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King, Governance, and Law in Ancient IndiaKautilya's Arthasastra$

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199891825

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199891825.001.0001

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(p.439) Appendix 1 Fauna and Flora

(p.439) Appendix 1 Fauna and Flora

Source:
King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Common fauna and flora that can be readily translated are not listed here; they are found in the Index. Identifying Sanskrit names for flora and fauna is beset with difficulties. As Wujastyk (2003, xxxv) has observed: “Anyone who has worked with the Sanskrit medical texts has, at one time or another, been driven to desperation by the problem of plant nomenclature and identification.” I am no exception. Below I give the best identifications I can come up with; sometimes they are multiple, because different scholars provide different identifications. All the places where these terms occur are listed after each entry. One problem with Kangle’s translation is that he has made no effort to identify the flora and fauna mentioned in the . My hope is that this index, imperfect though it is, will help those readers interested in the use of plants and animals in ancient Indian statecraft.

For further information on flora, see Nadkarni 1976; P. V. Sharma 1979. For animals, see Prater 1997. For birds, see Dave 2005. For reptiles and amphibians, see Daniel 2002. See also the many online resources: http://www.plantago.nl/; Table of Ayurvedic Plants and Minerals with Sanskrit (and Synonyms), Common, and Botanical Names: http://ayurveda-florida.com/Ayurvedic_Materia_Medica_Articles/Table2.htm; Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants: http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/.

  • Akṣi. I have been unable to identify this plant. If it is a short term for Matsyākṣi, then it is Sessile Joyweed; Hindi: Gudrisag; Alternanthera sessilis. Or it could be Enhydra fluctuans. There are also other plants (p.440) with akṣi at the end of their names: Gavākṣi (Citrullus colocynthis); Kuberākṣi (Caesalpinia bonduc). 14.1.15, 17, 23, 30.

  • Akṣīva. In general, it is the common drumstick tree (Moringa pterygosperma). Given that it is listed at 14.1.13 along with śigru, which is the most common name for the drumstick tree, it probably refers to a different plant.

  • Amlaka. Indian gooseberry, emblic myrobalan, Emblica officinalis, 14.3.3.

  • Anavadya. Probably the stamen of saffron crocus. See 2.11.29 n.

  • Andhāhika. Literally, “blind snake,” the term probably refers to a particular reptile with this name. Daniel (2002, 76–78) identifies three kinds of worm snakes called blind snakes: Ramphotyphlops braminus, Typhlops diardii, and Rhinotyphlops acutus. This term is also identified with a fish called Kucikā (Unibranchapertura cuchiya). 14.1.4, 12, 19.

  • Añjalikāra. Appearing between two animals at 14.1.23, it probably refers to a kind of lizard or animal that brings its paws together. It could also be a variant of Añjalikārikā, Mimosa natans.

  • Apāmārga. Commonly called prickly chaff flower or devil’s horsewhip, Achyranthes aspera. 2.25.33.

  • Arālā. The tree Shorea robusta, more commonly known in Sanskrit as sāla. 14.1.10.

  • Arjuna. Arjuna myrobalan; Hindi: Arjuna, Kahu, Terminalia arjuna, 2.17.4.

  • Arka. Madder tree. See Wojtilla 2011, 6. Calotropis procera or gigantea. 2.17.7; 2.18.9; 14.1.15, 17; 14.2.6, 8.

  • Āsphota. Wild jasmine, Jasminum angustifolium. Also identified as Jasminum sambac, Evolvulus alsinoides, Clitoria ternatea, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Salvadora persica. 2.25.33; 14.1.11.

  • Aśvattha. Peepal or sacred fig tree, Ficus religiosa. 1.20.5; 14.4.12.

  • Atasī. Linseed, flax plant, Linum usitatissimum (Wojtilla 2011, 5). 2.17.7.

  • Avalguja. Possibly Babchi, psoralea seed. Hindi: Bavchi, Bakshi, Psoralea corylifolia. 13.4.19; 14.1.4.

  • Avānu. I have been unable to identify this plant. The reading at 14.1.30 is also uncertain.

  • Badara. The jujube tree, Ziziphus jujuba. 2.14.33.

  • Baka. Dave 2005, 383–387, 408–409. This term is applied to a wide variety of water fowl, including the heron, ibis, stork, and common flamingo. 14.1.15. (p.441)

  • Bakula. Bullet-wood tree, Mimusops elengi. 2.11.108, 111.

  • Balā. Indian country mallow, flannel weed, Sida cordifolia. 14.4.2.

  • Balākā. Dave 2005, 409–421. Flamingo; the term is sometimes applied to other water fowl, such as the egret. 14.1.15.

  • Balbaja. A type of coarse grass; crowfoot grass, crab grass, Eleusine indica. 2.17.8; 4.8.22.

  • Bāṇa. Generally means arrow and possibly refers to the reed Saccharum sara. 14.1.30.

  • Bhallātaka. Marking nut, oriental cashew, Semecarpus anacardium, or black varnish tree of Malabar. Hindi: Halgery, Holigarna arnottiana. 14.1.4, 6, 7, 30; 14.2.11.

  • Bhallātakī. Possibly another spelling of Bhallātaka. 2.2.10.

  • Bhāllūka. A variety of reed (2.17.5). I have not been able to identify this further. The form Bhalluka is identified by Macri (1988, 105) as Calosanthes indica (also named Oroxylum indicum), but this is a large tree and cannot be classified as a reed.

  • Bhāṇḍi. Siris tree, Indian walnut, Indian madder. Many plants and trees bear this name: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia julibrissin, Operculina turpethum, Clerondendrum viscosum, Rubia munjesta, Hydrocotyle asiatica. 14.1.13.

  • Bhāsa. A species of vulture, identified by Dave (2005, 188) as the bearded vulture. 14.1.25; 14.2.41.

  • Bhṛṅgakapāla. Perhaps the trailing eclipta plant. Hindi: Bangrah, Moprant, Eclipta alba or prostrata. 14.2.19.

  • Bhṛṅgarāja. The large racket-tailed drongo (Dave 2005, 64). 1.20.7; 2.26.5.

  • Cakora. Partridge, Perdix rufa. 1.20.8; 2.26.5; 2.30.4.

  • Cakravāka. The ruddy sheldrake called the Brahmani duck. The fidelity of a mated pair to each other and their grief when separated are celebrated in Indian poetry and folklore (Dave 2005, 450f.). 2.26.5.

  • Cāpa. A kind of reed or bamboo. 2.17.5; 2.18.8.

  • Cimiya. A kind of reed or bamboo. 2.17.5.

  • Cirbhiṭa. Snake cucumber, Cucumis melo or utilissimus. 2.15.17.

  • Citraka. White or Ceylon leadwort, doctorbush, Plumbago zeylanica. 2.25.29, 33.

  • Coraka. According to Macri (1988), Trigonella corniculata; a kind of fenugreek. According to the Table of Ayurvedic Plants: Angelica, Angelica glauca, called Cora in Punjabi (Kirtikar and Basu 2001, 1687). Kangle identifies it as anise seed. 2.15.20. (p.442)

  • Damanaka. Sagebrush, Artemisia siversiana. Dona in Bengali; Davana in Marathi; Dauna in Hindi (Kirtikar and Basu 2001, 1933). 2.15.20.

  • Daṇḍāsana. It is unclear whether this is simply the name of an arrow or refers to a reed from which the arrow was made. See 2.18.10.

  • Dantaśaṭha. Perhaps sour orange, Citrus aurantium, or Chinese gooseberry, Averrhoa carambola (Macri 1988). 14.4.2.

  • Danti. Wild castor, wild croton. Hindi: Hastidanti, Baliospermum montanum. According to Macri (1988), Croton polyandrus. 14.4.2.

  • Darbha. A type of grass used for ritual purposes, most commonly the same as Kuśa; specifically the grass Saccharum cylindricum. Sometimes, Darbha can mean simply a tuft or bundle, as in VaDh 21.2, lohitadarbha (Lohita grass). 10.3.31; 14.2.3.

  • Dāruharidrā. Indian barberry, tree turmeric, Berberis aristata.

  • Dātyūha. This term is given to a variety of birds, including the hawk cuckoo and several water birds, such as the black ibis, the white-breasted waterhen, and the purple moorhen (Dave 2005, 294). 2.25.27, 33.

  • Devadāru. The Himalayan cedar, Cedrus deodara. 13.4.18.

  • Dhāmārgava. Wash sponge, sponge gourd, Luffa cylindrica or Luffa acutangula. Hindi: Dhundhul. 14.1.6, 30.

  • Dhanvana. Dhaman, Grewia tiliaefolia. According to Macri (1988), Grewia elastica. 2.17.4.

  • Dhava. Identified by Shamasastry as Mimosa hexandra, and by Macri (1988) as Grislea tomentosa and Anogeissus latifolia (axle-wood, button tree). 2.17.4.

  • Dravantī. Physic nut, purging nut, Jatropha curcas. 14.4.8.

  • Dūṣīviṣa. In its usage, it is unclear whether it is a plant from which a poison is derived, or the name of a poison. 14.1.22; 14.4.1.

  • Elaka. Also spelled eḍaka, a variety of cardamom, Elletaria cardamomum. 14.1.30.

  • Elāvāluka. Identified by Shamasastry as Solanum melongena (eggplant), and by Meyer and Macri (1988) as Feronia elephantum (wood apple). 2.25.27.

  • Eṇa. The black buck (also called Kr̥ṣṇasāra in MDh 2.23), an antelope with black fur on its back and sides and white fur on its belly, Antilope cervicapra (Prater 1997, 270). 2.15.55.

  • Gajapippalī. A large perennial climber, Scindapsus officinalis. Hindi: Gajapippal, Barippali. 2.25,29. (p.443)

  • Gaṇḍūpada. A kind of worm, earthworm. 14.2.19.

  • Gautama-vṛkṣa. I have been unable to identify this species. 14.1.17

  • Gavedhukā. Job’s tear, coixseed, tear grass, Coix lacryma-jobi. 2.17.7.

  • Goji. The identity is unclear. According to Macri (1988), Trophis aspera. 14.4.2.

  • Gomārikā. The identity is unclear. Meyer thinks it could be a reptile, insect, or plant that is poisonous to cows. 14.1.4.

  • Gomūtrikā. The identity is unclear; dictionaries call it a reddish grass, with the synonyms raktatṛṇā, tāmbaḍu, and the like. 14.1.13.

  • Granthikā. Macri (1988, 76) gives the form granthika and identifies it as Piper longum, the long pepper. 14.1.25.

  • Guñja. Indian licorice, Jequirity, rosary pea, Abrus precatorius. 2.19.2; 14.1.11; 14.2.12; 14.3.79, 80.

  • Hālāhala. At 2.17.12, this appears within a list of poisons and is perhaps a name of a particular poison. But the poison may get its name from the plant from which it is derived, as at 14.1.30, where it is listed among other ingredients of a mixture. I have not been able to identify it; Macri (1988, 145) simply calls it a poisonous vegetable.

  • Hastikarṇa. Castor-oil plant, Ricinus communis. 14.1.9, 13, 16, 17

  • Hema. Perhaps the same as Hemamālatī, Myxopyrum serratulum. 14.1.10.

  • Hrībera. Hindi: Vālak. Plectranthus vettiveroides, Coleus vettiveroides. 2.24.22.

  • Idhma. I have been unable to identify this plant, animal, or insect. It is also unclear whether the readings at 14.1.4, 10 are correct.

  • Indīvara. Heartleaf, false pickerelweed, oval-leafed pondweed. A flowering plant in the water hyacinth family, Monochoria vaginalis. 2.25.33.

  • Indragopa. The precise zoological species is unclear. Lienhart (1978) shows that earlier translations of firefly and cochineal are inaccurate. The term refers to the tiny bright-red velvet mites (Thrombidiiae) that appear in large numbers early in the rainy season. 14.1.10.

  • Iṅgudī. Indian almond, Terminalia catappa (Wojtilla 2011, 7), or Sarcostigma kleinii, Tamil Oṭal. 2.15.40; 14.1.17.

  • Jātī. Spanish jasmine, royal jasmine, Jasminum grandiflorum. Hindi: Chameli. 2.11.66. (p.444)

  • Jihvā. The identity of this plant is uncertain, as is the reading at 14.1.25.

  • Jīvaṃjīvaka. The peacock pheasant (Dave 2005, 273). 1.20.8; 2.26.5.

  • Jīvantī. Hindi: Arkapuṣpi, Cakṣuṣya, etc. Leptadenia retriculata. 1.20.5; 14.4.12.

  • Kāca. I have been unable to identify this. Shamasastry and Meyer take it as a kind of salt. 14.1.11.

  • Kaiḍarya. Possibly the curry leaf tree, Murraya koenigii. 14.4.5.

  • Kākāṇḍa. The tree Diospyros tomentosa (Macri 1988, 33, 62) and also identified as mahānimba. 2.12.16.

  • Kalāya. Mallow, jute, Corchorus capsularis; or yellow pea, yellow vetch, Lathyrus aphaca. 2.11.31; 2.12.6; 2.15.29, 37; 2.24.14.

  • Kāleyaka. Macri (1988), with the spelling kālīya(ka), identifies this as Curcuma zanthorrhiza, a kind of turmeric. 2.11.69.

  • Kālī. Indian stinging nettle, Tragia involucrata, according to Shamasastry. 14.1.14.

  • Kaliṅgayava. Snowflakes, milky way, Wrightia antidysenterica or Holarrhena pubescens. 2.25.33.

  • Kambalī. Probably a small insect, but I have been unable to identify it. 14.1.4.

  • Kaṅgu. Foxtail millet, Setaria italica, or Panicum frumentaceum, or Papaver dubium (Wojtilla 2011, 9). 14.2.17.

  • Kaṅka. The name is used for several varieties of eagle, heron, stork, and kite. Its feathers were used in making arrows (Dave 2005, 242). Fitzgerald (1998, 258) has argued that the term refers to a carrion-eating stork. 14.2.41, 43.

  • Kaṇṭaka. A kind of reed or bamboo. 2.17.5.

  • Kaṇṭakāra. Also Kaṇṭakāri and Kaṇṭakārikā. Macri (1988): Solanum jacquini. Shamasastry: Solanum xanthocarpum. 14.1.17.

  • Kapittha. Wood apple, Limonia acidissima; Feronia elephantum. 14.4.2.

  • Karamarda. Jasmine flowered carrisa, Carissa carandas. 2.15.18.

  • Karañja. Indian beech, Pongamia glabra or pinnata. Hindi: Karanj. 2.25.33.

  • Karavīra. Indian oleander, Nerium oleander. 14.1.9, 17.

  • Karṇa. Golden shower tree, also called Aragvadha, Caturangula, Kritamala, Suvarnaka, Cassia fistula. 3.8.3.

  • Karṇikāra. Commonly known as Kanak Champa, Muchakunda, or Karnikar tree, Pterospermum acerifolium. 14.2.19. (p.445)

  • Kaśeruka. A kind of bulrush gowing in wetlands, Scirpus kysoor. 14.2.2.

  • Kaṭa. Clearing-nut tree; Hindi Nirmali, the fruits of which are used for medicinal purposes and to purify water, Strychnos potatorum. 14.4.8.

  • Kaṭaśarkarā. A kind of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum. 2.25.28, 33.

  • Kauṇḍinyaka. Perhaps a venomous insect. 14.1.4, 24.

  • Keśa. The identity of this plant is unclear; if it is the same as keśara, it would be Mimusops elengi, the Spanish cherry. 13.4.20, 21.

  • Khadira. Black catechu, cutch tree, Acacia catechu. 14.2.19; 14.3.41.

  • Khārakīṭa. The identity is unclear. With kīṭa at the end, it must refer to some kind of insect, perhaps one that makes a loud noise. 14.2.39, 40.

  • Kodrava. Kodo millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum. 2.15.25, 34; 2.24.12; 4.3.28; 14.1.9, 13, 16, 17, 22.

  • Kola. Identified by Shamasastry as “small jujube,” and by Meyer as “Brustbeere” or jujube fruit. Macri (1988) gives Cavya (Piper chaba), Citra(ka), (Plumbago zeylanica), and Badara (Ziziphus jujuba) as synonyms. 2.15.18.

  • Kośātakī. Ribbed gourd, Luffa pentandra, Luffa acutangula. 14.1.13; 14.2.15.

  • Kovidāra. Kodo millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum. 2.12.6.

  • Krakaṇṭaka. The identity and the correct reading are unclear. Meyer thinks that there may be an initial syllable missing, perhaps vakrakaṇṭaka,śukrakaṇṭaka, or takrakaṇṭaka. Shamasastry identifies it as a kind of partridge. 14.1.4.

  • Kramuka. Arecanut, betel nut, Areca faufel. 2.25.29.

  • Krauñca. A species of large water bird, probably the common crane (Dave 2005, 312). 1.20.8; 2.15.58; 2.26.5; 5.5.11; 14.2.30, 43.

  • Kṛkalāsa. Lizard, chameleon. 14.1.4.

  • Kṛkaṇa. The identity is uncertain; probably a kind of insect. 14.1.4, 14.

  • Kṛtakaṇḍala. The identity is uncertain; probably some kind of lizard or small animal. 14.1.19.

  • Kṣīravṛkṣa. Perhaps any of the four milky trees: banyan, Udumbara (Ficus glomerata), peepal (Ficus religiosa), and Madhūka (Madhuca longifolia). 2.25.33.

  • Kṣudrā. Macri (1988) identifies this as Mimosa pudica. Several plants appear to bear this name: Solanum Jacquini, commonly called Badi Katehri, Oxsalis pusilla, Coix barbata. 14.1.10. (p.446)

  • Kukkuṭa. Four-leaf clover, Marsilia quadrifolia. 14.2.15.

  • Kulattha. Horse gram, Dolichos biflorus or uniflorus (Macri 1988). 2.24.14; 14.2.3.

  • Kuraṇḍaka (also Kuraṇḍika). Blistering ammannia, Ammannia baccifera. Hindi: Dadamari, Kuranta. 2.13.26.

  • Kuraṅga. The four-horned antelope, Chowsingha, Tetracerus quadricornis. 2.15.55.

  • Kuśa. The most common of the sacred grasses (see Darbha) used for rituals and sacred purposes, Poa cynosuroides. 14.3.34.

  • Kuśāmra. Manuscripts at 2.17.4 record the spelling Kaśāmra. I have been unable to identify this tree. See 2.15.39 n.

  • Kuṣṭha. Canereed, wild ginger, Saussurea lappa, Costus speciosus. 2.11.68; 2.17.12; 14.1.14; 14.4.7.

  • Kutaja. The ivory tree, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Wrightia antidisenterica. Hindi: kurchi, kuda. 14.1.13.

  • Lāṅgalī. According to Shamasastry, Jusseina repens (creeping primrose willow). 14.1.17.

  • Likuca (or Lakuca). Monkey jack, Artocarpus lacucha. 2.11.110.

  • Lodhra. Lodh tree, Symplocos racemosa. 2.25.29; 14.4.7.

  • Madana. Emetic nut, Randia dumetorum. 4.3.28; 14.1.9, 13, 16, 17, 22; 14.4.4.

  • Madanaśārikā. The hill myna, Gracula religiosa (Dave 2005, 81). 2.26.5.

  • Madhūka. Indian butter tree, Mahwa, Mahua, Madhuca longifolia. Macri (1988) identifies it as Bassia latifolia. 2.15.40; 2.17.4.

  • Madhurasā. Macri (1988) provides several identifications: Sansevieria Roxburghiana (Indian bowstring hemp), Gmelina arborea (Candahar tree, white teak), Vitis vinifera (wine grape), Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice). 2.25.27.

  • Mahīrājī. The identity is unclear; equally unclear is whether we are dealing with one or two plants. Rājī is identified by Meyer as Veronia anthelmintica (purple fleabane). 14.4.3.

  • Mālatī. Refers to a variety of Jasmine. Given that it is listed at 2.17.7 among plants that yield fiber, it is unclear what species this refers to. Macri (1988) gives Jasminum grandiflorum, Bignonia suaveolens, Aganosma caryophyllata.

  • Mañjiṣṭhī. Indian madder, cultivated for the red pigment from its roots, Rubia cordifolia. 14.4.9

  • (p.447) Māṣa. Mung bean, Phaseolus radiatus. 2.12.5, 9; 2.15.27, 30, 51; 2.19.2, 29; 2.24.13; 2.25.26; 2.29.43; 2.30.18; 14.2.3, 32; 14.3.29.

  • Masūra. A kind of lentil, Ervum lens, Ervum hirsutum. 2.11.4; 2.15.31; 2.24.14.

  • Mātṛvāhaka. This is probably a variant of Mātṛvāhinī, a bat. 14.1.23.

  • Mattakokila. Probably the same as Kokila (Dave 2005, 128), the Asian koel or cuckoo. 1.20.8; 2.26.5.

  • Mayūrapadī. Macri spells mayūra(ka). Celosia cristata, cockscomb. 14.1.17.

  • Meṣaśr̥ṅgī (Meṣaśṛṅga). According to Macri (1988), Odina wodier, Gymnema sylvestre, Indian Ipecacuanha. 2.15.17; 2.17.12; 2.25.22, 33.

  • Moraṭā. Sansevieria roxburghiana. Moraṭa: root of Saccharum officinarum; flower of Alangium hexapetalum. 2.25.26, 33.

  • Mṛgamāraṇī. Literally, a plant that kills deer. I have failed to identify this plant. 14.1.17.

  • Mudga. Green gram, Vigna radiata. Macri 1988: Phaseolus mungo. 2.12.5; 2.13.21, 54; 2.15.27, 30; 2.24.13; 2.30.18.

  • Mūka. I have been unable to identify this plant. 14.1.16.

  • Mūla. According to Macri (1988), a vegetable in the group pañcamūla. 14.1.29.

  • Mūlāṭī. This term occurs at 2.11.32, 39, with reference to a particular color or the sparkle of gems and diamonds. The reading and the meaning are unclear. I have not been able to identify the plant.

  • Muñja. A species of rush belonging to the sugarcane family used for basket weaving, Saccharum munja. 2.17.8.

  • Mūrvā. A species of hemp used in the manufacture of bow strings, Sanseviera roxburghiana. 2.17.7; 2.18.9.

  • Muṣkaka. Weaver’s beam tree, Schrebera swientenioides. Hindi: Moka. 1.20.5; 14.4.12.

  • Naḍa. I have been unable to identify this; it is perhaps another spelling for Naḷa. 14.1.14.

  • Nāgalatā. Betel leaf plant, Paan, Piper betle. 2.17.6.

  • Nāga-vṛkṣa. Indian rose chestnut, Ceylon ironwood, Mesua ferrea. 2.11.108, 109.

  • Naktamāla. Indian beech, Pongamia glabra or pinnata. Same as Karañja. Hindi: Karanj. 4.8.22; 14.4.6.

  • Naptṛ. Nightjar (Dave 2005, 170). 14.3.1.

  • Nārāca. At 2.18.10, this plant is identified among those supplying material for the manufacture of arrows. Therefore, it must refer to (p.448) some kind of reed or bamboo. The commentary Cāṇakyaṭīkā and Gaṇapati Śāstrī, however, take it to mean either iron or any kind of metal. 2.18.10.

  • Navamālikā. Arabian jasmine, Tuscan jasmine, Double jasmine, Jasminum sambac. 2.11.59.

  • Palāśa. A variety of fig tree called Dhak with a beautiful trunk and abundant leaves, Butea frondosa. 2.12.9; 2.25.33; 13.4.20, 21; 14.1.9, 13, 16, 17.

  • Pañcakuṣṭha. I have been unable to identify this. Perhaps the reference is to five kinds of ginger (Kuṣṭha). 14.1.4, 14, 24.

  • Pāribhadraka. Indian coral tree, Moochy wood tree, tiger’s claw, Erythrina indica; has fiery red flowers. 13.4.20, 21; 14.2.20, 21, 27–29.

  • Pārijāta. Same as the previous. 2.11.29.

  • Parūṣaka. Phalsa or Falsa, Grewia asiatica, the fruit of which is sweet, sour, and acidic. 2.15.18.

  • Pāṭalī. Trumpet flower, yellow snake tree, Bignonia suaveolens, Stereospermum suaveolens. 2.12.6; 14.4.2.

  • Pataṅga. At 14.2.6, it is unclear whether this term refers to a flying insect or a plant species. If it is the latter, as I think it is, then the reference is to Sappan, Caesalpina sappan.

  • Pāṭhā. Clypea hernandifolia, Stephania hernandifolia. 2.25.27, 33.

  • Pattūra. Species of red sandalwood, Achyranthes trianda. 2.25.33.

  • Phaṇirjaka. Also called phaṇijjha(ka), this is a kind of marjoram (Oreganum) or basil. 14.1.13.

  • Pīlu. The tree Careya arborea (patana oak) growing in grassy expanses, or the toothbrush tree, Salvadora persica. 2.12.8, 9; 13.1.16; 14.2.22, 34.

  • Pīluka. Probably the same as Pīlu. 14.1.13, 15, 17, 23.

  • Piṇḍāluka. Perhaps the same as Piṇḍālu, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas. 2.24.22.

  • Piṇḍītaka. According to Macri (1988), Vangueria spinosa; Tabernaemontana coronaria (crape jasmine); Randia dumetorum (emetic nut). 14.4.3.

  • Plakṣa. Wavy-leaf fig tree, Ficus lacor. According to Macri (1988), Ficus infectoria. 7.6.39.14.1.16.

  • Pracalāka. Either a chameleon or a poisonous snake. 14.1.14, 23.

  • Pratibalā. I have been unable to identify this plant. 14.2.27–29.

  • (p.449) Priyaka. Laurel. According to Shamasastry, yellow Sal tree, Terminalia tomentosa. 2.17.4.

  • Priyāla. Cuddapa almond, Chironji tree, Buchanania lanzan. According to Macri (1988), Buchanania latifolia. Hindi: Chār. 13.4.19; 14.2.14.

  • Priyaṅgu. Foxtail millet, Setaria italica. According to Macri (1988), Panicum italicum. 2.25.27; 14.4.6, 9.

  • Pṛśniparṇī. Cyprus, Cyperus sp. Cyperaceae. According to Macri (1988), Hemionitis cordifolia, Uraria lagopodioides. 14.2.3.

  • Punarnava. Spreading hogweed, tar vine, red spiderling, Boerhavia diffusa. 14.3.73–76.

  • Puṣpa. I have been unable to identify this. If at 14.4.12, we take Muṣkaka-puṣpa as a compound, then it would simply mean the flower of Muṣkaka. 1.20.5; 14.4.12.

  • Pūti. If this is the same as pūtika, then (according to Macri 1988) it would be Guilandina bonduc or Pongamia glabra (Indian beech, Pongam oil tree). 14.4.5.

  • Pūtikarañja. Bonduc fruit, fever nut, physic nut, Guilandina Bonducella. 14.1.11.

  • Pūtikīṭa. A kind of stinkbug. 14.1.4, 10.

  • Rājavṛkṣa. According to Macri (1988), Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum, purging cassia, golden shower), Buchanania latifolia (almondette tree, chironji, Buchanan’s mango), Euphorbia tirucalli (milk-bush, milk hedge, Indian tree spurge). 2.12.8; 14.1.24, 38; 14.3.69.

  • Raṅku. A species of deer or antelope producing high-quality wool. Some identify this as the goat from which we get pashmina wool. Others take it to be the Himalayan ibex. 2.23.8.

  • Sahacara. Wild cowry fruit, Saptarangi, Casearia esculanta. According to Macri (1988), Barleria prionitis or Barleria cristata. 14.2.16.

  • Śaimbya. Probably a generic name to refer to legumes (śimba). 2.24.13.2.24.13.

  • Śaivala. According to Macri (1988), Blyxa octandra (a kind of duckweed or water plant) or Cerasus puddum. 14.2.26.

  • Śakuna. I have been unable to identify this plant species. It is given with Kaṅgu, which is a kind of millet. So it is possibly also a kind of grain from which oil could be produced. Macri (1988) gives śakunāhṛta as a variety of rice. 14.2.17, 19.

  • Sāla. Sal tree, Shorea robusta. 14.2.3.

  • (p.450) Śalākā. At 2.18.10, it is listed among the material for manufacturing arrows. If it does not refer to a particular kind of tree, then it probably refers to splinters or strips of wood.

  • Śāli. A variety of rice, different from Vrīhi. The commentators call this red winter rice. 2.15.25, 34; 2.24.12, 20; 2.30.18; 14.1.16.

  • Śālmalī. Red silk-cotton tree. Bombax ceiba. 2.1.3; 14.1.29.

  • Śamī. The name covers two plants: Mimosa suma (Hindi: chikkur), a thorny shrub, and Prosopis spicigera. 2.1.3; 14.2.1.

  • Samudrajantu. Identified by Meyer as Trigonella corniculata, commonly known as Kasuri methi or Marwari methi. 14.2.19.

  • Śaṇa. Indian hemp, Cannibis sativa, or sun hemp, Crotolaria juncea. 2.17.7, 9.

  • Saptaparṇa. Indian snakeroot, Rauvolfia serpentina. Macri (1988) identifies it as Alstonia scholaris (devil’s tree, dita bark tree). 2.25.33.

  • Śara. A kind of reed used for arrows. Saccharum sara. 2.18.10.

  • Sarala. Long-leaved pine, Pinus roxburghii. 13.4.18.

  • Śārivā. Sebesten plum, Cordia wallichii. 14.3.3.

  • Sarja. White babool, Distiller’s acacia, Acacia leucophloea. Hindi: Revaṃjā. Macri (1988) identifies it as Vatica robusta (Sal tree). 14.2.24.

  • Śatakanda. Identified by Shamasastry as Phyalis flexuosa, commonly called Aśvagandha. 14.1.4.

  • Śatakardama. I have been unable to identify this plant or animal. 14.1.9, 10.

  • Śataparva. According to Macri (1988), a variety of millet, Panicum. 14.4.3.

  • Śatapuṣpā. Munja grass, Saccharum munja. According to Macri (1988), Anethum sowa (Indian dill, Sowa); Andropogon aciculatus. 2.25.33

  • Śatāvarī. Flax hemp, Crotalaria verrucosa Papilionaceae. 14.1.14; 14.2.15.

  • Sauvīraka. Indian trumpet tree, Oroxylum indicum. Hindi: Bhūtvṛkṣa. 2.15.18.

  • Seraka. Occurring at 2.17.13 with regard to a group of animals providing valuable body parts, neither Meyer nor Shamasastry is able to identify it. 2.17.13.

  • Śīkavallī. A kind of vine. I have been unable to identify this. 2.17.6.

  • Sinduvāra. Three-leaved chaste tree, Vitex trifolia. Hindi: Nichinda. 2.12.15.

  • (p.451) Sinduvārita. Meyer identifies this as Vitex negundo (five-leaved chaste tree); perhaps this is a different spelling for Sinduvāra. 14.4.3, 4.

  • Śirīṣa. The siris tree, Lebbeck, flea tree, Albizia lebbeck. Also identified as Pomela, Citrus decumana. 2.11.30, 39; 14.2.1; 14.4.2.

  • Śleṣmātaka. Also called Śleṣmānta and Śelu; ash-colored fleabane, Vernonia cinerea. Macri (1988) identifies it as Cordia latifolia (Sebesten fruit). Hindi: Lasoda. 14.4.2.

  • Snuhi. Milkhedge, Euphorbia antiquorum; Euphorbia neriifolia. 2.24.25; 4.3.23; 14.1.15.

  • Sṛgālavinnā. With the reading sṛgvṛntā, Meyer identifies this as Hemionitis cordifolia (heart fern, tongue fern, mule fern); also called Hemionitis arifolia. 14.4.4.

  • Suvarcalā. Also called Brahmasuvarcalā, the word refers either to a variety of sunflower (Heriantus) or to Clerodendron siphonanthus. 14.2.34.

  • Śvetā. Macri (1988) says that this is the name of numerous vegetables. But Śveta, Macri says, is a variety of Jīvaka (Terminalia tomentosa). Shamasastry identifies this as Aconitum ferox, Indian aconite, wolfsbane. 1.20.5; 14.4.2.

  • Śyāmalatā. Several identifications have been offered, but given the category under which it is listed at 2.17.6, it must be some kind of vine. Shamasastry: Ichnocarpus (black creeper); Meyer: Echites frutescens, which is a synonym of Ichnocarpus fructescens. 2.17.6.

  • Syonāga. According to Shamasastry and Meyer, Bignonia indica, also named Oroxylum indicum, Indian trumpet flower. 14.4.2.

  • Tagara. Indian valerian, Valeriana jatamansi. Macri (1988) identifies this as Tabernaemontana coronaria, East Indian rosebay. 14.4.9.

  • Tailaparṇika. Probably a generic term for wood for incense. 2.11.61.

  • Tālamūla. Black musale, golden eye grass, Curculigo orchioides or Desmodium oojeinense. 2.18.17.

  • Tālī palm. A kind of palm identified by Shamasastry and Meyer as Corypha taliera, similar to a fan palm. It is close to extinction in the wild, with some specimens on the campus of Dhaka University. 2.17.9.

  • Taṇḍulīyaka. Prickley amaranth, Amarantus spinosus. 14.4.3.

  • Tejovatī. Java long pepper Piper chaba. 2.25.27

  • Tilaka. Identified by Shamasastry as Barleria cristata (Philippine violet, bluebell barleria), and by Meyer as Clerodendrum plumoides (a (p.452) flowering plant, including glory bower, bagflower, bleeding heart). These identifications are doubtful because it is listed at 2.17.4 under the category of hardwoods.

  • Tinduka. Gaub tree, Indian ebony, embroypteris, Diospyros tomentosa. 14.2.11.

  • Tiniśa. Chariot tree, Punjab kino, Sandan, Ougeinia dalbergioides. 2.17.4.

  • Trapusa. Cucumber, Cucumis sativus. 13.4.20, 21.

  • Tripuṭa. Grass pea, chickling vetch, Indian pea, Lathyrus sativus. 2.11.4.

  • Tuvarī. Gaṇapati Śāstri identifies this as Āḍhakī, the pulse Cajanus indicus Spreng called pigeon pea. Meyer, without comment, identifies it as Asparagus racemosus (Indian asparagus). 14.3.64.

  • Uccidiṅga. Also spelled Ucciṭiṅga, identified as a crab or a poisonous water animal. 14.1.4, 9.

  • Udāraka. Possibly a variety of millet (Wojtilla 2011, 8). 2.15.27, 34; 2.24.12.

  • Udumbara. A type of fig tree the wood of which is used for ritual purposes, Ficus glomerata or Ficus racemosa. 14.1.16; 14.2.1.

  • Upodakā. Indian spinach, Basella rubra. 14.2.28–29.

  • Urvāruka. Identified by Shamasastry as cucumber, and by M-W as Cucumis utilissimus. 2.15.17.

  • Uśīra. Khus or cuscus grass, Vetiveria zizanioides. 2.11.59, 67; 2.24.22.

  • Uṭaja. A species of bamboo. 2.17.5.

  • Utkrośaka. Refers to several varieties of sea eagles that have a loud cry (Dave 2005, 214). 2.26.5.

  • Vajra. According to Shamasastry, Andropogon muricatus (vetiver, cuscus) or Euphorbia (spurge). Macri (1988) has Vajravṛkṣa and identifies it as Euphorbia antiquorum (triangular spurge) or Cactus opuntia (a kind of prickly-pear cactus). 2.12.9; 2.13.9; 14.2.27.

  • Vajrakulī. Its identity is unclear. Meyer thinks it is a Solanum (nightshades, horsenettles, and related species). 14.2 32.

  • Vallī. The common meaning is simply a creeper, but here it must refer to a specific creeper. 14.2.3; 14.4.4.

  • Vaṃśa. The thorny bamboo, Bambusa arundinacea. 2.17.5.

  • Vandākā. Identified by Shamasastry as Epidendrum tesseloides, and by Meyer as Vanda roxburghii (Banda-Rasna). 1.20.5; 14.4.12.

  • Vañjula. Calamus rotang, Dalbergia ougeinensis, Jonesia Asoca, Hibiscus mutabilis. 14.2.27; 14.4.28, 29.

  • (p.453) Varaka. A kind of inferior grain, wild gram, Jangali mung, Phaseolus trilobus. 2.15.25, 34; 2.24.12.

  • Vāraṇa. Identified by Dave (2005, 327) as the great bustard. 14.4.2, 4.

  • Vāruṇī. Meyer thinks it may be the Durvā grass. With the spelling Varuṇa(ka), Macri (1988) takes it to be Crataeva roxburghii and Shamasastry as Teriandium indicum. 14.4.3.

  • Vāśī. A kind of vine, identified by Shamasastry as Justicia gendarussa (Krishna vasa, Nila-nirgundi). 2.17.6.

  • Vatsanābha. Indian aconite, Aconitum ferox or nepellus. 2.17.12; 14.1.29.

  • Veṇu. Thorny bamboo, Bambusa arundinacea. 2.17.5.

  • Vetra. Common rattan, Calamus rotang. 2.17.6.

  • Vīcīralla. I have been unable to identify this animal, and all the translators leave it unidentified. 14.2.43.

  • Vidarī. Indian kudzu, Pueraria tuberosa, Batatas paniculata, Desmodium gangeticum. Hindi: Vidarikand or Sural; Malayalam: Mutukku. 14.1.10.

  • Vilaṅga. Meyer gives several possible identifications. According to Stein (1921), Embelia ribes. Gaṇapati Śāstrī identifies it with Amoghā, the trumpet flower (Bignonia suaveolens). 2.25.29, 33; 14.4.8.

  • Viṣamūlikā. Literally, a plant with poisonous roots. I have not been able to identify this. 14.1.17.

  • Vrīhi. A variety of long-grained rice different from śāli and one that ripens, according to commentators, in 60 days. 2.15.25, 34; 2.24.12; 2.30.18.

  • Vyāghātaka. Identified by Shamasastry as Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum, purging cassia, golden shower). 14.1.7.

  • Yātudhāna. I have been unable to identify this plant. 14.1.6, 30.

(p.454)