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Designing for Luxury on the Bay of NaplesVillas and Landscapes (c. 100 BCE-79 CE)$

Mantha Zarmakoupi

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199678389

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199678389.001.0001

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(p.245) Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

(p.245) Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

Source:
Designing for Luxury on the Bay of Naples
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

A. Villa of the Papyri

In Villa of the Papyri there are two peristylia–gardens: (A.1) the small square peristylium–garden (29.624 × 29.624 m = 878 m2), and (A.2) the big southwest peristylium–garden (94.44 × 31.74 m = 2,998 m2) (see Figure App. 1, cf. Figure 2.1). They occupied 67 % of the total area of the villa (5,020 m2; Tables 1 and 2). Unfortunately, there has been no investigation into planting in either of the two but the abundance of pools and fountains suggests that they must have been richly vegetated.1

A.1 Square peristylium–garden

The small square peristylium–garden 6–7–8–9–10 (29.624 × 29.624 m = 878 m2), dating from the third quarter of the first century BCE (c. 40–25 BCE), was situated to the north of the atrium.2 The porticus (w. 4.5 m), with ten columns on each side, surrounded the garden (20.624 × 20.624 m). It featured a pool (w. 1.2 m, l. 14 m, h. 1.69 m) in the middle, which was probably a fishpond.3

Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

Fig. App.1 Villa of the Papyri, plan with indications of peristylium–garden A.1 and peristylium–garden A.2.

© Mantha Zarmakoupi.

(p.246) Only two fragments of wall painting have been recorded, one from area e of the so-called tablinum (see in Figure 2.7; 28 in Figures App.1, 2.1) at the northwest limit of the peristylium (now lost), a panel with two sea horses and two birds;4 and the other from room I (26 in Figures App.1, 2.1) at the southwest of room 28, a winged genius with a fluttering himation along its hips holding a torchlight in its right hand and a crater in its left, depicted on an ochre fond.5 Both probably come from pinakes of the Fourth Style.6 Bronze statues were placed inside the porticus at the corner columns of the peristylium:7 a ‘Polykleitan’ Doryphoros herm (CDP 3) at the west corner (6–7 in Figures App.1, 2.1),8 a herm-head of an idealized ‘Polykleitan’ young woman (CDP 7) at the north corner (7–8 in Figures App.1, 2.1),9 a herm-head of a bearded man with a turban (CDP 8) at the east corner (8–9 in Figures App.1, 2.1),10 and a herm-head of a bearded man with curly hair (CDP 9) at the south corner (6–9 in Figures App.1, 2.1).11 The two bearded men are probably philosophers or scholars; Architas, Herakleitos, and Pythagoras have been proposed for CDP 8, and Herakleitos, Empedokles, and Demokritos for CDP 9.12 In front of each one of these herms, there was a small fountain made of a square basin, on which a support was erected for a vase, of square outline on the outside and shell-shaped in the interior.13 At the exterior of the southwest porticus (6 in Figures App.1, 2.1), at the two corners of the peristylium, two marble puteals (CDP 157; CDP 158), depicting in relief bucrania woven with patches of ivy, were placed looking on to the garden.14 Inside the southwest colonnade, two bronze busts were placed looking towards the entrance from the atrium and framing the view into the garden: one (a head of a youth with buckled chlamys) in front of the fourth column from the southwest (CDP 23)15 and (p.247) the other (a bearded balding man) in front of the fourth column from the southeast (CDP 10), who, like the two herm-heads at the south and east corners of the peristyle, was probably a philosopher or scholar.16 Two bronze busts on marble pilasters were found in the area of the garden (10 in Figures App.1, 2.1) in the southeast of the water canal. One was damaged (CDP 160);17 the other was a woman with corkscrew curls (modern restorations), which was indentified as Thespis Auletes on the basis of the reading of a now lost inscription on the herm-post (CDP 30).18 Five bronze female peplophoroi (CDP 36–40),19 the ‘dancers’, that were found in the southwest long porticus of the big peristylium–garden (58 in Figures App.1, 2.1), are thought to have also decorated the pool in this garden.20 Finally, the over life-size statue of Panathenaic Athena (CDP 81) was found in-between the columns separating the square courtyards from the tablinum (28 in Figures App.1, 2.1).21

A.2 Rectangular peristylium–garden

The large southwest peristylium–garden 57–58–59–60–61–62 (94.44 × 31.74 m = 2,998 m2) was thought to have been a later addition22 but it has recently been suggested that it was part of a unified project, and together with the atrium quarter, dates to the third quarter of the first century BCE (c. 40–25 BCE).23 The peristylium had twenty-five columns on the long sides and ten columns on the short sides. In the middle of the garden there was also a large pool (66.76 × 7.14 m).24 Fragments of wall paintings have been recorded from the (p.248) rooms along the southeast side of the peristylium–garden: a fragment depicting a female head from room f (30 in Figures App.1, 2.1) at the east of the tablinum (now lost),25 as well as the fragment from tablinum (28 in Figures App.1, 2.1) described above.26 Most of the sculptures were found in this part of the villa.27 Between the columns of the east porticus (57a and 57b in Figures App.1, 2.1), flanking the entrance from the tablinum to the peristylium–garden, four marble statues of big dimensions were found: a statue of an acephalous man (CDP 83),28 an over life-size statue of a beardless man (CDP 85),29 a statue of fourth-century Athenian orator, Aischines (CDP 84),30 and fragments of a male statue (CDP 88).31 A group of bronze statues found at the southeast end of the pool formed an Arcadian cycle: the drunken satyr (CDP 34) at its northwest end,32 the sleeping satyr (CDP 35) at its southeast end,33 three deer (CDP 62–64),34 and a leaping piglet (CDP 65).35 A Pan and She-goat marble group (CDP 83) found at the southernmost southeast end of the pool is considered to belong in the same Arcadian cycle.36 The northwest end of the pool featured a seated Hermes (CDP 33)37 and two boy athletes or ‘runners’ (CDP 42–43).38 A small Peplophoros (CDP 41) found in the north end of porticus 60 complemented this group of athletic statuary.39 Bronze busts on marble pillars were grouped in the four corners of the peristylium: at the east corner (57a–60 in Figures App.1, 2.1), an archaistic Apollo or kouros (CDP 1)40 and the head of a young woman with braids, the so-called bust of Berenice (CDP 24);41 at the south corner (57b–58 in (p.249) Figures App.1, 2.1), the bust of a youth with a victor’s wreath, possibly a Herakles, which was originally identified as Ptolemaios II Philadelphos (CDP 20),42 and the idealized head of a ‘Polykleitan’ athlete, a Herakles or a Doryphoros (CDP 3);43 at the north corner (59–60 in Figures App.1, 2.1), the bust of the so-called Sappho (CDP 25),44 and the bust of a Hellenistic dynast, maybe Seleukos I (CDP 19);45 and at the west corner (58–59 in Figures App.1, 2.1), the so-called pseudo-Seneca (CDP 29).46 A series of marble herms were also found between the pool and the northeast porticus (60 in Figures App.1, 2.1): a bearded man, the Spartan king Archidamos III or Archimedes (CDP 77),47 Philetairos of Pergamon (CDP 78),48 a bearded intellectual, identified as Demosthenes or the orator Lysias (CDP 79),49 Pyrrhos of Epeiros (CDP 75),50 a helmeted Athena (CDP 66),51 a veiled woman identified as Hestia or Vesta (CDP 67),52 a bearded man identified as Hannibal, Juba I, or Menippos (CDP 80),53 a bearded man identified as Demosthenes (CDP 70).54 And a series of marble herms were found between the pool and the southwest porticus (58 in Figures App.1, 2.1): a man with a short beard identified as the poet Panyassis or the philosopher Karneades (CDP 72),55 a philosopher (CDP 71),56 Demetrios Poliorketes (CDP 73),57 a bearded man identified as Anakreon (CDP 69),58 a Ptolemaic dynast, Ptolemaios Soter II or Ptolemaios III (CDP 76),59 and a Macedonian warrior (CDP 74).60

B. Villa Oplontis A

In Villa Oplontis A there are four porticus–gardens: (B.1) the small peristylium–garden 32, (B.2) the southeast peristylium–garden 40–59, (B.3) the east (p.250)

Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

Fig. App.2 Villa Oplontis A, plan with indications of peristylium–garden B.1, and porticus–gardens B.2, B.3, and B.4.

© Mantha Zarmakoupi.

peristylium–garden 60–80–92–96–98, and (B.4) the north peristylium–garden 33–34–56 (see Figure App. 2, cf. Figure 2.16). The four porticus–gardens occupy 67.5% of the villa’s excavated area (13,000 m2). If we accept that the villa’s plan was symmetrical, we should expect another two peristylia–gardens matching the east and southeast ones. This would mean that peristylia–gardens occupied 57% of the total area in Villa Oplontis A (15,058 m2 out of 26,190 m2; Tables 1 and 2).

B.1 Peristylium–garden 32

The small peristylium–garden 32 (12 × 16 m = 192 m2) was probably part of the original core of the villa (mid-first century BCE). It had porticus (w. 2.4 m) on all four sides (four columns to north, west, and south, five to east), which were enclosed by a low masonry wall with a decoration of plants and birds on a red fond on the garden side, zebra-stripe decoration inside the porticus side, and pavement in cocciopesto. There was a big fountain in the garden, which was decorated in the same manner as the short wall around it.61 Against the east of the (p.251) fountain there was a large mature chestnut tree (81 cm wide), probably as old as the villa.62 A sundial found near the fountain also adorned this garden.63

B.2 Porticus–garden 40–59

The southeast porticus–garden 40–59 (21 [min.] × 30 m = 630 m2) dates from around the middle of the first century CE, as do probably all the rest of the peristylia–gardens in the villa. The southern limit of the east side of the porticus is not yet known.64 It consisted of a porticus triplex (40) (w. 4 m, min. l. 68 m, h. c. 3.5 m) around garden 59, which had ten columns at the west, fifteen at the north, and at least fifteen at the east side. Its white plastered brick columns were plain up to 1.2 m and then fluted. The walls of the porticus were decorated in Fourth Style wall paintings divided in three horizontal zones (see Figure 4.16). The lower zone featured plants and birds on a black fond; the medium zone featured red rectangular panels that presented edifices and stylized vegetal motifs, alternating with narrow black ones and bordered with yellow stripes; and the upper zone featured edifices joined by garlands and stripes on a white background. The architraves between the columns were decorated in a similar way to the upper zone of the wall paintings.65

The garden (22 × 21 [min.] m) consisted of two rows of evergreen trees (possibly lemons, myrtles, or laurels), outlining the three sides of the porticus. The trees of both rows were planted directly in front of the columns. The row closest to the porticus had two trees planted at a time, one of which was grown in terracotta pots. A larger tree of a different variety stood at the front corner of the west porticus. The middle of the garden was planted with herbaceous plants, possibly violets.66

B.3 Porticus–garden 60–80–92–96–98

The east peristylium–garden 60–80–92–96–98 (38 × 75 m = 2,850 m2) consists of porticus 60, garden 80–92–98, and pool 96. The long porticus 60 (w. 4.5 m, l. 58 m, h. c. 4.5 m) is decorated in the Fourth Style, starting above a low base in (p.252) marble (see Figure 4.11). On a white background are rectangular panels that are framed by stylized vegetation, about which birds and bugs fly, and there are central pinakes with representations of villas in landscapes alternating with xenia (see Figure 4.12). The lower zone of the exterior walls of room 78 and its symmetrical room to the north that are adjacent to the garden bear representations of naturalistic greenery. The pool (w. 17 m, l. 61 m, h. 1.825 [south] – 1.30 [north] m) had a pavement in cocciopesto and was accessed through stairs at the southeast corner. The interior of the pool was painted white with green and yellow rectangular panels.67

Areas 80 and 92 around the pool were grass-covered. In area 92, a shallow square marble basin was located in axis with pool 96 and was adorned with a large neo-attic calyx crater made of pentelic marble.68 The crater was fitted with pipes and was located on the axis of pool 96, room 78, and porticus 91–86. Between swimming pool 96 and the marble basin in area 92 there was a sculptured group of a hermaphrodite and a faun (see Figure 4.7).69 To the east of the pool there was a row of eight statue bases, six of which have been identified:70 two Heracles herms,71 a youth,72 two statues of Nike,73 and an Artemis or Amazon.74 Directly behind the statues, oleander trees, lemon trees, and plane trees were planted.75

(p.253) B.4 Porticus–garden 33–34–56

The north porticus–garden 33–34–56 (68 × 107 m = 7,276 m2) consists of porticus 33 (w. 2.2 m, [l. 34 m],76 h. c. 3.5 m) and porticus 34 (w. 2.2 m, l. 34 m, h. c. 3.5 m) at the west and east of room 21, and porticus 56 (w. 3.5 m, [min. l. 35 m], h. unknown) on the west side of the villa’s east wing. If we accept that the villa had a symmetrical plan, there should have been a porticus diametrically opposite porticus 56, forming a U-shaped porticus that would have framed garden 56; this peristylium–garden would have extended to a total area of 7,276 m2. The columns of porticus 33 and 34 were plastered white with incised flattened flutes, and their capitals were made of stucco. The roof above terminated at terracotta antefixes with palmettes (see Figure 4.15). The porticus 33 and 34 were paved in white mosaics with black stripes and Fourth Style wall paintings divided in three horizontal zones. The lower zone featured plants, birds, and griffins on a black fond that was divided by vertical yellow and red bands; the medium zone featured red and yellow panels alternating with white intervening panels representing architectural structures in perspective; and the upper zone featured edifices and partitions framed by cornices on a white background.77

The garden’s design of contoured beds supports the hypothesis that the villa was symmetrical. A central north–south path extended from room 21 and was lined with trees and woody shrubs (maybe boxes; see Figure 4.6). Two diagonal paths began from the furthest east end of the porticus 34 and the furthest west end of porticus 33, presumably to meet this central path further at the north.78 At the beginning of the east diagonal path there was a dense thicket of twenty to twenty-five oleanders (d. 345 cm), 70 to 100 years old.79 Further to the east, another path began, parallel to porticus 56 in front of room 54. At its corner and further to the north, two dense thickets of oleanders were located.80 In front of porticus 56 there were two rows of trees: the one, further from the porticus, was of big plane trees (five; d. 145–213 cm),81 the other, closer to the porticus, was of small trees, probably chrysanthemums.82 Two apple trees were also in this area. At the north limit of the excavations, a very big olive tree was found (branch: 180 cm long). It was probably at least 100 years old.83

(p.254) The paths of the garden were adorned with sculptures. At the beginning of the east diagonal path four sculptures were found in a line: a white marble Aphrodite head fixed on a cipollino marble pillar,84 a white marble portrait of a boy supported by a herm with blue-grey marble base,85 a white marble portrait of a lady on a grey-blue veined pillar,86 a crowned head of the child Dionysos (white marble) on a small African marble pillar,87 and a herm, of which only the white marble pillar and grey-blue marble plinth have survived.88 Four blue-veined white marble statues of centaurs, two male and two female, which were fitted with pipes,89 and a white marble sculpture of a boy struggling with a duck,90 all found in porticus 33, formed a sculptural group that probably decorated a fountain, or something similar, at the north end of the central north–south path.91

C. Villa Arianna A

In Villa Arianna A there are three porticus–gardens: (C.1) the west peristylium–garden H–Z (108 × 58 m = 6,264 m2), (C.2) the central porticus–garden 71–73–X–U (c. 40 × 40 m = 1,600 m2), and (C.3) the entrance peristylium–garden W22 (21 × 21 m = 441 m2; see Figure App. 3, cf. Figure 2.26). Together they occupied 58.5% of the overall area of the villa (14,200 m2; Tables 1 and 2).

Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

Fig. App.3 Villa Arianna A, plan with indications of peristylium–garden C.1, porticus–garden C.2, and peristylium–garden C.3.

© Mantha Zar-makoupi.

C.1 Peristylium–garden H–Z

(p.255) The west peristylium–garden H–Z (108 × 58 m = 6,264 m2) dates as a structure from the Augustan period and has a different orientation from the rest of the villa. Bonifacio and Sodo believe that it must have become part of the villa in the Flavian period when the rooms around triclinium A were restructured,92 as in the case of peristylium–garden 1–2 in Villa San Marco. Its porticus (H) is 4.5 m wide and had brick columns covered with white stucco that presented fine vertical flutes. There were nineteen columns on the short sides and thirty-six on the long sides. The intervals were irregular, and the columns spaced out in front of important rooms—for example, room T at the east porticus H and the exedra at the south porticus. In the case of room T pilasters replaced the columns, probably to denote this room even more. The walls of the porticus were decorated in white Fourth Style wall paintings divided in three horizontal zones. The lower zone was subdivided into rectangular panels, which presented a candelabrum with a hanging pinakas (cut out and unidentified), to which thyrsoi intertwined with garlands were attached, and intervening compartments presenting storks. The medium zone, which was separated from the lower level by a broad red band, presented slender colonnades alternating with floral gilded (p.256) candelabra.93 There are no remains of the upper zone. The porticus’ floor of beaten earth indicates that work was underway at the time of the eruption.94 The garden featured four walks running northeast–southwest, parallel to planting beds that were embellished with a variety of trees and small water basins, as well as an ‘opus signinum’ semicircular pool roughly in its middle (see Figure 2.28).95

C.2 Central porticus–garden

The central porticus–garden 71–73–X–U (40 × 40 m = 1,600 m2) was delimited by cryptoporticus 71 and porticus 73 to the northeast and porticus U and rooms N, M, O, R, T (the east wing of the west peristylium–garden) to the southwest. Both porticus have only been partially excavated, so we do not know their full lengths.

Nine square pilasters of porticus 73 have been found; they were set in a 3 by 3 m grid, which had the same orientation with porticus U. They were 52 cm wide and were covered with green plaster.96 The exterior of cryptoporticus 71, which delimited porticus 73, was covered with fine white plaster, which was probably made ready to receive a polychromic decoration.97 A marble rectangular basin, found next to column A of the porticus (73), adorned this area. The pilaster had a cavity on one side in order to receive a water pipe, which was probably aimed at feeding this marble basin.98

Porticus U is 4 metres wide and 4.8 metres long. Its columns were flat, covered with raw plaster: a column made of a pilaster on which two engaged columns were attached, a flat column, and a corner pilaster looking towards room T, which it delimited. The porticus was decorated with white Fourth Style wall paintings divided in three horizontal zones. The lower zone presented low rectangular panels in the centre of which a red band with carpet-like decoration ran horizontally; small vertical panels with a stylized lotus interrupted its course. The lower zone of the exterior wall of room R bears representations of naturalistic greenery. A yellow-ochre band with red fillets delimited the medium zone; on this band, slender candelabra with vegetal bases stood, placed in front of panels delimited by ochre ‘carpet-like’ bands. There are no remains of the upper zone. The pavement was made of beaten cocciopesto.99 After the big room T there was a corresponding porticus V to the south. The area X between porticus 73 and porticus U and V has (p.257) not been excavated; however, the soil analysis has shown that this area was richly vegetated.100

C.3 Peristylium–garden W22

This entrance peristyle (c.21 × 21 m = 441 m2) was part of the original core of the villa (beginning of the first century BCE). It had a portico (w. c. 3.2 m) on all four sides (eight columns to northwest and southeast, ten to southwest and northeast). Only a very small part of the peristyle has been recently unearthed. The garden area has not been studied.

D. Villa Arianna B

In the excavated area of Villa Arianna B, a small peristylium–garden 1 (35 × 18 m = 630 m2) has been found (D.1). It occupies 25 % of the villa’s excavated area (2,475 m2; Tables 1 and 2) (see Figure App. 4, cf. Figure 2.32).

Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

Fig. App.4 Villa Arianna B, plan with indication of peristylium–garden D.1.

© Mantha Zarmakoupi.

(p.258) D.1 Peristylium–garden 1

Peristylium–garden 1 (35 × 18 m = 630 m2) dates from the first half of the first century BCE. Only the north part of this peristylium–garden is visible today, but the plans made during the Bourbons’ excavations show its full extent. It consisted of a porticus triplex (east, north, west) surrounding a garden, the north limit of which is defined by a wall with engaged columns. A square pool was located at the east side of the garden; a lead pipe around it had holes in order to jet water in the pool.

The brick columns of the porticus were covered in white stucco, which was incised to present flat vertical flutes. The north wing of the porticus triplex had fourteen columns, with a bigger intercolumniation between the seventh and eighth column, corresponding to the big room 7, which had a marble threshold. The short sides of the porticus triplex had six columns each. The porticus were decorated with early Fourth Style wall paintings divided in three horizontal zones (see Figure 4.17). The lower zone featured upright rectangular panels framing stylized flowers that were connected with stylized architectural structures, which were decorated with oscilla and anthemia, on a red fond. The medium zone (very faintly preserved) had a black base, and presented candelabra placed in front of a red-bordered panel, which gave perspectival views of stylized architecture. There are no remains of the upper zone. The pavement of the porticus was removed by the Bourbons, and as the marble thresholds in the intercolumniations, and the opus sectile floors of room 13 (also removed) indicate, it must have been very rich.101

E. Villa San Marco

In Villa San Marco there are three peristylia–gardens: (E.1) the central peristylium–garden 20–5–3–9 (40 × 50 m = 2,000 m2), (E.2) the southwest peristylium–garden 1–2 (113 × 50 m = 5,650 m2), and (E.3) the entrance peristylium–garden (15 × 20 m = 300 m2) (see Figure App. 5, cf. Figure 2.33). Together they occupied 56.4% of the total area of the villa (14,100 m2; Tables 1 and 2).

E.1 Peristylium–garden 20–5–3–9

The peristylium–garden 20–5–3–9 (40 × 50 m = 2,000 m2) took the central position in the villa’s layout. Its first phase dates from the Augustan period, (p.259)

Appendix Porticoed gardens in the five villas

Fig. App.5 Villa San Marco, plan with indications of peristylium–gardens E.1, E.2, and E.3.

© Mantha Zarmakoupi.

when it was a simple porticus triplex (see Figure 2.35).102 During the Julio-Claudian period it was furnished with pool 15 in the middle and with twenty plane trees in its garden (9),103 and was amplified to the southeast: diaetae 53 and 12, accessed from porticus 20 and 3 respectively, the arched nymphaeum 64–65, and behind it cryptoporticus 62–63, defined its limits.104

Porticus 20–5–3 are 4.60 m wide, the northeast and southwest porticus, 20 and 3 respectively, have eleven columns, 28.5 m long, and the northwest one (5) is interrupted by room 16 into two segments, 5a and 5b, each one of which has three columns and is 10 m long (see Figure 7.15).105 Their capitals were made of stucco and painted over.106 The entablatures of porticus 3, 5 (and we shall assume 20 as well) were furnished with white stuccos. These formed long rectangular panels, corresponding with the intercolumniations, and panels that were almost square with triangular or arched tops, corresponding with the columns. The former presented hunting scenes, with Eros, Satyrs, panthers, and deer, and the latter presented female figures, seated with a lyre or in a standing pose in the manner of Venus.107

(p.260) The three aisles of the porticus were decorated with Fourth Style wall paintings divided in three vertical zones. The lower zone featured rectangular panels with stylized vegetal bands or simple ochre bands framing lozenges flanked by a pair of panthers or birds that alternated with square panels bordered by green semicircular shapes and yellow bands framing stylized flowers. The medium zone featured red rectangular panels with thick yellow borders that bore medallions depicting villas in landscapes in their middle (removed by the Bourbons), which alternated with white panels depicting a central tree bearing votive elements, with an imago clipeata above (most removed by the Bourbons) on black pilasters (see Figure 4.14). The upper zone featured, on a white fond, yellow three-dimensional structures emerging above the white panels with trees of the middle zone and black two-dimensional edifices emerging above the middle of the red panels of the middle zone, which are interconnected with garlands and red bands.108

A few fragments of wall paintings have survived from the floor above the porticus, which presented a vegetal decoration on a red background associated with Nilotic scenes. Above porticus 20, yellow-ochre panels with red borders surmounted this red lower zone. The floor above porticus 20 must have also had a porticus looking towards the garden, the columns of which were partially closed with plutei similar to those in porticus 32.109

The porticus’ ceiling was furnished with frescoes presenting Satyrs, floating female figures, Medusa masks, and Psyche busts on a white fond.110 The porticus’ pavement bore geometric black and white mosaics of the mature Fourth Style (Neronian period). The mosaics’ design consisted of a ‘tapestry’ in white tessellatum with black oblique patterns that had black borders towards the columns. The intercolumniations had separate designs that corresponded between porticus 20 and 3, except for one.111

The arched nymphaeum 64–65 delimited the peristylium–garden to the southeast.112 Eight niches, separated by engaged columns, adorned the nymphaeum’s front, four on each side of the central exedra. The nymphaeum was decorated with a unique combination of stuccos, frescos, and mural mosaics, in the niches (two niches were decorated with mosaics and the other six with stuccos and (p.261) frescos) and frescos on the pedestals.113 The niches present large figures of Venus, Neptune, Fortuna, an athlete, and a hunter in high relief that are inserted in illusionist architecture, modelled after the Fourth Style (see Figures 5.11–12).114 The combination of high relief stuccowork, illusionist architectural structures, and recessed and non-recessed surfaces creates a trompe l’œil effect comparable to the scaenae frons of theatres.115

The garden was adorned with a pool (15) in the middle (w. 6 m, l. 38 m, depth 1.8–2.5 m, see Figure 4.5), which communicated at its southeast end with the lower arched-shaped basin in front of the arched nymphaeum.116 Twenty plane trees were planted in two rows on each side of the pool (see Figures 2.33, App.5).117 The garden also featured oleanders and oaks, leaves of which were found in pool 15.118 No evidence of the pool’s water supply system has been found.119 Water, which came from either a thermal source in Mountain Lattari to the southeast or the aqueduct passing nearby, was directed into the central exedra of the nymphaeum, which was on the same axis with the pool, and cascaded down to the arched-shaped basin and into the pool.120

Marble furnishings have been found at the southeast part of the garden. A two-handled alabaster fountain crater with calyces on a marble pilaster, found in front of the south end of the nymphaeum, adorned its southernmost niche.121 A neoattic marble crater with Dionysiac scenes, discovered in front of the nymphaeum and on the same axis with the pool, was used as a fountain (see Figure 4.5).122 Three marble feet of a marble triangular table, in the form of the head and foot of a lion, were in the central area of the nymphaeum.123 The bronze raven, which was constructed to serve as a fountain structure, must have been placed near the pool too, although it was found in the atrium (44).124

(p.262) E.2 Peristylium–garden 1–2

The southwest peristylium–garden 1–2 (113 × 50 m = 5,650 m2) dates as a structure from the Augustan period. The Neronian construction of corridor–ramp 4, which connects it with porticus 3, indicates that it was added to Villa San Marco from the next-door villa at this time.125 The roof of porticus 1–2 terminated in terracotta antefixes that presented simple palmettes and palmettes with the heads of Gorgons and animals, and with acanthus foliage.126 The porticus’ floor of beaten earth indicates that it was under construction at the time of the eruption.127

Porticus 1–2 were 6 m wide and probably at least 4 m high. The brick columns were plastered white. They had incised flat flutes up to 1.5 m and then flutes in relief spiralled towards the top.128 As the level of the porticus was 1 m higher than the level of the garden, three high steps descended to arrive at a big peripheral parterre that bordered the porticus, after which another step arrived at garden level.129

The porticus was decorated in Fourth Style wall paintings divided into three vertical zones. The lower zone featured stylized vegetal and architectural borders, which were connected to miniature aediculae that flanked female figures, on a red fond. The medium zone featured central white panels with a red border, which framed big figures from mythological scenes, alternating with architectural structures in perspective on a white fond and with richly decorated white pilasters. There are no remains of the upper zone.130

The wall paintings around porticus 1–2 of Villa San Marco formed a mythological programme. The main panels in these two porticus (the ones that have been preserved) depict the myth of Apollo and Daphne, a ‘statue’ of Apollo, couples of putti, and the god Pan in pastoral settings.131 All these are represented (p.263) under a trompe-l’œil representation of a porticus that seems to mirror the view of the garden and, through the garden, to the bay of Naples. The thread that pulled these scenes together seems to have been the theme of love.

The porticus’ ceiling was adorned with frescos, which were organized in rectangular compartments, each presenting a coherent theme: Helios (porticus 1), celestial sphere, griffins, Minerva, and Mercury (porticus 2). The central panel of each of the compartments was located above every fourth central panel of the wall paintings below.132 The decoration on the ceiling of the porticus revolves around the themes of the Seasons: representations of Helios on his quadriga, and probably the Zodiac: Juno, Minerva, Mercury, Apollo, and the celestial sphere.133 A big plane tree graced this garden, and the root cavity of another tree has been found, but no further remains of plants were discovered.134 No sculptures have been found in this area. It is thought that a sundial made of grey tufa (h. 38 cm, l, 44 cm), originally found in the atrium (44), adorned this garden.135

E.3 Entrance peristylium–garden

The recently unearthed entrance peristyle (c. 21 × 21 m = 441 m2) was part of the original core of the villa (early first century BCE). It had a portico (circa w. 3 m) on all four sides (five columns to northwest and southeast, four to southwest and northeast) and the garden area was enclosed by low masonry wall. The garden area has not been studied.136 (p.264)

Notes:

(1) The Getty Villa in Malibu, designed after Villa of the Papyri, gives an idea of the villa’s gardens.

(4) On 20 June 1751 Weber recorded only one from the exterior of area e (Weber’s plan) situated at the northeast of the peristylium–garden, but Alcubierre recorded three fragments the next day. Wojcik, 27–8, n. 15.

(5) Inv. no. 9319. Wojcik, 25–6, n. 14.

(6) Although the first excavators thought that the fragments of wall paintings belonged to the Second Style, the major part of the remaining fragments dates to the period immediately preceding the eruption of Vesuvius. Wojcik, 35, n. 157.

(7) I use Comparetti and de Petra’s concordance, after which numbers are indicated as CDP x (where x is the number indicated in the plan by CDP).

(8) Inv. no. 4885 (h. 54 cm). A signed copy: ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΟΣ ΑΡΧΙOϒ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΣ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕ‎. Wojcik, G 1, 171–3, pl. XC–XCI; Neudecker, 148, n. 14.1; Mattusch, 276–7.

(14) CDP 157: Inv. no. 6676 (h. 75 cm, diam. 53 cm; in the National Museum of Naples), CDP 158 is lost. Wojcik, G 9 = CDP 157, G10 = CDP 158, 19–20, 191–2, pl. IC (CDP 157).

(16) Inv. no. 5602 (h. 61 cm) has been identified as Demokritos, Architas, Solon, Aristotle, and Philopoemen. Wojcik, G 6, 181–4, pl. XCVI; Neudecker, 148–9, no. 14.6; Mattusch, 254–5.

(18) Inv. no. 5598 (h. 40.5 cm; cipollino marble pilaster with base: 1.318 m). Found 1.58 m from the border of the water canal. Wojcik, G 7, 184–90, pl XCVII; Neudecker, 149, no. 14.7; Mattusch, 230–3.

(19) CDP 36: Inv. no. 5604 (total h. 1.505 m; statue: 1.458 m, base: 4.7 cm). Wojcik, H 2, 205–6, pl. CII; CDP 37: Inv. no. 5605 (total h. 1.51 m; statue: 1.458 m, base: 5.8 cm). Wojcik, H 1, 203–5, pl. CI; CDP 38: Inv. no. 5621 (total h. 1.552 m; statue: 1.505 m, base: 4.7 cm). Wojcik, H 3, 207–8, pl. CIII, CVI A; CDP 39: Inv. no. 5620 (total h. 1.537 m; statue: 1.49 m, base: 4.7 cm). Wojcik, H 4, 209–10, pl. CIV, CVI B; CDP 40: Inv. no. 5619 (total h. 1.515 m; statue: 1.468 m, base: 4.7 cm). Wojcik, H 5, 210–12, pl. CV; Neudecker, 151–2, nos. 14.35–9; Mattusch, 195–208, 212–15.

(20) I. Sgobbo, ‘Le ‘Danzatrici’ di Ercolano’, RendNap 46 (1971) 51–74; Wojcik, 203–17, pls. CI–V, CVI, A–B, pls. CA, B (Weber’s [A] and Wojcik’s [B] plan and with indication of the original position of the statues in the big peristylium–garden), pl. CVII A (reconstruction of proposed position of statues); Mattusch, 212–15.

(21) Inv. no. 6007. An Augustan copy of an archaistic type of the second century BCE. Wojcik, E 8, 139–41; Neudecker, 150, no. 14.24; Mattusch, 147–51.

(24) Wojcik, 26. Also: a drainage canal made of peperino runs through the peristyle.

(26) The two peristyles ‘share’ this room.

(28) Inv. no. 6126 (h. 1.81 m). A modern replica of a head of Sophokles in the Farnese collection was later added. Wojcik, A 1, 41–2, pl. XXIV; Neudecker, 151, no. 14.31; Mattusch, 144–5.

(34) CDP 62: Inv. no. 4886 (h. 98 cm). Wojcik, D 7, 116–7, pl. LXII A; CDP 63: Inv. no. 4888 (h. 96 cm). Wojcik, D 8, 117–8, pl. LXII B; CDP 64 (fragmentary and now lost): Wojcik, D 9, 118–19; Neudecker, 153, no. 14.55; Mattusch, 327–31.

(36) Inv. no. 27709 (total h. 44.42 cm, length 49 × 47 cm). Wojcik, 39, D 1, 107–9, pl. LVI; Neudecker, 154, no. 14.62; Mattusch, 155–7.

(38) CDP 42: Inv. no. 5626 (h. 1.18 m). Wojcik, D 2, 108–9, pl. LVII; CDP 43: Inv. no. 5627 (h. 1.18 m). Wojcik, D 4, 110–11, pl. LVIII; Neudecker, 154, no. 14.65; Mattusch, 189–94.

(62) Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 290. The identification of the tree is based on two carbonized chestnuts, found in the southwest corner of the garden, at the height of the ceiling beams, which probably fell from a branch of the tree.

(63) Inv. no. OP. 1257 (white marble, h. 34 cm, base w. 27 cm).De Caro 1987, 118–20, n. 34, fig. 31. On sundials: Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 112, fig. 183.

(64) The Sarno canal, constructed in 1594–1600 by engineer Fontano, crosses the porticus at this point.

(65) Fergola and Pagano, Oplontis, 56–7. There are remains of the decoration of the architraves on the west and north side of the porticus.

(68) Inv. no. OP. 1406 (h. 109.5 cm; mouth 94 cm; base 48 × 48 × 6.2 cm) – unpublished. Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 314, 311, fig. 480; De Caro, The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 96–8, n. 11, fig. 13–14; Neudecker, 241, n. 71.9 (Neudecker wrongly locates 71.9 in porticus 34, p. 242); Fergola and Pagano, Oplontis, 58–9, fig. 17.

(70) Jashemski, Gardens of Pompei I, 314, 311, fig. 480 (Jashemski identifies only Ephebos, one Hercules herm, and Artemis/Amazon); Fergola and Pagano, Oplontis, 59–60, fig. 20–1; Neudecker, 241–2, n. 71.10 (Ephebos), n. 71.11 (Nike), n. 71.12 (Heracles herm); De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 102–12, n. 13, 14 (two Heracles herms), n. 15 (Ephebos), n. 16, 17 (two statues of Nike), n. 18 (Artemis/Amazon).

(71) (1): Inv. no. OP. 2742 (white marble; h. 42 cm, base w. 27.1 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 102, n. 13, fig. 17a, b; (2): not yet inventoried (white marble; h. 44 cm, base w. 27.1 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 102–4, n. 14, fig. 18a, b.

(72) Inv. no. OP. 2818 (white marble [superficially corroded]; h. 1.54 m, base 1.60 m). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 104–7, fig. 19a, b, c.

(73) (1): Inv. no. OP. 2798 (white marble; h. with base 1.76 m). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 107, n. 16, fig. 20a, b, c; (2): not yet inventoried (white marble; fragmented – twin of [1]). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 108–10, n. 17, fig. 21.

(74) Not yet inventoried (white marble; max. h. of present state: 1.15 m). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 110–12, n. 18, fig. 22.

(76) This length is based on the length of the corresponding porticus 34.

(80) Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 297, 300–2. The one to the south had d. 300 cm.

(84) Inv. no. OP. 1321 (head: white marble h. 36 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 90, n. 5, fig. 7a, b; Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 301, fig. 459. Unpublished.

(85) Inv. no. OP. 2518 (portrait: white marble, h. 28 cm; herm: African marble, h. 97 cm; base: grey-blue marble, 21 × 22 × 13 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 90, n. 6, fig. 8a, b; Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 301, fig. 461. Unpublished.

(86) Inv. no. OP. 1442 (portrait: white marble, h. 32 cm; pillar: grey-blue veined marble, h. 108 cm, base 18.5 × 17.5 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 92, n. 7, fig. 9a, b; Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 301, fig. 458. Published in: A. De Franciscis, ‘La dama di Oplonti’, in R. A. Stucky and I. Jucker (eds), Eikones: Festschrift H. Jucker zum sechsigsten Geburtstag gewidmet (1980) 115–17.

(87) Inv. no. OP. 2517 (head: white marble, h. 28 cm; pillar: African marble, h. 93 cm, base: 15 × 16.5 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 92–4, n. 8, fig. 10a, b; Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 301, fig. 460. Unpublished.

(88) Inv. no. OP. 1455 (pillar: white marble, h. 86 cm; plinth: grey-blue marble, h. 22 cm). De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 94, n. 9, fig. 11. Unpublished.

(89) The group is published in: De Caro: ‘Sculture dalla villa di Poppea’, 198–219 (h. 90 cm). Also: Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii I, 304, fig. 466; Fergola and Pagano, Oplontis, 68, fig. 26. A centaur with a club and a little boar on his shoulder (Inv. no. OP. 68. De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 88, n. 1, fig. 3), a centaur with a club and a crater (Inv. no. OP. 70. De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 88, n. 2, fig. 4), a female centaur with a club and lyre (Inv. no. OP. 55. De Caro, ‘The Sculptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 88, n. 3, fig. 5), and a female centaur with a club and a fawn on her shoulder (Inv. no. OP. 71. De Caro, ‘The Sulptures of the Villa of Poppaea’, 88, n. 4, fig. 6).

(105) The columns’ construction indicates care for ‘optical corrections’ in regard to the general proportions. At a first stage they were finished with plaster and paint, and then plastered over to increase the thickness by 0.02 m. Rougetet, ‘L’architettura: 1. Construction et architecture’, 52.

(109) Eristov, ‘Le pitture del quarto stile: 3. Le quartier de la piscine’, 208–10. The presence of mortar and the three-sided decoration of the fragments indicate that the floor above porticus 20 was open.

(112) Rougetet, ‘L’architettura: 1. Construction et architecture’, 55–6. The nymphaeum belongs to Neuerberg’s category of semicircular nymphaea with exedra, although Neuerberg did not include it in his category. Blanc, ‘Le nymphée de la Villa San Marco’, 81, n. 7; N. Neuerberg, L’architettura delle fontane, 53–9.

(116) The original depth of the arched-shaped basin is unknown. Barbet, with Blanc and Eristov, ‘Bilancio e prospettiva’, 373.

(121) ACS 63853 (crater: alabaster, h. 63 cm [with base]; diam., 32.5 cm [mouth], 12.5 cm [foot]; pilaster: marble, h. 1.75 m). P. Miniero, ‘I reperti della villa: 1. Arredo’, in Barbet and Miniero, 309–13, at 312, pl. 702–3; Barbet, with Blanc and Eristov, ‘Bilancio e prospettiva’, 373.

(122) MANN 6779 (h. 78 cm [86 cm with curves]; diam. 27 cm. [mouth], 10 cm [foot]). Miniero, ‘I reperti della villa: 1. Arredo’, 311–12, pl. 698–700. The hole at its bottom denotes its function as fountain.

(125) The corridor–ramp 4 is paved with white tessellatum mosaics (Neronian period). Pisapia, ‘I mosaici: 1. Pavimenti secondo la classificazione di Pisapia 1989’, 82. Below the final pavement, corridor 4 had black tessellatum mosaics similar to the ones in room 23 and corridor 22, which belong to the Augustan period. Rougetet, ‘Construction et architecture’, 51; Pisapia, ‘I mosaici: 1. Pavimenti secondo la classificazione di Pisapia 1989’, 79.

(127) Rougetet, ‘Construction et architecture’, 52. Although the wall paintings were finished, the richness of decorations of some ceiling compartments indicates that the decoration was in progress. A.-S. Leclerc, ‘Le pitture del quarto stile. 6. Portique supérieur’, in Barbet and Miniero, 253–66, at 253.

(129) A painting from the House of Marcus Lucretius Fronto in Pompeii shows a porticus that has steps descending towards a big peripheral parterre as this one. Rougetet, ‘L’architettura: 1. Construction et architecture’, 55, figs. 57–61, 751 and 755.