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Transatlantic Feminisms in the Age of Revolutions$

Lisa L. Moore, Joanna Brooks, and Caroline Wigginton

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199743483

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199743483.001.0001

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(p.377) Appendix of Images

(p.377) Appendix of Images

Transatlantic Feminisms in the Age of Revolutions
Oxford University Press

The Age of Revolutions generated a vibrant visual culture in which women often figured as emblems of national hopes and fortunes. As depicted by European and Euro-American illustrators, images of indigenous American women and women of African descent often carried the additional symbolic weight of the era’s emerging conceptions of racial and national difference. In this section, we include images of women from books, broadsides, and political cartoons to be read alongside and in dialogue with the voices of women included in the anthology to provide the fullest possible sense of the significance of women in the Age of Revolutions. (p.378)

Appendix of Images

Figure 1 America (London, 1671).

This image is the frontispiece of America: Being the Latest, and Most Accurate Description of the New World … (1671) by John Ogilby (1600–1676). Ogilby published a series of beautifully bound and illustrated volumes during the seventeenth century. Several of these, like America, were atlases in which he translated and compiled others’ accounts. The image’s focal point is the figure of America, here represented by an indigenous woman atop a cornucopia. Embodying fertility and prosperity, she tosses down gold, jewels, and a crown to the Natives and Europeans below. Image courtesy of the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin.

Appendix of Images

Figure 2 BunkersHillorAmerica’s HeadDress (London, M. Darly, 1776).

This cartoon depicts a calm, well-dressed woman in profile. She wears an ornamental head-dress upon which soldiers under three different flags engage in combat using artillery and muskets. A sea battle occurs on the head-dress’s lower portion. The cartoon’s title refers to the June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill in which the Americans battled British forces. Though the British won, it was an expensive victory: they suffered 1,000 casualties as compared to the Americans’ four hundred. As a result, Americans generally felt more optimistic about their prospects for independence. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-USZ62–54).

Appendix of Images

Figure 3 The Female Combatants, or Who Shall (London, 1776).

This cartoon represents the American Revolution as two women engaged in fisticuffs. Britannia is “FOR OBEDIENCE” and declares, “I’ll force you to Obedience you Rebellious Slut.” Meanwhile, America responds, “Liberty Liberty for ever Mother while I exist,” and punches her on the nose. The print represents America as a bare-chested Native woman who is “FOR LIBERTY.” Image courtesy of The Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University.

Appendix of Images

Figure 4 America Triumphant and Britannia in Distress (Boston, 1782).

This print represents America’s triumph over Britain. America is depicted as the Roman goddess Minerva, usually associated with wisdom and prowess in war. The snake swallowing its tail and encircling her shield is an oroborus, an emblem of wholeness and infinity. An “EXPLANATION” at the bottom reads: “I America sitting on that quarter of the globe with the Flag of the United States displayed over her head; holding in one hand the Olive branch, inviting the ships of all nations to partake of her commerce; and in the other hand supporting the Cap of Liberty. II Fame proclaiming the joyful news to all the world. III Britannia weeping at the loss of the trade of America, attended with an evil genius. IV The British flag struck, on her strong Fortresses. V French, Spanish, Dutch &c shipping in the harbours of America. VIA view of New York wherein is exhibited the Trator Arnold, taken with remorse for selling his [country?] and Judas like hanging himself.” Courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsca-24328)

Appendix of Images

Figure 5 The Tea-Tax-Tempest, or Old Time with His Magick-Lantern (London: W. Humphreys, 1783).

Here, Britannia and America watch Old Time’s glass lantern presentation on the American Revolution. At the presentation’s center is an exploding teapot, a likely reference to the Boston Tea Party. Old Time explains the cartoon: “There you see the little Hot Spit Fire Tea pot that has done all The Mischief—There you see the Old British Lion basking before the American Bon Fire whilst the French Cock is blowing up a storm About his Ears to Destroy him and his young Welpes—There you see see [sic] Miss America grasping at the Cap of Liberty—There you see The British Forces be yok’d and be cramp’d flying before the Congress Men—There you see the thirteen Stripes and RattleSnake exalted—Thereyou see the Stamp’d Paper help to Make the Pot Boil.—Thereyou see &. &. &.” This version was published in 1783 to commemorate the official end of the Revolution. It is an adaptation of a 1778print by Carl Guttenberg of Nuremberg, who, in turn, had emulated a 1774 British print by John Dixon. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-USZC4–5257).

Appendix of Images

Figure 6 Mrs. General Washington, Bestowing Thirteen Stripes on Britania (1783).

In this print created for British Rambler’s Magazine, a cross-dressing General Washington flogs Britannia using a whip with thirteen lashes to the encouragements of men representing Holland, France, and Spain. Mrs. Washington chastises Britannia, “Parents Should not behave like Tyrants to their children.” Britannia responds, “Is it thus my Children treat me.” Image courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-USZ62–45484).

Appendix of Images

Figure 7 Soyez Libre et Citoyens by Pierre Rouvier and Charles Boily (Lyon, 1789).

Be Free and Citizens.” A group of Black men, women, and children kneels in shackles before a woman, possibly reigning Queen Marie Antoinette, who represents the French monarchy. This image is the frontispiece of Benjamin Sigismond-Frossard’s La Cause des Esclaves Negres et des Habitants de la Guinée … [The Cause of Negro Slaves and the People of Guinea]. Sigismond-Frossard was a moderate French Protestant pastor who became a pioneering abolitionist through his contact with English evangelicals and French revolutionaries. Image courtesy of Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University Library,

Appendix of Images

Figure 8 Vive le Roi, Vive la Nation / J’savois Ben Qu’jaurions Not Tour (France, 1789).

On her back, a nun carries a noblewoman carrying a peasant woman. The peasant woman is well-dressed and nurses an infant. The cartoon thus visually represents the French Revolution’s promised social transformation, with the Third Estate riding on top and supported by the nobility and the clergy. The title—written in ungrammatical patois and thus suggestive of the language of le Peuple—can be loosely translated as “Long Live the King, Long Live the Nation / I knew that our day would come.” Image courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-USZC2–3575).

Appendix of Images

Figure 9 Un Peuple est Sans Honneur… (France, 1792).

A people is without honor, and deserves to be enchained / When it bows its head before the scepter of queens.” This image is an adaptation of the frontispiece of a French book, Les Crimes des Reines de France, depuis le Commencement de la Monarchie Jusqu’a Marie-Antoinette [Crimes of the Queens of France, since the Beginning of the Monarchy until Marie-Antoinette]. At its center, a crowned mermaid stabs a king as two-faced Justice looks on. The bust of a satyr above the bed represents lust and licentiousness. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsca-15893).

Appendix of Images

Figure 10 The Genius of France Extirpating Despotism Tyranny & Oppression from the Face of the Earth or the Royal Warriors Defeated by Isaac Cruikshank (London, 1792).

The genius of France, represented by a woman in a liberty cap, holds the reins of a donkey carrying the monarchs of Prussia, Germany, Russia, Sweden, and Brunswick. The woman beats them with a cat-o’-nine-tails and declares, “I am Determin’d to Inflict Death on all Despots & Oppressors.” Between the lashes of her whip is written the charges against them: “Perverters of Public Justice,” “Oppressors of the People,” “The Increase of Tyranny,” “The Stretch of Prerogative,” “The Abuse of Power,” “Despotism,” “Monopolizer of Provisions to Distress the poor,” “Aristocrats who screen’d by their unjust privileges rob Tradesmen of their Property,” and “Religious Bigots.” The donkey tramples French King Louis XVI. In the background, another donkey bucks off Turkey, Spain, China, and two other unidentified monarchs. Marie I of Portugal sits on the ground. As in this example, Cruikshank’s caricatures were consistently vivid, scathing, and influential. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress (reproduction number LC-USZ62–123025).

Appendix of Images

Figure 11 The Contrast (London, 1793).

Printed on the title page of The Antigallican Songster, a collection of songs with pro-British/anti-French lyrics, this image compares “ENGLISH LIBERTY” and “FRENCH LIBERTY.” English Liberty is depicted as Minerva, the Roman goddess of wisdom, and holds the scales of justice in balance as a lion sits at her feet. Below her appear her characteristics: “Religion, Morality, Loyalty, Obedience to the Laws, Independence, Personal Security, Justice, Inheritance, Protection, Property, Industry, National Prosperity, Happiness.” French Liberty resembles Medusa or a hag. She carries a head on a pike while she tramples a decapitated body. In the background, a figure hangs from a lamppost. Her characteristics are “Atheism, Perjury, Rebellion, Treason, Anarchy, Murder, Equality, Madness, Cruelty, Injustice, Treachery, Ingratitude, Idleness, Famine, National and private Ruin, Misery.” Below these captions, the text facetiously asks, “WHICH IS BEST?” The songster and its accompanying image appeared in 1793, after the advent of the Reign of Terror and most Britons’ condemnation of the French Revolution. This item is reproduced by permission of The Huntington Library, San Marino, California from The Antigallican Songster, call number 213964.

Appendix of Images

Figure 12 Europe Supported by Africa & America by William Blake (London, 1796).

This image is one of about eighty stunning illustrations created by the famed poet and engraver William Blake for John Gabriel Stedman’s Narrative, of a Five Years’ Expedition, Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam, in Guinea, on the Wild Coast of South America. The book is a heavily edited version of the diary that Stedman kept as a military officer in the Dutch army during the campaign to suppress a Maroon rebellion in the colony of Suriname (formerly Dutch Guiana). Blake based the engravings on Stedman’s own watercolors, painted while in Suriname. The above image depicts three nude women—representing Europe, Africa, and America—embracing. Europe, a white woman wearing blue beads, looks down while Africa and America, with metal armbands, gaze outward. It is the final illustration of Stedman’s two-volume book, and he makes direct reference to it in the text: “[A]fter all the horrors and cruelties with which I must have hurt both the eye and the heart of the feeling reader, I will close the scene with an emblematical picture of Europe supported by Africa and America, accompanied by an ardent wish that in the friendly manner as they are represented, they may henceforth and to all eternity be the props of each other.” Image courtesy of Rare Books and Archives, the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin.

Appendix of Images

Figure 13 The Voyage of the Sable Venus from Angola to the West Indies by Thomas Stothard (London, 1801).

In this sensual and fantastical image, an almost entirely nude Black woman, the Sable Venus of the title, sits on a throne while riding a scallop shell chariot pulled by two fish or dolphins. Above her, five white cherubs cheerfully serve her. In the waves below are two more cupids as well as two white men, one of whom may be Neptune, the Roman god of the seas, holding a British flag. One of the flying cherubs, probably Cupid, aims an arrow at him. The image accompanied a poem in Bryan Edwardss’ The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies (3rd edition, volume 2). In the poem, “The Sable Venus: An Ode,” the speaker seeks the realm of the Sable Venus, where “ready joys” and “unbought rapture meet.” He compares her to the Roman Venus, and declares that the two goddesses have “no difference, no—none at night” when darkness conceals the color of their skin. Image courtesy of Rare Books and Archives, the Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin.

Appendix of Images

Figure 14 Blood Hounds Attacking a Black Family in the Woods by J. Barlow (London, 1805).

In An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti, Marcus Rainsford published one of the first histories of the Haitian Revolution sympathetic to the Black revolutionaries. Many of the book’s illustrations powerfully represent the wartime atrocities committed by French forces. Others depict the civility and humanity of Black Haitians. Only one illustration shows them engaged in violence. The above image depicts General Rochambeau’s use of vicious dogs to terrorize the Black population. At the center of the image, a Black mother holds her infant aloft as the dogs tear at her and what are likely other members of her family. She appears to be gazing directly at the viewer. The island in the background is peaceful and idyllic. Image courtesy of the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin.