (1946), Attouman and Caron (1984), Ma Newman (1990) (M90), Mahamane L. Abdoulaye (p.c.), and Marit Lobben (p.c.). The wani-series is used in all non-emphatic functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.32

(A235)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.301) (A236)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A237)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The koo-series is used in the comparative and free-choice functions.

(A238)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A239)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

It is also used in the direct-negation function (co-occurring with verbal negation), but only after the negation, i.e. in non-subject position. (Unfortunately, I lack data on the indirect-negation function.) When the negated indefinite is in subject position, a paraphrase must be used (cf. § 8.2.5).

(A240)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The koo-series can also be translated as ‘every’. When it is used in questions, only this meaning is possible:

(A241)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.33. Swahili

A.33.1. Inventory

Swahili (Niger–Congo, Bantu) has only two major series of indefinite pronouns: (i) a series consisting of generic nouns, and (ii) a free-choice and negative series consisting of the determiner CL-o CL-ote (where CL stands for a gender prefix).

(p.302)

interrogative

generic-noun-series

CL-o CL-ote-series

person

nani

mtu (‘person’)

mtu ye yote

thing

nini

neno, kitu (‘thing’)

kitu cho chote, neno lo lote

place

wapi

mahali (‘place’)

mahali po pote

time

lini

wakati (‘time’)

wakati wo wote

manner

-je

kwa njia yo yote, vyo vyote

determiner

-pi

-moja (‘one’)

CL-o CL-ote

It is quite conceivable that the generic nouns have not yet been grammaticalized as pronouns yet. I describe them as an indefinite series for the sake of comparability with the other languages.

In the CL-o CL-ote-series, the generic noun may also be omitted when the gender and the context make it clear which generic noun is to be understood. Thus, po pote is common for mahali po pote (because this gender is restricted to a few nouns), ye yote, cho chote and lo lote are possible variants, but *wo wote ‘ever’ is not possible because this gender is too large.

Another indefinite determiner is fulani ‘a certain’ (from Arabic fulaan).

A.33.2. Origins

All I can say about CL-o CL-ote is that it is based in CL-ote, which means ‘all, whole’ (e.g. daftari yote ‘the whole notebook’, wanafunzi wote ‘all the pupils’).

A.33.3. Distribution

The distribution of the two series is shown in Fig. A.33. The data are from various reference works and from the New Testament. Generic nouns can be used in all functions except the free-choice and the comparative functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.33

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A244)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A245)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.303) (A246)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, bare generic nouns can only be used postverbally (A247). If the indefinite is the subject, a different strategy has to be resorted to (§ 8.2.5).

(A247)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The CL-o CL-ote-series can be used in the free-choice and negative functions, as well as in questions (at least rhetorical questions) and conditionals, where it seems to have emphatic value. I have no data for the comparative function, but I predict that CL-o CL-ote is possible there as well.

(A248)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A249)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A250)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.34. Georgian

A.34.1. Inventory

Georgian (Kartvelian) has five series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the specific -ɣac-series, (ii) the non-specific -me-series, and (iii)–(v) the three negative series marked by ar(a)-, ver(a)- and nur(a)-. (Below only the ara-series is given.)

A.34.2. Origins

The origin of -me is unknown. The suffix -ɣac consists of -ɣa ‘only’ and -c(a) ‘also’. The prefixes ara-, vera-, and nura- derive from the negative particles ar, ver, and nu ‘not’.

(p.304)

interrogative

-ɣac-series

-me-series

ara-series

person

vin

vi-ɣac

vin-me

ara-vin

thing

ra

ra-ɣac

ra-me

ara-peri, ara-ra

place

sad(a)

sad-ɣac

sad-me

ar-sad

time

rodis

rodis-ɣac

rodis-me

ara-sodes

manner

rogor

rogor-ɣac

rogor-me

determiner

romeli

romeli-ɣac

romeli-me

ara-vitari

A.34.3. Distribution

The distribution of the four series is shown in Fig. A.34. The data are from Tschenkéli 1958 (T58), Vogt 1971 (V71), Revaz Tchantouria, Winfried Boeder (p.c.) and dictionaries (cf. also Apridonidze 1972; Topuria 1925). The -ɣac-series is restricted to specific functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.34

(A251)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In all non-emphatic non-specific functions, including indirect negation and comparative, the -me-series is used.

(A252)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A253)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.305) (A254)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A255)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, one of the three negative series (ara-, vera-, nura-) is used, normally together with verbal negation (though this may optionally be omitted). Ar is the unmarked negator, ver contains an additional semantic component of possibility, and nu is used in prohibitive sentences.

(A256)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The free-choice sense is expressed by means of the adjective nebismieri ‘arbitrary, any’, which can hardly be considered an indefinite pronoun. Other possibilities are the universal quantifier q’vela ‘every’ and the free relative clause vinc ginda ‘whoever you want’.

A.35. Kannada

A.35.1. Inventory

Kannada (Dravidian) has three series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the specific -oo-series, (ii) the non-specific -aadaruu-series, and (iii) the negative and free-choice -uu-series.

interrogative

-oo-series

-aadaruu-series

-uu-series

person

yaaru

yaar-oo

yaar-aadaruu

yaar-uu

thing

eenu

een-oo

een-aadaruu

een-uu

place

yalli, elli

elliy-oo

elliy-aadaruu

elliy-uu

time

yaavaaga

yaavaagal-oo

yaavaagal-aadaruu

yaavaagal-uu

manner

heege

heeg-oo

heeg-aadaruu

heeg-uu

amount

yaṣṭu, eṣṭu

eṣṭ-oo

eṣṭ-aadaruu

eṣṭ-uu

determiner

yaava-nu/-ḷu

yaava-n-oo/-ḷ-oo

yaavanaadaruu

yaava X-uu

A.35.2. Origins

The suffix -oo is identical to -oo ‘or; question marker’. The suffix -aadaruu also has the meaning ‘even, German auch nur’ and consists of aa-d- ‘be(come)’, -are ‘if’ and -uu (i.e., the original meaning is ‘even if it be(come)’). The suffix -uu is identical to -uu ‘also, even’.

(p.306) A.35.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.35. The data are from Bhat (1981) (B81), Sridhar (1990) (S90), and native speakers (Anilkumar Belvadi, D. N. S. Bhat). The -oo-series is only used in the specific–unknown function—it cannot be used if the speaker knows the identity of the referent.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.35

(A257)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The non-specific -aadaruu-series is used in irrealis and question/conditional functions.

(A258)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A259)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -uu-series is used in the free-choice function, in the direct- and indirect-negation functions (co-occurring with verbal negation in the latter), and in the comparative function (although ella ‘all’ is preferred there).

(A260)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A261)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A262)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.307) (A263)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(Better: beer-ell-aa kaḍe-g-intal-uu ‘than in all other places’.)

A.36. Chinese

A.36.1. Inventory

Mandarin Chinese (Sino-Tibetan) makes extensive use of the bare interrogatives as indefinites. In addition, two series are derived by the words dōu and , and the determiner rènhé ‘any’ can be considered a series of its own.

interrogative

duō-series

-series

person

shéi

shéi dōu

shéi yě

thing

shénme

shénme dōu

shénme yě

place

nǎr, shénme dìfang

shénme dìfang dōu

shénme dìfang yě

time

shénme shíhou

manner

zěnme

determiner

něi

něi … dōu

Generic nouns (e.g. rén ‘person; someone’) are also commonly used as indefinites.

A.36.2. Origins

and dōu mean ‘even, also; every, all’. Rènhé is composed of the old interrogative ‘what?’ plus rèn ‘allow; appoint’. Perhaps the current meaning ‘any’ arose from an original meaning ‘choose what’ > ‘anything’ (‘choose’ is similar to ‘appoint’).

A.36.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.36. The data are from Li and Thompson (1981) (LT81), Tsai 1990, Li (1992) (L92), reference works, and native speakers (Fengxiang Li, Wenfang Zhang). See also Gao (1994). The bare interrogatives are used in all non-specific non-emphatic functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.36

(A264)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

As shown in detail in Li (1992), bare interrogatives are also used in contexts of uncertainty and inference.

(p.308) (A265)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Examples of the question/conditional functions and the direct negation functions are given below (unfortunately, I lack data for the indirect negation function).

(A266)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the direct-negation function, only shénme is perfect, shéi being less acceptable, and nǎge (N) ‘which (N)’ is unacceptable (Li 1992: 150):

(A267)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

However, bare interrogatives are not admissible in specific contexts that lack an element of uncertainty.3 In such cases, generic nouns are used.

(A268)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The dōu- and -series are used interchangeably in the direct-negation function.

(A269)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.309) Two things are remarkable about these forms. First, they only occur preverbally, which Li and Thompson (1981: 530) explain by the fact that dōu and are adverbs and hence must occur preverbally. If they are adverbs and follow their own syntactic rules, it may seem doubtful whether the combinations shéi-yě, shénme-dōu etc. can be regarded as single constituents at all, and hence whether and dōu can be considered as indefiniteness markers.4 They are considered as such here because they are never non-adjacent to interrogative pronouns (i.e. *Tā dōu bu xìnren shéi is not a possible alternative to A269b).

Second, shéi-dōu etc. are also used as universal quantifiers (e.g. wǒ shéi-dōu xǐhuan ‘I like everyone’), so sentences (A269a–d) should perhaps not be regarded as instances of indefinite pronouns, but as a rare type of replacement strategy: instead of saying ‘She doesn’t trust anybody/She trusts nobody’, Chinese says ‘She doesn’t trust everybody’, with wide scope of ‘everybody’ (i.e. for every person x, she doesn’t trust x). I have to leave this question open here.

The indefinite determiner rènhé is used (mainly in conjunction with the particle/adverb dōu) to render the free-choice and comparative functions.

(A270)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A271)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Finally, the determiner rènhé may also be used in the direct-negation and indirect-negation functions.

(A272)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(A273)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

(p.310) These generalizations should be approached with some caution—my data on Chinese are less complete than I would have wished.

A.37. Ancash Quechua

A.37.1. Inventory

Ancash Quechua uses only the bare interrogatives and one interrogative-derived series, the non-specific -pis-series.

interrogative

-pis-series

person

pi

pi-pis

thing

ima

ima-pis

place

may

may-pis

time

imay

imay-pis

manner

imanaw

imanaw-pis

A.37.2. Origins

The suffix -pis also means ‘also, even’.

A.37.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.37. The data are from a native speaker (Hernán Aguilár) (see also Parker 1976: 74–5). The data from Weber (1989), where a closely related dialect is described, are also taken into account. The bare interrogative pronouns are used in the specific-unknown function.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.37

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -pis-series is used in all non-specific functions.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -pis-series is also used in the negative functions. The scope of negation is indicated by the discontinuous negators mana/ama/ni … -tsu.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.38. Japanese

A.38.1. Inventory

Japanese has three series of indefinite pronouns, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the non-negative ka-series, (ii) the negative mo-series, and (iii) the free-choice -demo-series.

interrogative

ka-series

mo-series

demo-series

person

dare

dare-ka

dare-mo

dare-demo

thing

nani

nani-ka

nani-mo

nani-demo

place

doko

doko-ka

doko-mo

doko-demo

time

itu

itu-ka

itu-mo

itu-demo

manner

doo

doo-ka

doo-mo

doo-demo

amount

ikura

ikura-ka

ikura-mo

ikura-demo

ikutu

ikutu-ka

ikutu-mo

ikutu-demo

determiner

dore

dore-ka

dore-mo

dore-demo

A.38.2. Origins

The suffix -ka is formally identical to ka ‘or; question particle’ (cf. Tamba-Mecz 1984). The suffix -mo is formally identical to -mo ‘also’. The suffix -demo is from de mo ‘even if it is’ (demo is also a focus particle ‘even’).

A.38.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.38. The data are from McGloin (1976) (M76), Ohno (1984) (084), and native speakers (Masa Koizumi, Yoshiko Ono, Toshio Ohori), and various reference works. See also Yamada (1993), (p.312) Chang and Labrune (1994). The ka-series is used in non-negative functions.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.38

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -mo-series is used in the negative functions and in the comparative function. In the case of direct negation, it co-occurs with verbal negation.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The demo-series is used in the free-choice function.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.39. Korean

A.39.1. Inventory

Korean has six series of indefinite pronouns, three of which are derived from interrogatives: (i) the general -nka-series, (ii–v) the four free-choice series in -na and -tunci, which may be derived either from interrogatives or from general nouns, in which latter case they are preceded by the determiner amu, and (vi) the negative -to-series, which is also derived from amu + general noun. In addition, bare interrogatives are also commonly used as indefinite pronouns.

interrogative

-nka-series

-na-series

-tunci-series

amu X-to-series

person

nwukwu

nwukwu-nka

nwukwu-na

nwukwu-tunci

amu (salam)-to

thing

mues

mue-nka

mues-ina

mues-itunci

amu kes-to

property

etten

etten …-na

etten …-tunci

place

eti

eti-sunka

eti-na

eti-tunci

amu kos-to

time

encey

encey-nka

encey-na

encey-tunci

amu ttay-to

determiner

enu

enu …-na

enu …-tunci

amu X-to

For reasons of space, the amu X-na-series and the amu X-tunci-series are omitted from the above table—they are completely analogous to the amu X-to series. There is also an incomplete -to-series derived from interrogatives (nwukwu-to ‘nobody’, but *mues-to ‘nothing’).

A.39.2. Origins

The suffix -nka seems to come from i- ‘be’ + -n (present tense) + -ka ‘question particle’. The suffix -na is also used with the meanings ‘or; for example; approximately’; it seems to come from the Adversative mood (marked by -(u)na) of i- ‘be’. The Adversative is also the mood used in parametric concessive conditional clauses, so nwukwuna would come from ‘whoever it may be’ (cf. § 6.2.3). The suffix -tunci (also used in the sense ‘or’) has a similar origin: -tunci is a verbal suffix that can also be used in parametric concessive conditional clauses. The suffix -to also means ‘also’.

A.39.3. Distribution

The distribution of the series is shown in Fig. A.39. Since the indefinites derived from interrogatives do not seem to differ in their distribution from the indefinites based on amu X-, the two types are not distinguished. The data are from Martin and Lee (1986) (ML69), Chang and Labrune (1994) as well as from native speakers (Hee-Rahk Chae, Kyu-Ryun Choi, and Du-Pyo Hong). See also Lee (1983), Lee (1984), and Lee (1995). The bare interrogatives are the most commonly used indefinites. The -nka-indefinites are more formal, less colloquial. (p.314)

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.39

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -na- and -tunci-series are used interchangeably in the free-choice function.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The -to-series is used in the indirect and direct negation functions. In the direct-negation function, it co-occurs with verbal negation. In the indirect-negation function, the bare interrogatives and the -nka-series are also possible.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Furthermore, the -to-series is used in the standard of comparison:

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

A.40. Basque

A.40.1. Inventory

Basque has four major series of indefinites, all of them derived from interrogatives: (i) the non-emphatic -bait-series, (ii) the negative-polarity series in i-, and (iii–iv) the two free-choice series in edo- and -nahi.

interrogative

-bait-series

i-series

edo-series

nahi-series

person

nor

nor-bait

i-nor

edo-nor

nor-nahi

thing

zer

zer-bait

e-zer

edo-zer

zer-nahi

place

non

non-bait

i-non

edo-non

non-nahi

time

noiz

noiz-bait

i-noiz

edo-noiz

noiz-nahi

manner

nola

nola-bait

i-nola

edo-nola

nola-nahi

determiner

zein

edo-zein

zein-nahi

In addition, non-standard dialects have an X edo X-series (nor edo nor ‘someone’, zer edo zer ‘something’), and a neh-series (nehor ‘anyone’, nehon ‘anywhere’, nehoiz ‘ever’). When used in their negative function, the pronouns of the i-series may optionally be followed by ere (‘even’).

A.40.2. Origins

The suffix -bait is formally identical to the verbal prefix bait- ‘because’, but its relation to it is obscure. Other potential connections include ba- ‘if’ and bai ‘yes; and’. The prefix edo- is identical to edo ‘or, probably’, and the suffix -nahi is identical to the stem nahi ‘want’.

A.40.3. Distribution

The distribution of the three series is shown in Fig. A.40. The data are from Saltarelli 1988 (S88), Aulestia 1989 (A89), and native speakers (Karmele Rotaetxe, José Hualde). The -bait-series is used in non-negative polarity environments.

Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Fig. A.40

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

In the specific–known function, the bait-series is apparently not possible, and the numeral bat ‘one’ is used:

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The i-series is used in negative-polarity contexts: questions/conditionals, comparatives, direct and indirect negation. In the direct-negation function, it co-occurs with verbal negation.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The edo- and the -nahi-series are used in the free-choice and indirect-negation functions.

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Appendix A. The Data of the 40-Language Sample

Notes:

(1) But note that expressions such as aon duine acu ‘anyone of them’ (A149a) are possible, which suggests that the phrase aon duine does have pronominal status. Partitive phrases are generally not possible with true nouns (*‘a person of them’).

(2) The situation in indirect-negation contexts seems to be complicated, with different negators behaving differently; see the discussion in Glinert (1982: § 6).

(3) Thus Li (1992: 127) stars sentence (i): (i) *Tā xǐhuan shénme (he like what) ‘He likes something.’

(4) Note also that and dōu can occur only once per sentence. Thus, the second negative indefinite in (i) must be a bare interrogative. (i) Shéi-yě méi tingjian shénme (who-INDEF NEG:PFV hear what) ‘No one heard anything.’