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Are Muslims Distinctive?A Look at the Evidence$

M. Steven Fish

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199769209

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199769209.001.0001

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(p.277) Appendix 3.B Model Equations and Summary Statistics for Chapter 3

(p.277) Appendix 3.B Model Equations and Summary Statistics for Chapter 3

Source:
Are Muslims Distinctive?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Hierarchical Level Models for Tables 3.2–3.13

Below are the equations for the hierarchical level models presented throughout the chapter. In the interest of space we are only providing the equation for the most saturated models from each table. Simpler models follow the same structure, only with fewer variables.

Table 3.2. Dependent Variable: Sociability Index (0 = no social interactions, 1 = numerous weekly social interactions)

Model 5:

Y i j = β 0 j + β 1 j ( female ) i j + β 2 j ( age ) i j + β 3 j ( education level ) i j + β 4 j ( Muslim ) i j + β 5 j ( Christian ) i j + β 6 j ( importance of God ) i j + r i j β 0 j = γ 0 0 + γ 0 1 ( GDP per capita ) i j + γ 0 2 ( average age ) i j + γ 0 3 ( level of democracy ) + γ 0 4 ( proportion Muslim ) i j + γ 0 5 ( proportion Christian ) i j + γ 0 6 ( average importance of God ) i j β 1 j = γ 1 0 + u 1 j β 2 j = γ 2 0 + u 2 j β 3 j = γ 3 0 + u 3 j β 4 j = γ 4 0 + u 4 j β 5 j = γ 5 0 + u 5 j β 6 j = γ 6 0 + u 6 j

Tables 3.4–3.6. Dependent Variables: Membership in Organizations (0 = not a member, 1 = a member)

The models in tables 3.43.6 include estimates of eight different dependent variables. The model specification on the right side of the equation, however, was identical for all dependent variables. In some instances, however, ukj has been constrained to equal zero. These instances are noted in the variance components statistics in the relevant tables.

(p.278) Model 3:

φ i j = 1 1 + exp { η i j } η i j = β 0 j + β 1 j ( female ) i j + β 2 j ( age ) i j + β 3 j ( education level ) i j + β 4 j ( Muslim ) i j + β 5 j ( Christian ) i j β 0 j = γ 0 0 + γ 0 1 ( GDP per capita ) i j + γ 0 2 ( average age ) i j + γ 0 3 ( level of democracy ) + γ 0 4 ( average memberships ) i j + γ 0 5 ( proportion Muslim ) i j + γ 0 6 ( proportion Christian ) i j + u 0 j β 1 j = γ 1 0 + u 1 j β 2 j = γ 2 0 + u 2 j β 3 j = γ 3 0 + u 3 j β 4 j = γ 4 0 + u 4 j β 5 j = γ 5 0 + u 5 j β 6 j = γ 6 0 + u 6 j

Tables 3.8–3.13. Dependent Variables: Tolerance for Controversial and Dishonest Behaviors (1 = never justifiable, 10 = always justifiable)

The models in tables 3.83.13 include estimates of five different dependent variables. The model specification on the right side of the equation, however, was identical for all dependent variables.

Model 5:

Y i j = β 0 j + β 1 j ( female ) i j + β 2 j ( age ) i j + β 3 j ( education level ) i j + β 4 j ( Muslim ) i j + β 5 j ( Christian ) i j + β 6 j ( importance of God ) i j + r i j β 0 j = γ 0 0 + γ 0 1 ( GDP per capita ) i j + γ 0 2 ( average age ) i j + γ 0 3 ( level of democracy ) + γ 0 4 ( proportion Muslim ) i j + γ 0 5 ( proportion Christian ) i j + γ 0 6 ( average importance of God ) i j β 1 j = γ 1 0 + u 1 j β 2 j = γ 2 0 + u 2 j β 3 j = γ 3 0 + u 3 j β 4 j = γ 4 0 + u 4 j β 5 j = γ 5 0 + u 5 j β 6 j = γ 6 0 + u 6 j

(p.279) Summary Statistics

Data for Tables 3.1–3.2

Individual-level variables

Mean (min, max)

Age

41.09 (15, 101)

Education

0.48 (0, 1)

Country-level variables

GDP per capita (logged)

3.86 (2.68, 4.52)

Freedom House Average (1994–98)

4.99 (1, 7)

Average age

41.56 (30.15, 49.18)

Average importance of God level

7.35 (3.76, 10)

Proportion Muslim

0.20 (0, 0.99)

Proportion Christian

0.53 (0, 0.99)

Data for Tables 3.3–3.6

Individual-level variables

Mean (min, max)

Age

41.08 (15, 98)

Education

0.48 (0, 1)

Country-level variables

GDP per capita (logged)

3.79 (2.76, 4.47)

Freedom House Average (1994–98)

4.89 (1, 7)

Average age

41.90 (29.79, 52.45)

Average importance of God level

7.56 (3.58, 9.91)

Proportion Muslim

0.19 (0, 0.99)

Proportion Christian

0.53 (0, 0.99)

The summary statistics used in tables 3.73.13 are the same as those reported in appendix 2.B. (p.280)