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E. Douglas Bomberger

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199899296

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199899296.001.0001

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(p.312) Appendix C Personalia

(p.312) Appendix C Personalia

Oxford University Press

Abel, Frederic (1856–1943) A fellow American student at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. The two were close friends, and MacDowell moved into Abel’s apartment when he returned to Detroit after the close of the school year in 1880. As a longtime instructor at the Detroit Conservatory (1881–1900), Abel promoted his friend’s music, notably with an all-MacDowell concert in 1888. He founded the Michigan Conservatory of Music in 1900.

Agramonte, Emilio (1844–1918) Cuban-born teacher, composer, pianist, conductor, and singer. He studied in Paris and taught in Cuba (1866–1868) before moving to New York City in 1869, where he continued to teach and conduct choral societies, including the Gounod Society in New Haven, Connecticut. He founded the American Composers’ Choral Association in 1890, presenting two seasons of American choral concerts before merging with the Manuscript Society of New York. He became a US citizen in 1886 and returned to Cuba in 1902. MacDowell dedicated From an Old Garden, op. 26, to Agramonte.

Apthorp, William Foster (1848–1913) Influential music critic in Boston. A piano and composition student of John Knowles Paine, he graduated from Harvard College in 1869 with a degree in music. In addition to writing books on various musical topics, he wrote music reviews for the Atlantic Monthly, Dwight’s Journal of Music, and the Boston Evening Transcript. He also wrote the program notes for the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1892 to 1901. At first puzzled by MacDowell’s music, he was won over by the Sonata Tragica, op. 45, in 1893. He retired in 1903 to Switzerland.

Arens, Franz Xavier (1856–1932) Conductor, composer, and voice teacher. Born in Germany, he moved with his family to the Cleveland area at a young age. After music studies with his father, he became the organist and choirmaster of his Cleveland church at the age of fifteen. Later, he studied music in Munich and Dresden (Royal Conservatory). He conducted the Cleveland (p.313) Gesangverein and the Cleveland Philharmonic Orchestra in the late 1880s before returning to Germany for vocal study with Julius Hey in Berlin. While there he conducted a series of concerts of American orchestral music throughout Germany in 1891 and 1892, which helped establish MacDowell’s reputation. He was head of the vocal department and president of the Metropolitan School of Music of Indianapolis (1892–1896) before moving to New York (1896), where he conducted concerts for the New York Manuscript Society (1898) and founded the People’s Symphony Orchestra (1900).

Baker, Theodore (1851–1934) Originally a business student, he was an American music scholar and lexicographer. Baker studied in Germany, receiving his doctorate in Leipzig (1882) with a dissertation on Native American music. His dissertation provided the thematic source material for MacDowell’s Second Suite (“Indian”) for orchestra and for several piano pieces. He was literary editor and translator for the music publisher Schirmer in America from 1892 to 1926. He is remembered today for his Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (1900) and numerous translations of opera libretti.

Buitrago, Juan (1834–1914) Colombian violinist and MacDowell’s first piano teacher. After starting Eddie’s musical training, he accompanied him to Paris during his studies at the conservatory and lived with the MacDowell parents in New York for many years.

Burgess, John W. (1844–1931) American political scientist and professor at Columbia University from 1876 to 1912. After earning his undergraduate degree at Amherst, he completed his studies at the universities of Göttingen, Leipzig, and Berlin. He worked closely with Nicholas Murray Butler to found the Department of Political Science at Columbia and was influential in bringing MacDowell to Columbia. After MacDowell’s resignation in 1904, Burgess convinced Cornelius Rübner to take the position, despite his inability to speak English.

Butler, Nicholas Murray (1862–1947) Twelfth president of Columbia University. When he succeeded Seth Low in 1902, he set about transforming Columbia University into a modern institution, earning the reputation of being materialistic rather than idealistic. Often heavy-handed in personnel decisions, he alienated many on the faculty during his early years. He was president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. An enormously important figure in American life, Theodore Roosevelt called him “Nicholas Miraculous” for his achievements.

Carreño, Teresa (1853–1917) Venezuelan concert pianist and singer who studied with Gottschalk, Mathias, and Rubinstein. Also a composer, she wrote primarily for piano and violin. She embodied the Latin temperament in her fiery performances and enjoyed an exceptionally long and successful career. She was a close friend of Fanny MacDowell, and she helped Edward by playing his music often in concert, including more than forty performances of his Second Piano Concerto. (p.314)

Castellanos, Michael “Chichi” (1862–1940) Friend and fellow piano student of MacDowell in New York and Paris. His expulsion from the Paris Conservatory prompted MacDowell’s resignation, and the two of them went to Stuttgart together in Fall 1878, where Castellanos graduated and MacDowell left after a month. Castellanos later served on the faculty of the New York College of Music for over forty years.

Chadwick, George Whitefield (1854–1931) American composer associated with the group known as the Second New England School. He was a founding member of the Music Teachers National Association and assumed the position of director of the New England Conservatory in 1897. He studied in Leipzig and Munich, but like MacDowell he did not complete the prescribed curriculum at any one school. Chadwick was the only Boston composer whom Edward felt he could trust during his residence there from 1888 to 1896.

Charlier, Elie (1826–1896) French teacher who came to New York in 1852. He founded the Charlier Institute in 1873, which became New York’s leading preparatory school. In 1887 he sold the school and returned to France. MacDowell enrolled at school about 1870 and withdrew in January 1875. Charlier was also the grandfather of Pete Seeger.

Currier, T. P. (1856–1929) Piano student and friend of Edward MacDowell. After previous studies with B. J. Lang, he switched to MacDowell in 1888. As a critic for one of the Boston papers as well as a student of MacDowell’s, he had a unique perspective on his teacher’s pianism. He wrote several valuable articles on MacDowell’s piano teaching and compositions, and he spent his subsequent career as a piano teacher in Boston.

D’Albert, Eugen (1864–1932) German pianist and composer. He studied with Liszt in Weimar and was present when MacDowell played for Liszt in June 1882. He was married six times, including a three-year marriage to Teresa Carreño from 1892 to 1895, during which time he forbade her playing MacDowell’s works.

Damrosch, Walter (1862–1950) American conductor and composer. Born in Breslau, Germany, he was the son of the conductor Leopold Damrosch. After his father’s death in 1885, he inherited his conducting responsibilities, including the New York Oratorio Society and Symphony Society, and used these to build a long and successful career. MacDowell had little contact with Damrosch but seems to have disliked him strongly.

Debussy, (Achille-) Claude (1862–1918) One of the most innovative and important composers of his time. He entered the Paris Conservatory in 1872 at the age of ten and was a member of Marmontel’s class at the same time as MacDowell. He eventually won the Prix de Rome in 1887 and went on to become the leading representative of impressionism in music, a term that Gilman also applied to the music of MacDowell. (p.315)

Deland, Margaret (1857–1945) American novelist. Born in Pennsylvania, she was also a writer of poetry and short stories. She moved to Boston in 1880, where she ran a home for unmarried mothers on Beacon Hill. It was during this time that she began her writing. She was known for her novel John Ward, Preacher and the poetry collection The Old Garden, from which MacDowell drew the texts for From an Old Garden, op. 26.

Desvernine, Pablo (1823–1910) Cuban pianist and teacher of Edward MacDowell. He studied in Paris 1840–1847, taking lessons with Kalkbrenner and Thalberg. He was active in Cuban music until moving to New York in 1869. He was responsible for developing MacDowell into an advanced pianist and convincing the family to send him to Paris for further study.

Diller, Angela (1877–1968) Piano student of MacDowell who was the first winner of the Mosenthal Fellowship in 1899. She taught at the New England Conservatory, the University of Southern California, and Mills College, as well as cofounding the Diller-Quaile School of Music in New York. Her piano method was widely used, selling more than 2 million copies.

Dvorˇák, Antonín (1841–1904) The greatest nineteenth-century Czech composer, known for his use of nationalism. He was already famous when Jeannette Thurber hired him as director of her National Conservatory of Music from 1892 to 1895. While there he wrote his Symphony No. 9, op. 95 (“From the New World”) and other American-inspired works. His example and his pronouncements to the press helped to reshape the debate on nationalism in American music.

Ehlert, Louis (1825–1884) Composition teacher and music critic who taught MacDowell in Wiesbaden in the winter of 1879 and served as a mentor until his death five years later.

Erskine, John (1879–1951) Educated at Columbia University (AM, 1901; PhD, 1903) and subsequently served on the English faculty there from 1909 to 1937. He was one of the pioneers of the Great Books movement, a teaching philosophy closely related to MacDowell’s methods in his surveys of music history. He was the author of numerous important books, and several of his autobiographical writings contain significant reminiscences of MacDowell and his classes.

Finck, Henry T. (1854–1926) American music critic and advocate of the Romantic composers Liszt, Wagner, Grieg, and MacDowell. He was the music critic of the Nation and the New York Evening Post, and also a prolific writer on various topics. MacDowell gave Finck the manuscript to his symphonic poem Lamia, which was published and performed within a year after the composer’s death, despite Marian’s reservations.

Foote, Arthur (1853–1937) American teacher, composer, organist, and pianist. He studied with John Knowles Paine at Harvard College, studied organ with B. J. Lang, and was the first American university student to earn an MA in music (Harvard, 1875). He wrote in a conservative Romantic style, specializing in chamber music. He was an especially fine teacher and wrote a theory text (p.316) with Spalding. MacDowell and Strong did not trust him, as they felt he was jealous of MacDowell’s success.

Fritzsch, Ernst Wilhelm (1840–1902) Leipzig music publisher. He published MacDowell’s Prélude et Fugue, op. 13, and Serenade, op. 16, and was the publisher of the Musikalisches Wochenblatt.

Garland, Hamlin (1860–1940) Author who wrote on American topics and impressions. He especially focused on native Amerindian life in his writings. He first heard MacDowell perform when he was a penniless student in Boston, and the two became close friends in later years.

Gericke, Wilhelm (1845–1925) Austrian conductor. He led the Boston Symphony Orchestra (1884–1889 and 1898–1908), during which time he featured many of MacDowell’s works, including the 1889 Boston premiere of the Second Piano Concerto.

Gilbert, Henry F. (1868–1928) American composer. A composition pupil of MacDowell after his arrival in Boston, he later became interested in Negro melodies and folk songs. His recollections provide important perspectives on MacDowell’s early years in Boston.

Gilman, Lawrence (1878–1939) Music critic and MacDowell’s first biographer. After early studies in art, he learned music on his own, becoming enamored of MacDowell’s works in his early twenties. He published two books and numerous articles that did much for his hero’s reputation. His enthusiasm led him to make intemperate statements about MacDowell’s American contemporaries, which Marian believed contributed to professional jealousy by other composers. He later became a respected musical authority for Harper’s Weekly and the New York Herald Tribune.

Gleason, Frederick Grant (1848–1903) American composer, teacher, and performer. The first president of the Chicago Manuscript Society, he was also music critic for the Chicago Tribune. He wrote music in many styles, including the use of leitmotifs. Theodore Thomas conducted much of his music.

Glücklich, J. C. MacDowell’s realtor in Wiesbaden and the librettist of “Bitte,” op. 33, no. 1.

Godowsky, Leopold (1870–1938) Lithuanian American pianist and composer. He was also a friend and colleague of W. S. B. Mathews in Chicago. Godowsky’s phenomenal technique was reflected in a series of fifty-three Studies on the Chopin Études (1894–1914), free fantasies on the melodies and pianistic patterns of Chopin. When Godowsky dedicated his Concert Study, op. 11, no. 3, to MacDowell in 1899, the latter objected strenuously.

Grieg, Edvard (1843–1907) Norwegian composer, conductor, and pianist. A student at the Leipzig Conservatory, he studied piano with Moscheles and harmony and counterpoint with Richter, Hauptmann, and Reinecke. Known as a nationalist composer, he is famous for his incidental music to Ibsen’s play Peer Gynt. MacDowell developed a friendship with Grieg by correspondence and dedicated his last two sonatas to him. (p.317)

Hainauer, Julius (1827–1897) Music publisher in Breslau, Germany. He published many of MacDowell’s early piano works with no royalties to the composer, as well as the orchestral works Hamlet and Ophelia, op. 22, Lancelot and Elaine, op. 25, and Romanze for cello and orchestra, op. 35, for which the composer paid substantial subventions. After MacDowell became famous and his works began selling in large quantities, he and Hainauer had an acrimonious dispute over US copyrights to the works published in Germany.

Hale, Philip (1854–1934) American music critic and program annotator. He studied in Europe with Haupt, Rheinberger, Bargiel, and Guilmant. He began his career as music critic for the Boston Post, moving to the Boston Journal the following year. He also wrote for the Musical Courier, and the Boston Herald. From 1901 to 1933 he wrote the program notes for the Boston Symphony Orchestra, developing the previously lightweight genre into one more scholarly and literary. He and his wife, Irene, bought a summer home near the MacDowells in New Hampshire.

Henderson, W. J. (1855–1937) Music critic for the New York Times. His enthusiastic reviews of MacDowell’s performances and compositions did much to seal the composer’s New York reputation.

Herbert, Victor (1859–1924) American cellist and composer. He studied at the Stuttgart Conservatory with Max Seifritz. He was also a conductor as well as a member of the faculty of the National Conservatory of Music. Most famous for operettas such as Naughty Marietta, he also composed concert works, including his cantata The Captive, premiered on the same Worcester Music Festival concert that premiered MacDowell’s Suite für grosses Orchester, op. 42.

Heymann, Carl (1854–1922) An outstanding German piano virtuoso who taught at the Hoch Conservatory during the three semesters of MacDowell’s attendance. Plagued by mental illness, he resigned his position in 1880 to settle in Bingen am Rhein and spent the last third of his life in a mental hospital.

Hinrichs, Gustav (1850–1942) Born in Mecklenburg, Germany, and trained as an orchestral musician. Hinrichs moved to San Francisco in 1870, where he taught, conducted, and composed for fifteen years. In 1885 he was named assistant to Theodore Thomas in the short-lived American Opera Company. He worked closely with MacDowell as conductor at Columbia University from 1899 to 1906. He was also assistant conductor at the Metropolitan Opera from 1903 to 1908 before relocating to San Francisco. He shared MacDowell’s interest in new music, conducting the American premieres of Cavalleria Rusticana, I Pagliacci, and Manon Lescaut in San Francisco.

Humiston, William Henry (1869–1923) Organist, composer, and conductor. After early studies with W. S. B. Mathews in Chicago, he studied under MacDowell at Columbia University from 1896 to 1899. During a relatively brief career, he worked as an organist at various churches, as a conductor (including the post of assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic from 1916), annotator (p.318) of the New York Philharmonic programs from 1912, and composer in his own right. His large collection of early editions of MacDowell works is now in the Lowens Collection.

Huneker, James G. (1857–1921) American critic and writer. Author of “The Raconteur” columns for the Musical Courier, he was also critic for the Philadelphia Press, the New York Times, and the New York World. He edited piano pieces and songs by Chopin, Brahms, and Strauss, and published numerous books. His New York Herald essay on his visit with MacDowell in 1906 did much to shape public opinion on the composer’s condition.

Huss, Henry Holden (1862–1953) New York composer, pianist, and teacher. He corresponded briefly with MacDowell during his Paris years and later studied at the Royal Music School in Munich with Rheinberger and Giehrl. He married the soprano Hildegard Hoffmann, with whom he gave recitals. He considered himself MacDowell’s rival for the Columbia position, but there is no evidence that he was in serious contention.

Johnson, Robert Underwood (1853–1937) American writer and diplomat. He was on the staff of Century Magazine from 1873 to 1913, serving as associate editor and eventually editor. He was instrumental in creating Yosemite National Park and was also involved in forming the Sierra Club. He worked closely with MacDowell as secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and later served as US ambassador to Italy after World War I.

Joseffy, Rafael (1852–1915) Hungarian pianist who studied with E. F. Wenzel, Tausig, and Liszt. He made his American debut in 1879 and later toured with Theodore Thomas and his orchestra. He was one of the first pianists in America to play Brahms on a regular basis. As a piano instructor at the National Conservatory from 1888 to 1906, he was in regular contact with Fanny MacDowell.

Kahnt, C. F. (1823–1897) German music publisher who featured works by contemporary composers such as Liszt, Busoni, Nielsen, and Mahler as well as lesser-known composers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He published MacDowell’s songs, opp. 11 and 12, as well as his Wald Idyllen, op. 19, for piano.

Krehbiel, Henry E. (1854–1923) American music critic and scholar. He was the longtime musical editor of the New York Tribune, where his opinions exerted a strong influence on contemporary taste. He was the author of various books on musical topics, including one of the first books on African American music. He translated German language libretti and biographies, including Thayer’s Beethoven biography.

Lachmund, Carl Valentine (1853–1928) American pianist who studied music in Germany. He became a close friend of Liszt while studying with him in Weimar. He eventually moved to Minneapolis to teach piano and tour as a concert pianist. Later, he moved to New York to establish the Lachmund Conservatory of Music. He met MacDowell during his 1882 visit to Weimar and corresponded with him in years after. (p.319)

Lang, Benjamin Johnson (1837–1909) One of Boston’s most powerful ­musicians and the man credited with convincing MacDowell to return to his homeland in 1888. Lang had studied in Berlin in the 1850s and went on to become an influential musician in Boston through his conducting and keyboard playing. He founded and directed the Apollo Club, a male chorus, and the Cecilia Society, a mixed chorus. A very busy teacher, he was able to amass a significant fortune over the course of his long career, which enabled his talented daughter Margaret Ruthven Lang (1867–1972) to devote her life to composition.

Langs, John Pierce (1882–1967) Piano student of MacDowell. Langs studied in Berlin from 1897 to 1898 before enrolling at Columbia University, where he studied composition and piano. After a year spent teaching at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Langs returned to New York to study piano privately during the winter of 1904–1905. Langs’s detailed personal diary gives first-hand evidence of MacDowell’s decline in the months before his breakdown.

Liszt, Franz (1811–1886) Hungarian composer, pianist, and leader of the group known as the “New German School.” He was the greatest piano virtuoso of his time, causing students by the hundreds to flock to Weimar for lessons. A forward-looking composer, he is credited with the harmonic experimentation and use of thematic transformation that helped to drive musical ideas into the twentieth century. It was his advocacy that allowed MacDowell to perform at the 1882 festival of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein in Zürich, but there is no evidence to support the oft-repeated story that he convinced Breitkopf & Härtel to publish MacDowell’s two piano suites.

Low, Seth (1850–1916) University president and politician. After making his fortune in the silk trade, Low served as mayor of Brooklyn from 1881 to 1885. As president of Columbia University from 1890 to 1901, he established a pension system and sabbatical leaves for faculty, oversaw the transformation from college to university, and shepherded the move from Midtown Manhattan to its current location in Morningside Heights. He donated $1 million to build the Low Memorial Library in the center of the new campus in honor of his late father. After running unsuccessfully for mayor of New York in 1897, he won the post in 1901, resigning as president of Columbia in order to devote full time to his new position. During a two-year term as mayor he reformed the police department and civil service system, lowered taxes, and improved educational opportunities, but he failed to win reelection. He hired MacDowell as first professor of music at Columbia University in 1896 and raised funds for his support after his collapse in 1905.

Marmontel, Antoine François (1816–1898) French pianist and teacher. He taught a large part of his career at the Paris Conservatory, where he had studied piano with Zimmermann and had won the “premier prix.” His pupils included Albéniz, Debussy, MacDowell, and Pierné.

Mason, William (1829–1908) An important American piano teacher, performer, and composer. After studying with Liszt and others in the 1850s, Mason (p.320) became established as a teacher in New York. His Touch and Technic, op. 44 (1889) is one of the most influential pedagogical texts of the nineteenth ­century. Mason admired the works of MacDowell and played them often, helping to popularize the piano sonatas and Virtuoso Etudes.

Mathews, W. S. B. (1837–1912) Music critic and piano teacher in Chicago. He was MacDowell’s most vocal detractor, launching a series of diatribes in the pages of his journal Music. He particularly took issue with MacDowell’s pianism, claiming that he did not play his own works as indicated in the scores.

McKim, Charles Follen (1847–1909) American architect. His firm designed the Boston Public Library, the Morningside Heights campus of Columbia University, Pennsylvania Station, the New York Herald building, and other icons of prewar architecture. He was instrumental in founding the American Academy in Rome, working closely with MacDowell.

McWhood, Leonard B. (1870–1939) Student and colleague of MacDowell at Columbia University. Already a student when MacDowell arrived in 1896, McWhood began teaching theory classes the following year. MacDowell requested a promotion for him in 1902 but was denied. After MacDowell’s resignation, he was promoted to adjunct instructor, a position he held until 1910. The rumor circulated in the months after MacDowell’s resignation that McWhood had done the bulk of the department’s teaching in previous years, which MacDowell vigorously denied. McWhood incurred MacDowell’s ire by refusing to issue a public statement refuting the rumor.

Moebius, Kurt New York representative of the Breitkopf & Härtel firm during the 1890s. Under his own imprint of P. L. Jung, Moebius published MacDowell’s opp. 51–56 along with Thorn’s opp. 1–7. These included some of the composer’s most remunerative publications, but he was forced to sell his catalog to Schmidt when he got into financial trouble in 1899.

Nikisch, Arthur (1855–1922) Austro-Hungarian conductor who studied violin and composition at the Vienna Conservatory. He later became the principal conductor for the Leipzig Opera as well as the Boston Symphony Orchestra, the Budapest Opera, the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, earning a reputation as the most influential conductor of his day. His tenure in Boston from 1889 to 1893 was rocky, as the conservative audiences bridled at his interpretational liberties. He often featured MacDowell’s works on his concerts, including twice during the 1892/93 season.

Paderewski, Ignace (1860–1941) Polish pianist and composer. He studied music in Warsaw, Berlin, and Vienna before embarking on an international career as a concert pianist. He was also a composer of piano music and the opera Manru. He became a matinee idol as much for his high level of pianistic virtuosity as for his striking appearance and stage mannerisms.

Parker, Henry Taylor (1867–1934) Boston music critic. He signed his reviews “H.T.P.,” which was variously interpreted as “Hard to Please” or “Hell to (p.321) Pay.” Although he did not read music, his perceptive comments and incisive writing earned him a loyal following. As critic for the Boston Evening Transcript from 1905, he opined that MacDowell’s orchestral works were weak, passing a negative judgment on the premiere of Lamia in 1908.

Parker, Horatio (1863–1919) American church musician and important composer who studied composition with Chadwick in Boston. An accomplished organist, he studied at the Royal Music School in Munich with Josef Rheinberger. He became organist and choirmaster at Trinity Church in Boston in 1893. He was appointed Battell Professor of Music at Yale University in 1894, where he exerted an important influence on music in higher education. Like MacDowell, his works were highly regarded in England in the early twentieth century.

Paur, Emil (1855–1932) Austrian violinist, conductor, and composer. He succeeded Nikisch as the conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, replaced Seidl at the New York Philharmonic Society, and was Dvorˇák’s successor as director of the National Conservatory of Music.

Pierné, Gabriel (1863–1937) French composer and conductor. He studied at the Paris Conservatory, winning premiers prix for organ, harmony, and counterpoint. He was appointed principal conductor at the Concerts Colonne, where he conducted many premieres of works by important composers of his day.

Raff, Joachim (1822–1882) Swiss composer, teacher, and critic. He worked closely with Liszt in Weimar in the early 1850s before relocating to Wiesbaden in 1856 to teach piano, singing, and harmony. He became the director of the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt in 1878, where he taught Edward MacDowell. Among the most famous composers in Europe at his death in 1882, his reputation declined rapidly in the succeeding decades. His life and works are chronicled extensively at www.raff.org.

Raff, Doris (1826–1912) Wife of Joachim Raff. She was the daughter of Eduard Genast, Weimar Court Theatre Director. Raff fell in love with her in 1850 while working with Liszt in Weimar. She left to become an actress with the Royal Theatre in Wiesbaden in 1853, and they were married there in 1859. After Raff’s death in 1882, she struggled to publish his remaining works. Edward MacDowell helped her negotiate with A. P. Schmidt for the publication of the Four Shakespeare Overtures, only two of which appeared in print.

Riedel, Carl (1827–1888) German composer and choral conductor. He studied music at the Leipzig Conservatory with Hauptmann and joined the faculty upon graduation. He became a supporter of the “New German School” through his presidency of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein.

Rübner [Rybner], Cornelius (1853–1929) Danish pianist and teacher. After MacDowell’s resignation from Columbia University in 1904, Burgess hired Rübner on the recommendation of some American women who had heard him play at a German resort. Even though he did not speak English and had no musical reputation, he succeeded in ingratiating himself with students and administrators as MacDowell had not. (p.322)

Riemenschneider, Georg (1848–1913) German conductor, critic, and composer. He often performed the orchestral works of MacDowell with his orchestra in Breslau, and he wrote laudatory reviews of MacDowell’s works for German periodicals.

Saint-Saëns, Camille (1835–1921) French composer, organist, and pianist with close ties to Liszt and the “New German School.” A member of the 1878 piano jury at the Paris Conservatory, he resigned in protest over biased judging. MacDowell dedicated his Zweite moderne Suite, op. 14, to Saint-Saëns.

Sauret, Emile (1852–1920) French violinist and composer. The first husband of Teresa Carreño, he had access to their daughter, Emilita, who lived with the Bischoff family in Wiesbaden and was prohibited from contact with her mother.

Schirmer, Gustav (1829–1893) One of America’s most important music publishers. The firm published only one of MacDowell’s works, From an Old Garden, op. 26 (1887). The composer was so angry over the appearance of the cover, for which he had given detailed instructions, that they never collaborated again. In 1906, after MacDowell’s breakdown, the firm paid Marian MacDowell back royalties, which her husband had refused to accept in his fit of pique.

Schmidt, Arthur P. (1846–1921) German-born American publisher who specialized in works by New England composers Chadwick, Beach, Bird, Paine, Parker, Foote, and MacDowell in gratitude for his success in America. He believed strongly in MacDowell’s talent, promoting his works and supporting his widow Marian despite the composer’s often-ungrateful behavior.

Seidl, Anton (1850–1898) Austro-Hungarian by birth, he became a naturalized American citizen. He championed the operatic works of Wagner, bringing the operas performed at the Met up to a very high standard. His protégés included Victor Herbert and Arthur Farwell, and he famously stated that he preferred the works of MacDowell to those of Brahms.

Sinclair, Upton (1878–1968) Studied at Columbia University briefly after studying at City College in New York. Financial exigencies forced him to leave before earning a degree, but he achieved fame with his 1906 novel The Jungle, the eleven novels of the Lanny Budd series, and numerous other works of fiction. He published recollections of his student days with MacDowell.

Sonneck, Oscar George Theodore (1873–1928) American musicologist, librarian, and editor. He studied in Heidelberg, Munich, and Sondershausen in Germany. He was head of the music division of the Library of Congress from 1902 to 1917 and edited the Musical Quarterly. An ardent champion of American music, he published a seminal work on early American secular music, laid the foundation of the exemplary collection of American scores at the Library of Congress, and published the foundational study on MacDowell’s published editions. The Sonneck Society for American Music was named in his honor at its founding in 1975. (p.323)

Strong, George Templeton, Jr. (1856–1948) American composer and painter and Edward MacDowell’s best friend. The two met in 1886 when Strong moved to Wiesbaden. Strong’s works include two symphonies, numerous choral works, and compositions for piano. Despite MacDowell’s urging, Strong lacked initiative to promote his own works. He taught at the New England Conservatory from 1891 to 1892 but returned to Switzerland when his marriage fell apart. MacDowell again convinced him to move to America in the summer of 1896, but when Strong learned of his friend’s impending move to New York, they had a falling out, and he abandoned music to become a watercolorist in Switzerland. After three years of estrangement, they reestablished contact in 1899.

Thomas, Ambroise (1811–1896) French composer, teacher, and pedagogical writer. He studied at the Paris Conservatory with Zimmerman, Doulen, and Le Sueur, winning the Prix de Rome in 1832. He was primarily an opera composer, famous for his Mignon and Hamlet. As director of the Conservatory during MacDowell’s student years, he instituted reforms to remove underperforming students.

Thomas, Theodore (1835–1905) American conductor. Born in Germany, his formal music training came to a halt after moving to America. He toured the country with his orchestra, introducing orchestral music to small towns on the “Thomas Highway.” He was famous for his Cincinnati May Festival concerts and later directed the New York Philharmonic before becoming the first conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He played a vital role in American musical life, premiering many great masterpieces of European music to the American public. He served as music director for the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition in 1876 and the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.

Thurber, Jeannette Meyer (1850–1946) American music patron. She studied at the Paris Conservatory, which served as the model for her National Conservatory of Music in New York City. Students were accepted according to talent and not barred because of race or religion. MacDowell refused her offer of a position on the faculty in 1888, but his mother Fanny became Thurber’s secretary in 1889. Dvorˇák served as director of the conservatory from 1892 to 1895.

Tretbar, Charles F. (ca. 1829–1909) Joined the firm of Steinway and Sons in 1864, where he served for forty years. During this time he was instrumental in building the Steinway roster of concert artists, arranging US tours for numerous European luminaries. MacDowell used his services as agent for a number of years in the 1890s.

Van der Stucken, Frank (1858–1929) American conductor and composer born in Fredericksburg, Texas. He studied music in Holland and went on to an important career in New York and Cincinnati. He organized and conducted concerts of American music in New York and for the 1889 Paris Exposition. The founder of the Cincinnati Symphony (1895), he was also the dean of the (p.324) Cincinnati College of Music (later merged with the Conservatory of Music as the Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music in 1955). He was the music director for the Cincinnati May Festival from 1906 to 1912 and from 1923 to 1927.

Whiting, Arthur (1861–1936) American composer, pianist, and teacher who studied with Chadwick at the New England Conservatory and later with Rheinberger at the Munich Conservatory. He lived in Boston from 1885 to 1895 and in New York thereafter. His music—mostly for piano and chamber ensembles—was conservative in style. Despite a personal antipathy to Whiting, MacDowell proposed him as a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters.

Wilson, George H. (1854–1908) Critic for the Boston Traveller when MacDowell returned from Europe in 1888. Shortly afterward, he purchased the Boston Musical Herald and used this journal as a platform from which to attack F. X. Arens for his American Composers’ Concerts in Germany in 1892. MacDowell refused to endorse Wilson’s smear campaign, despite his own reservations about the Arens tour. As music secretary of the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893, Wilson incurred MacDowell’s wrath by prematurely announcing that the composer would set the Columbian Ode to music for the dedication ceremony. MacDowell subsequently incurred Wilson’s wrath by agreeing to perform at the Exposition but pulling out at the last minute. Wilson later settled in Pittsburgh as manager of the Carnegie Music Hall and the Pittsburgh Symphony. He and MacDowell reconciled their differences and arranged for performances of his orchestral works in Pittsburgh.

Woodberry, George E. (1855–1930) Professor of comparative literature at Columbia University from 1891 to 1904. A brilliant author and lecturer, his unconventional teaching made him a favorite of students and a target of the administration. After humiliating confrontations with Columbia’s president Nicholas Murray Butler, Woodberry took a sabbatical in 1903/04, submitting his resignation letter to the university on 14 January 1904, four days before MacDowell’s resignation.

Zerrahn, Carl (1826–1909) German-born American conductor and flutist. He conducted the Harvard Musical Association Orchestra and the Worcester Festival orchestra. He was also a respected choral conductor and taught singing, harmony, and composition at the New England Conservatory.