(p.346) Appendix C Personalia
(p.346) Appendix C Personalia
Alkan, Charles Henri Valentin (1813–88), French pianist and composer. Alkan was the greatest virtuoso of his age but, because of his reclusive nature, performed infrequently. His works are distinctive and original. Unfortunately, Schumann was familiar only with his salon pieces.
Arnim, Bettina von (1785–1859), writer and composer. Sister of Clemens Brentano and wife of Ludwig Achim von Arnim. She wrote reminiscences of Beethoven and Goethe, which were criticized for their flights of fancy. Outspoken and idealistic, she championed women’s rights and defiantly opposed discrimination against minorities (including Jews and the mentally ill).
Arnim, Ludwig Achim von (1781–1831), poet, novelist, dramatist, and critic. Coeditor of The Youth’s Magic Horn, and creator of fiction of great imagination. Husband of Bettina and close friend of her brother, the poet Clemens Brentano.
Bennett, William Sterndale (1816–75), English pianist, composer, and teacher. Mendelssohn served as his mentor. Conductor of the London Philharmonic from 1856 to 1866, and professor of music at Cambridge University from 1856 until his death.
Berwald, Franz (1796–1868), Swedish composer, active in Germany and Austria. Little regarded during his lifetime, his chamber compositions and four symphonies are among the most innovative of the 1840s and 1850s.
Brendel, Franz (1811–68), editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik from 1845. Teacher at the Leipzig Conservatory, and friend of Schumann. He became a strong advocate of Wagner and Liszt.
Brentano, Clemens (1778–1842), poet, novelist, and dramatist. Editor with Arnim of The Youth’s Magic Horn. In later years, he became a devout Catholic, and lamented the frivolity of his earlier work.
(p.347) Burgmüller, Norbert (1810–36), one of the most gifted composers of his generation. Among his most notable compositions are two symphonies, four string quartets, and a piano sonata. Schumann was a great champion of his music, and orchestrated part of Burgmüller’s unfinished Symphony No. 2.
Chamisso, Adelbert von (1781–1838), poet, naturalist, and novelist. Best known for his creation of Peter Schlemihl, the unfortunate man who sold his shadow. Like Schumann, he had a wife considerably younger than himself. The poems that he wrote in her honor—Frauenliebe und Leben—were set by Schumann as his op. 42.
Cherubini, Luigi (1760–1842), Italian composer and teacher. Beethoven admired his work. Director of the Paris Conservatory from 1822, he was regarded as one of the foremost contrapuntists of his day.
David, Ferdinand (1810–73), violinist and composer. A good friend of Mendelssohn, he became concertmaster of the Gewandhaus Orchestra and professor at the Leipzig Conservatory.
Dorn, Heinrich (1804–92), composer, teacher, and conductor. Like Mendelssohn, he was a student of Zelter. Unlike Schumann (whom he briefly taught), Dorn moved well in official music circles. He was director of the Royal Opera in Berlin from 1849 to 1868.
Field, John (1782–1837), Irish pianist and composer. Creator of the nocturne, he was greatly esteemed for his expressive playing. Much of his life was spent in Russia. Both Wieck and Chopin were admirers of his work.
Franz, Robert (1815–92), composer and editor of Baroque music. Known for his nearly three hundred lieder, he was an early supporter of Schumann’s compositions.
Gade, Niels (1817–90), Danish composer. A friend of both Mendelssohn and Schumann, his Symphony No. 1 op. 5 (1843) established his reputation in Germany. In 1861, he was appointed Kapellmeister in Copenhagen.
Hauptmann, Moritz (1792–1868), violinist, composer, and theorist. A conservative musician, he was professor of counterpoint and composition at the Leipzig Conservatory. A good friend of Spohr, he found Schumann’s earlier work to be baffling.
Heller, Stephen (1814–88), pianist and composer. Settled in Paris in 1838. An infrequent performer, he was best known for his piano miniatures. He and Schumann shared an infatuation with Jean Paul.
Henselt, Adolf (1814–89), German pianist and composer. Despite his great virtuosity, he was plagued by stage fright and performed rarely. He settled in St. Petersburg and helped the Schumanns during their Russian journey.
Herz, Henri (1806–88), Austrian composer and pianist. Settled in Paris in 1818. Popular and prolific, his facile style epitomized for Schumann the low musical standards of the day.
Hiller, Ferdinand (1811–85), pianist and composer. A pupil of Hummel, Hiller was unusually active in the musical life of his day (and counted among his (p.348) friends Berlioz, Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Schumann). He was Schumann’s predecessor in Düsseldorf, and recommended him for the post. Conductor at Cologne from 1850.
Hummel, Johann Nepomuk (1778–1837), piano virtuoso, composer, and teacher. Student of Mozart. In 1820, he was appointed Kapellmeister in Weimar. Although aware of his conservative reputation, for a time Schumann hoped to become his student.
Joachim, Joseph (1831–1907), violinist and composer. Studied and performed in Leipzig from 1843 to 1850. Schumann was enthralled with his virtuosity. Concertmaster at Hanover from 1853 to 1866, during which time he established a close friendship with Brahms. From 1868, he was director of the royal Hochschule für Musik in Berlin.
Kalkbrenner, Friedrich (1788–1849), German pianist and composer who settled in Paris. One of the most famous teachers of his time; Schuncke studied with him. Chopin briefly considered becoming his student.
Lind, Jenny (1820–87), singer. Known as the “Swedish Nightingale,” she was famed for her unpretentious nature and the beauty of her voice (particularly the upper register). She appeared at several concerts with the Schumanns, and he was much taken with her musical ability and selflessness.
Louis Ferdinand, Prince (1772–1806), distinguished pianist and composer. Student of Dussek and nephew of Frederick the Great, he was one of the most promising composers of his generation. He was killed at the battle of Saalfeld during Napoleon’s invasion of Prussia.
Marschner, Heinrich (1795–1861), leading composer of opera in the 1820s and 1830s. Kapellmeister at Hanover from 1831 to 1859. His most popular operas dealt with the supernatural and were representative of the contemporary fascination with “Gothick” terror.
Meyerbeer, Giacomo (1791–1864), most popular composer of opera of his day (dating from the Paris production in 1831 of Robert le diable). Meyerbeer composed little, but attempted to make an unforgettable spectacle of each of his productions. Schumann was convinced that Meyerbeer was more concerned with fame and money than with dedication and service to Art.
Moscheles, Ignaz (1794–1870), piano virtuoso and composer. Active in English musical life, beginning with his first appearance with the London Philharmonic in 1821. He was a good friend of Mendelssohn. Schumann, in his youth, hoped to become Moscheles’s pupil.
Novalis (1772–1801), pseudonym for Friedrich Leopold von Hardenberg. Poet and novelist, best known for the melancholy “Hymns to the Night,” and the symbol of the unattainable blue flower (found in his novel Heinrich von Ofterdingen).
Reinick, Robert (1805–52), poet and painter. Schumann set many of his poems to music, and turned to him for assistance in the libretto for Genoveva.
(p.349) Rellstab, Ludwig (1799–1860), music critic and pianist. Student of Ludwig Berger. Founder in 1830 of Iris im Gebiet der Tonkunst, and long a major figure in German music criticism.
Rethel, Alfred (1816–59), artist. Active in many genres, including historical painting and book illustration. Best known for his macabre series of wood engravings, Another Dance of Death. Rethel became insane and, like Schumann, spent time in Endenich.
Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich, known as Jean Paul (1763–1825), prolific German novelist. Major works include Hesperus (1795), Titan (1803), and Flegeljahre (Walt and Vult) (1805). Jean Paul’s writings are fanciful, poetic, and distinctive. Schumann was fascinated by them, and during the 1830s used several as a source of inspiration for his music.
Richter, Ludwig (1803–84), artist. Known for his painting, especially landscapes and imaginative themes (St. Genevieve in the Forest), as well as book illustrations. Schumann became a good friend and for a time taught composition to Richter’s son.
Rietz, Julius (1812–77), cellist, composer, and conductor. Director of the Gewandhaus Orchestra from 1848 to 1861. He preceded Hiller as music director in Düsseldorf.
Schuncke, Ludwig (1810–34), pianist and composer. He was a child prodigy, and traveled to Paris, where he became a student of Kalkbrenner. Although they knew one another for only about a year, he was perhaps Schumann’s closest friend.
Spohr, Ludwig (1784–1859), violinist and composer. Appointed Kapellmeister in Kassel in 1822. His operas (especially Faust and Jessonda) and nine symphonies were highly regarded. Schumann was eager to gain his support, but Spohr found much of Schumann’s music too unconventional.
Thibaut, Anton Friedrich Justus (1774–1840), professor of law at Heidelberg University. A distinguished musical amateur, his love of early music inspired his book Purity in Music. Schumann read it several times and held it in high esteem.