This chapter examines the influence of the social and political environment on police and policing in France between 1946 and 2001. It begins with the liberation of French territory after World War II and the consequences of the ensuing reforms and purges for the police and gendarmerie. It then considers the increase in crime in the immediate post-war period and its impact on the police and gendarmerie, along with strikes, the Cold War, the legacy of decolonisation, and the collapse of the Fourth Republic. The chapter also discusses the events of May 1968 and their impact on public order and the police before concluding with an assessment of the initiatives launched by Pierre Joxe, Minister of the Interior, relating to the police as well as the policing of local communities.
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