This chapter examines the social and economic aspects of the provincial painters' occupation, implicitly comparing it with the experience of the elite, often foreign-born, painters working principally in, or outwards from, London. It considers the conventional distinction made between ‘artists’ on the one hand and craftsmen painters or painter-stainers on the other. It places considerable emphasis on the guild structure of such centres as Newcastle, Exeter, and especially Chester, including the roles of masters, apprentices, journeymen, and widows, and the nature of training imparted by that time-honoured system. It looks at the price of portraits and the painter's income, his social status, and what can be learned of his workshop practice.
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