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Culture Evolves$
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Andrew Whiten, Robert A. Hinde, Christopher B. Stringer, and Kevin N. Laland

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199608966

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199608966.001.0001

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Natural Pedagogy as Evolutionary Adaptation

Natural Pedagogy as Evolutionary Adaptation

Chapter:
(p.377) Chapter 22 Natural Pedagogy as Evolutionary Adaptation
Source:
Culture Evolves
Author(s):

Gergely Csibra

György Gergely

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199608966.003.0022

We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of ‘natural pedagogy’ in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be humanspecific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.

Keywords:   social learning, communication, evolution, cultural transmission, natural pedagogy

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