Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
One Illness AwayWhy People Become Poor and How They Escape Poverty$

Anirudh Krishna

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199584512

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199584512.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.195) References

(p.195) References

One Illness Away
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Acemoglu, Daren, and James A. Robinson. (2000). “Why did the West Extend the Franchise? Democracy, Inequality, and Growth in Historical Perspective.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115 (4): 1167–99.

——— (2006). Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

——— Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. (2001). “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation.” American Economic Review, December, 1369–401.

Adato, Michelle, and John Hoddinott. (2007). “Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: A ‘Magic Bullet’ for Reducing Poverty?” 2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, DC: IFPRI. Accessed at <www.ifpri.org/2020Chinaconference/pdf/beijingbrief_adato.pdf>.

Addison, Tony, David Hulme, and Ravi Kanbur. eds. (2009). “Poverty Dynamics: Measurement and Understanding from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.” Poverty Dynamics: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 3–26. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Adelman, Irma. (n.d.). “Social Development in South Korea, 1953–1993.” Available at <http://are.berkeley.edu/~adelman/KOREA.html>.

Ahluwalia, M. S. (2000). “Economic Performance of States in Post-Reforms Period.” Economic and Political Weekly, Bombay, May 6, 1637–48.

Ahuja, Vinod, Benu Bidani, Francisco Ferreira, and Michael Walton. (1997). Everyone’s Miracle? Revisiting Poverty and Inequality in East Asia. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Akerlof, George A. (1970). “The Market for ‘Lemons’: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84 (3): 488–500.

Aliber, Michael. (2003). “Chronic Poverty in South Africa: Incidence, Causes and Policies.” World Development, 31 (3): 473–90.

Appadurai, Arjun. (2002). “Deep Democracy: Urban Governmentality and the Horizon of Politics.” Public Culture, 14 (1): 21–47.

——— (2004). “The Capacity to Aspire: Culture and the Terms of Recognition.” In Vijayendra Rao and Michael Walton, eds., Culture and Public Action: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on Development Policy, pp. 59–84. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. (p.196)

Appleton, Simon. (2001). “Poverty in Uganda, 1999/2000: Preliminary Estimates from the UNHS.” Working paper, University of Nottingham, UK.

Asfaw, Abay. (2003). “How Poverty Affects the Health Status and the Healthcare Demand Behavior of Households: The Case of Rural Ethiopia.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Development Policy, Manchester, UK, April 7–9, 2003. Available at <http://idpm.man.ac.uk/cprc/Conference/conferencepapers/Abay%20Asfaw%2007.03.03.pdf>.

——— Joachim von Braun. (2005). “Innovations in Health Care Financing: New Evidence on the Prospect of Community Health Insurance Systems in Rural Areas of Ethiopia.” International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, 5 (3): 241–53.

Asgary, Ali, Ken Willis, Ali Taghvaei, and Mojtaba Rafeian. (2004). “Estimating Rural Households’ Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance.” European Journal of Health Economics, 5 (3): 209–15.

Attewell, Paul, and David E. Lavin. (2007). Passing the Torch: Does Higher Education for the Disadvantaged Pay Off across Generations? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Attwood, Donald W. (1979). “Why Some of the Poor Get Richer: Economic Change and Mobility in Rural West India.” Current Anthropology, 20 (3): 495–516.

Bane, M. J., and D. T. Ellwood. (1986). “Slipping Into and Out of Poverty: The Dynamics of Spells.” Journal of Human Resources, 21 (1): 1–23.

Banerjee, Abhijit, and Esther Duflo. (2006). “The Economic Lives of the Poor.” Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development (BREAD) Working Paper No. 135, BREAD.

Bärninghausen, Till, Yuanli Liu, Xinping Zhang, and Rainer Sauerborn. (2007). “Willing to Pay for Social Health Insurance among Informal Workers in Wuhan, China: A Contingent Valuation Study.” BMC Health Services Research, 7: 114–25.

Barr, Abigail, and David A. Clark. (2007). “A Multidimensional Analysis of Adaptation in a Developing Country Context.” CSAE Working Paper WPS 2007–19, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford, UK.

Barrett, Christopher. (2001). “Nonfarm Diversification and Household Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, Dynamics, and Policy Implications.” Food Policy, 26: 315–31.

——— John G. McPeak. (2005). “Poverty Traps and Safety Nets.” In Alain de Janvry and Ravi Kanbur, eds., Poverty, Inequality and Development: Essays in Honor of Erik Thorbecke. Amsterdam: Springer.

——— M. Bezuneh, and A. Aboud. (2001). “Income Diversification, Poverty Traps and Policy Shocks in CÔte d’Ivoire and Kenya.” Food Policy, 26: 367–84.

——— Paswel Phiri Marenya, John G. McPeak, et al. (2006). “Welfare Dynamics in Rural Kenya and Madagascar.” Journal of Development Studies, 42 (2): 248–77. (p.197)

Barrientos, Armando, and David Hulme. eds. (2008). “Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest: An Introduction.” Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest: Concepts, Policies and Politics, pp. 3–26. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Baulch, Bob, and Peter R. Davis. (2007). “Poverty Dynamics and Life Trajectories in Rural Bangladesh.” Paper prepared for the Wellbeing in International Development Conference, University of Bath, UK, June 28–30.

——— John Hoddinott. (2000). “Economic Mobility and Poverty Dynamics in Developing Countries.” Journal of Development Studies, 36 (6): 1–24.

——— Neil McCulloch. (2002). “Being Poor and Becoming Poor: Poverty Status and Poverty Transitions in Rural Pakistan.” Journal of Asian and African Studies, 37 (2): 168–85.

Bearak, Barry. (2001). “Lives Held Cheap in Bangladesh Sweatshops.” New York Times, April 15.

Behrman, Jere. (1996). “The Impact of Health and Nutrition on Education.” World Bank Research Observer, 11 (1): 23–37.

——— (1997). “Intra-household Distribution and the Family.” In Mark Rozensweig and Oded Stark, eds., Handbook of Population and Family Economics, pp. 107–68. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing.

——— Nancy Birdsall, and Miguel Szekely. (2001). “Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America: Deeper Markets and Better Schools Make a Difference.” In Nancy Birdsall and Carol Graham, eds., New Markets, New Opportunities: Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World, pp. 135–67. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Benabou, Roland. (2000). “Meritocracy, Redistribution, and the Size of the Pie.” In Kenneth Arrow, Samuel Bowles, and Steven Durlauf, eds., Meritocracy and Economic Inequality, pp. 317–39. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

——— and Efe A. Ok. (2001). “Social Mobility and the Demand for Redistribution: The POUM Hypothesis.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116 (2): 447–87.

Berner, Erhard. (1997). “Opportunities and Insecurities: Globalisation, Localities and the Struggle for Urban Land in Manila.” European Journal of Development Research, 9 (1): 167–82.

Berry, Albert. (1997). “The Income Distribution Threat in Latin America.” Latin American Research Review, 32 (2): 3–38.

Bhattamishra, Ruchira. (2008). “Do Grain Banks Displace Moneylenders? Matching-based Evidence from Rural India.” Available at <www.bu.edu/econ/neudc/papers/Section 3/Session 12/256.pdf>.

——— Christopher B. Barrett. (2008). “Community-based Risk Management Arrangements: An Overview and Implications for Social Fund Programs.” SP Discussion Paper Number 0830, Social Protection and Labor, World Bank, Washington, DC. Available at <siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/SP-Discussion-papers/Social-Funds-DP/0830.pdf>. (p.198)

Bhide, S. and A. K. Mehta. (2003). “Chronic Poverty in Rural India: An Analysis using Panel Data: Issues and Findings.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Devleopment Policy, Manchester, UK, April 7–9. Available at <http://idpm.man.ac.uk/cprc/Conference/conferencepapers/Bhide%20&%20Mehta%2023.02.03.pdf>.

Bian, Yanjie. (2002). “Chinese Social Stratification and Social Mobility.” Annual Review of Sociology, 28: 91–116.

Bigsten, Arne. (2007). “Can China Learn from Sweden?” World Economics, 8 (2): 1–24.

Bird, Richard M., and François Vaillancourt. (1998). Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Birdsall, Nancy, and Carol Graham. eds. (2000). “Mobility and Markets: Conceptual Issues and Policy Questions.” New Markets, New Opportunities: Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World, pp. 3–21. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Birkelund, Gunn E. (2006). “Welfare States and Social Inequality: Key Issues in Contemporary Cross-national Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 24: 333–51.

Blair, Harry. (2000). “Participation and Accountability at the Periphery: Democratic Local Governance in Six Countries.” World Development, 28 (1): 21–39.

Boix, Carles. (2003). Democracy and Redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bollen, Kenneth, and Robert Jackman. (1985). “Political Democracy and the Size Distribution of Income.” American Sociological Review, 50: 438–57.

Booth, John A., and Mitchell A. Seligson. (2008). “Inequality and Democracy in Latin America: Individual and Contextual Effects of Wealth on Political Participation.” In Anirudh Krishna, ed., Poverty, Participation, and Democracy: A Global Perspective, pp. 94–124. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge.

——— (1986). “The Forms of Capital.” In J. G. Richardson, ed., The Handbook of Theory: Research for the Sociology of Education, pp. 241–58. New York: Greenwood Press.

Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis. (2002). “The Inheritance of Inequality.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16 (3): 3–30.

——— Melissa Osborne Groves. (2005). “Introduction.” In Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Melissa Osborne Groves, eds., Unequal Chances: Family Background and Economic Success, pp. 1–22. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

——— Steven N. Durlauf, and Karla Hoff. (2006). “Introduction.” In Samuel Bowles, Steven N. Durlauf, and Karla Hoff, eds., Poverty Traps, pp. 1–14. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Brady, David. (2009). Rich Democracies, Poor People: How Politics Explain Poverty. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (p.199)

——— Yunus Kaya, and Jason Beckfield. (2007). “Reassessing the Effect of Economic Growth on Well-being in Less-developed Countries, 1980–2003.” Studies in Comparative International Development, 42 (1): 1–35.

Breen, Richard, and Jan O. Jonsson. (2005). “Inequality of Opportunity in Comparative Perspective: Recent Research on Educational Attainment and Social Mobility.” Annual Review of Sociology, 31: 223–43.

Breman, Jan. (1993). Beyond Patronage and Exploitation: Changing Agrarian Relations in South Gujarat. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

——— (1996). Footloose Labour: Working in India’s Informal Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carter, Michael R. (1991). “Risk, Reciprocity, and Conditional Self-insurance in the Sahel: Measurement and Implications for the Trajectory of Agricultural Development in West Africa.” Working Paper, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin.

——— Christopher B. Barrett. (2006). “The Economics of Poverty Traps and Persistent Poverty: An Asset-based Approach.” Journal of Development Studies, 42 (2): 178–99.

——— Julian May. (2001). “One Kind of Freedom: Poverty Dynamics in Post-apartheid South Africa.” World Development, 29 (12): 1987–2006.

Case, Anne, Anu Garrib, Alicia Menendez, and Analia Olgiati. (2008). “Paying the Piper: The High Cost of Funerals in South Africa.” NBER Working Paper 14456. Available at <www.nber.org/papers/w14456>.

Castaneda, Tarsicio, and Enrique Aldaz-Carroll. (1999). “The Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty: Some Causes and Policy Implications.” Inter-American Development Bank Discussion Paper. Available at <www.iadb.org/sds/doc/1258eng.pdf>.

Castells, Manuel. ed. (2004). The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Chambers, Robert. (1995). “Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts.” Discussion Paper 347, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.

——— (1997). Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last. London: Intermediary Technology Publications.

——— (2008). Revolutions in Development Inquiry. London: Earthscan Publications.

——— R. Longhurst, and A. Pacey. (1981). Seasonal Dimensions to Rural Poverty. London: Frances Pinter.

Chang, Ha-Joon. (2002). Kicking Away the Ladder? Policies and Institutions for Development in Historical Perspective. London: Anthem Press.

Chaudhuri, Shubham, and Martin Ravallion. (1994). “How Well do Static Indicators Identify the Chronic Poor?” Journal of Public Economics, 53: 367–94.

——— (2007). “Partially Awakened Giants: Uneven Growth in India and China.” In L. Alan Winters and Shahid Yusuf, eds., Dancing with Giants: China, India, and the Global Economy, pp. 175–210. Washington, DC: World Bank. (p.200)

Chaudhury, Nazmul, Jeffrey Hammer, Michael Kremer, Karthik Muralidharan, and F. Halsey Rogers. (2006). “Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20 (1): 91–116.

Chayanov, Alexander V. (1966). The Theory of the Peasant Economy. Homewood: Irwin.

Cheema, G. Shabbir, and Dennis A. Rondinelli. (1983). Decentralization and Development: Policy Implementation on Developing Countries. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Chen, Martha A. (2006). “Rethinking the Informal Economy: Linkages with the Formal Economy and the Formal Regulatory Environment.” In Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis, Ravi Kanbur, and Elinor Ostrom, eds., Linking the Formal and Informal Economy: Concepts and Practices, pp. 75–92. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chen, Shaohua, and Martin Ravallion. (2007). “The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World.” 2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, DC: IFPRI.

Christiaensen, Luc, and Harold Alderman. (2004). “Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Can Maternal Knowledge Augment the Role of Income?” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 52 (2), 287–312.

——— Kalanidhi Subbarao. (2005). “Towards an Understanding of Household Vulnerability in Rural Kenya.” Journal of African Economies, 14 (4): 520–58.

——— Lionel Demery, and Stefano Paternostro. (2002). Growth, Distribution and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Chuma, Jane M., Michael Thiede, and Catherine S. Molyneux. (2006). “Rethinking the Economic Costs of Malaria at the Household Level: Evidence from Applying a New Analytical Framework in Rural Kenya.” Malaria Journal, 5 (76).

Clark, Gerard, and Marites Sisson. (2003). “Voices from the Top of the Pile: Elite Perceptions of Poverty and the Poor in the Philippines.” Development and Change, 34 (2): 215–42.

Coady, D., M. Grosh, and J. Hoddinott. (2004). “Targeting of Transfers in Developing Countries: Review of Lessons and Experience.” World Bank Discussion Paper, Washington, DC.

Cohen, John M., and Stephen B. Peterson. (1999). Administrative Decentralization: Strategies for Developing Countries. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Collier, Paul. (2007). The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Collins, Daryl, Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford, and Orlanda Ruthven. (2009). Portfolios of the Poor: How the World’s Poor Live on $2 a Day. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cook, C., F. Heath, and R. Thompson. (2000). “A Meta-analysis of Response Rates in Web- or Internet-based Surveys.” Educational and Psychological Measurements, 60 (6): 821–36. (p.201)

Corak, Miles. ed. (2004). “Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe: An Introduction.” Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe, pp. 1–37. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Corcoran, Mary. (1995). “Rags to Riches: Poverty and Mobility in the United States.” Annual Review of Sociology, 21: 237–67.

Cord, Louise J. (2007). “Overview.” In Timothy Besley and Louise J. Cord, eds., Delivering on the Promise of Pro-Poor Growth, pp. 1–27. Washington, DC: World Bank.

CPRC (Chronic Poverty Research Centre). (2005). The Chronic Poverty Report 2004–05. Manchester: CPRC.

Crook, Richard, and James Manor. (1998). Democracy and Decentralization in South Asia and West Africa: Participation, Accountability and Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Currie, Janet. (2001). “Early Childhood Intervention Programs.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15: 213–38.

Danziger, Sheldon, and Jane Waldvogel. (2005). Securing the Future: Investing in Children from Birth to College. New York: Russell Sage.

Dardanoni, Valentino, Gary Fields, John Roemer, and Maria Laura Sánchez Puerta. (2004). “How Demanding Should Equality of Opportunity Be, and How Much Have We Achieved?” Working Paper. Available at <pantheon.yale.edu/~jer39/Fields.12.2004.pdf>.

Das, Jishnu, Quy-Toan Do, and Berk Özler. (2005). “Reassessing Conditional Cash Transfer Programs.” World Bank Research Observer, 20: 57–80.

Dasgupta, S. (2003). “Structural and Behavioural Characteristics of Informal Service Employment: Evidence from a Survey in New Delhi.” Journal of Development Studies, 39 (3): 51–80.

Datt, Gaurav, and Martin Ravallion. (2002). “Is India’s Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16 (3): 89–108.

Davis, Mike. (2006). Planet of Slums. London: Verso.

Davis, Peter. (2006). “Poverty in Time: Exploring Poverty Dynamics from Life History Interviews in Bangladesh.” CPRC Working Paper 69, Manchester, UK. Available at <www.chronicpoverty.org/pdfs/69Davis.pdf>.

——— (2007). “Discussions Among the Poor: Exploring Poverty Dynamics with Focus Groups in Bangladesh.” CPRC Working Paper 84, Manchester, UK.

De Soto, Hernando. (1989). The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. New York: Harper and Row.

——— (2000). The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books.

De Waal, Alexander. (1989). Famine that Kills: Darfur, Sudan, 1984–1985. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Deaton, Angus. (1997). The Analysis of Household Surveys: A Microeconometric Approach to Development Policy. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. (p.202)

Deaton, Angus. (2000). “Counting the World’s Poor: Problems and Possible Solutions.” Available at <www.princeton.edu/~rpds/downloads/deaton_worlds_poor.pdf>.

——— (2006). Global Patterns of Income and Health: Facts, Interpretations, and Policies. WIDER Annual Lecture 10. Available at <www.wider.unu.edu/publications/annual-lectures/annual-lecture-2006.pdf>.

Deininger, Klaus, and J. Okidi. (2003). “Growth and Poverty Reduction in Uganda, 1992–2000: Panel Data Evidence.” Development Policy Review, 21 (4): 481–509.

Deolalikar, Anil. (2002). “Access to Health Services by the Poor and the Non-poor: The Case of Vietnam.” Journal of Asian and African Studies, 37 (2): 244–61.

Dercon, Stefan. (2004). “Growth and Shocks: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia.” Journal of Development Economics, 74 (2): 309–29.

——— ed. (2005). “Risk, Insurance, and Poverty: A Review.” Insurance against Poverty, pp. 9–37. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

——— Pramila Krishnan. (2000). “Vulnerability, Seasonality and Poverty in Ethiopia.” Journal of Development Studies, 36 (6): 25–53.

——— Tessa Bold, Joachim De Weerdt, and Alula Pankhurst. (2004). “Extending Insurance? Funeral Associations in Ethiopia and Tanzania.” Working Paper No. 240, OECD Development Centre, Paris.

Devereaux, S., and K. Sharp. (2003). “Is Poverty Really Falling in Rural Ethiopia?” Working Paper, Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Diamond, Jared. (2000). Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton.

Dichter, Thomas W. (2003). Despite Good Intentions: Why Development Assistance to the Third World Has Failed. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Dilip, T. R., and Ravi Duggal. (2002). “Incidence of Non-fatal Health Outcomes and Debt in Urban India.” Working Paper, Center for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT), Mumbai, India.

DiMaggio, Paul. (1982). “Cultural Capital and School Success.” American Sociological Review, 47 (2): 189–201.

Djurfeldt, Göran, Venkatesh Athreya, N. Jayakumar, et al. (2008). “Agrarian Change and Social Mobility in Tamil Nadu.” Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Lund University, Sweden.

Dollar, David, and Aart Kraay. (2000). “Growth is Good for the Poor.” Journal of Economic Growth, 7: 195–225.

Dreze, Jean and Amartya Sen. (1995). India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Dror, David M., Ralf Radermacher, and Ruth Koren. (2007). “Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance among Rural and Poor Persons: Field Evidence from Seven Micro Insurance Units in India.” Health Policy, 82 (1): 12–27. (p.203)

Duncan, Greg J. (1984). Years of Poverty, Years of Plenty. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.

Durlauf, Steven N. (2006). “Groups, Social Influences, and Inequality.” In Samuel Bowles, Steven N. Durlauf, and Karla Hoff, eds., Poverty Traps, pp. 141–75. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Easterly, William. (2001). The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists’ Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

——— (2006). The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. New York: Penguin Press.

ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean). (2000). Social Panorama of Latin America, 1999–2000. Santiago, Chile: United Nations ECLAC.

——— (2007). Social Panorama of Latin America, 2006–2007. Santiago, Chile: United Nations ECLAC.

Eder, J. (1999). A Generation Later: Household Strategies and Economic Change in the Rural Philippines. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Ekman, Björn. (2004). “Community-based Health Insurance in Low-income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.” Health Policy and Planning, 19 (5): 249–70.

Elbers, C., P. Lanjouw, J. Mistiaen, and K. Simler. (2004). On the Unequal Inequality of Poor Communities. World Bank Economic Review, 18 (3): 401–21.

Ellis, Frank. (1998). “Household Strategies and Rural Livelihood Diversification.” Journal of Development Studies, 35: 1–38.

——— (2000). Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ensor, Tim, and Pham Bich San. (1996). “Access and Payment for Health Care: The Poor of Northern Vietnam.” International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 11 (1): 69 – 83.

EQUITAP. (2005). “Paying Out-of-pocket for Health Care in Asia: Catastrophic and Poverty Impact.” Equitap Project Working Paper No. 2. Available at <www.equitap.org>.

Erikson, Robert, and John H. Goldthorpe. (1992). The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

——— (2002). “Intergenerational Inequality: A Sociological Perspective.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16 (3): 31–44.

Esman, M., and N. Uphoff. (1984). Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Esping-Andersen, Gosta. (2005). “Education and Equal Life-chances: Investing in Children.” In Olli Kangas and Joakim Palme, eds., Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries, pp. 147–63. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Estudillo, Jonna, Agnes Quisumbing, and Keijiro Otsuka. (2001). “Gender Differences in Land Inheritance, Schooling, and Lifetime Income: Evidence from the Rural Philippines.” Journal of Development Studies, 37 (4): 23–48. (p.204)

Evans, Peter. (1995). Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fabricant, S., C. Kamara, and A. Mills. (1999). “Why the Poor Pay More: Household Curative Expenditures in Rural Sierra Leone.” International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 14: 179–99.

Farmer, Paul. (1999). Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. Berkeley: University of California Press.

——— (2003). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fields, Gary. (2001). Distribution and Development: A New Look at the Developing World. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Findlay, Ronald, and Stanislaw Wellisz. eds. (1993). “Hong Kong.” Five Small Open Economies, pp. 16–92. New York: Oxford University Press.

Franco, S., and R. Saith. (2003). “Different Conceptions of Poverty: An Empirical Investigation and Policy Implications.” Available at <www.wider.unu.edu/conference/conference-2003-2/conference%202003-2-papers/papers-pdf/Franco%20270503.pdf>.

French, Howard W. (2006). “Wealth Grows, but Health Care Withers in China.” New York Times, January 14.

Friedman, Thomas L. (2005). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux.

Friedmann, John. (2005). “The World City Hypothesis.” In Jan Lin and Christopher Mele, eds., The Urban Sociology Reader, pp. 223–9. London, UK: Routledge.

Gaiha, Raghav. (1989). “Are the Chronically Poor also the Poorest in Rural India?” Development and Change, 20: 295–322.

——— Vani Kulkarni. (1998). “Is Growth Central to Poverty Alleviation in India?” Journal of International Affairs, 52 (1): 145–80.

Gan, Li, Lixin Colin Xu, and Yang Yao. (2005). “Health Shocks, Village Governance, and Farmers’ Long-term Income Capabilities: Evidence from Rural China.” FED Working Paper No. FE20050066. Available at <www.ded.org.cn>.

Gangl, Markus. (2005). “Income Inequality, Permanent Incomes, and Income Dynamics: Comparing Europe to the United States.” Work and Occupations, 32 (2): 140–62.

——— Joakim Palme, and Lane Kenworthy. (2007). “Is High Inequality Offset by Mobility?” Working Paper. Available at <www.u.arizona.edu/~lkenwor/ishighinequalityoffsetbymobility.pdf>.

Ganzeboom, Harry, Donald Treiman, and Wout Ultee. (1991). “Comparative Intergenerational Stratification: Three Generations and Beyond.” Annual Review of Sociology, 17: 277–302.

Garg, Charu C., and Anup K. Karan. (2005). “Health and Millennium Development Goal 1: Reducing Out-of-pocket Expenditures to Reduce Income Poverty—Evidence (p.205) from India.” Equitap Project Working Paper No. 15. Available at <www.equitap.org>.

Garg, Ashish, and Jonathan Morduch. (1998). “Sibling Rivalry and the Gender Gap: Evidence from Child Health Outcomes in Ghana.” Journal of Population Economics, 11 (4): 471–93.

Gelbach, J., and L. Pritchett. (2002). “Is More for the Poor Less for the Poor? The Politics of Means-tested Targeting.” Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy, 2 (1).

Giridhardask, Anand. (2007). “In India, Poverty Inspires Technology Workers to Altruism.” New York Times, October 30.

Glewwe, P., and J. Van der Gaag. (1990). “Identifying the Poor in Developing Countries: Do Different Definitions Matter?” World Development, 18 (6): 803–14.

——— and G. Hall. (1998). Who is Most Vulnerable to Macroeconomic Shocks? Hypothesis Tests Using Panel Data from Peru. Washington, DC: World Bank.

GOI (Government of India) (2007). Report of the Expert Group on Agricultural Indebtedness. New Delhi: Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, GOI.

Graham, Carol. (2000). “The Political Economy of Mobility: Perceptions and Objective Trends in Latin America.” In Nancy Birdsall and Carol Graham, eds., New Markets, New Opportunities: Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World, pp. 225–66. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Grawe, Nathan D. (2004). “Intergenerational Mobility for Whom? The Experience of High- and Low-earning Sons in International Perspective.” In M. Corak, ed., Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe, pp. 58–89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Griffin, Keith, and Amy Ickowitz. (1997). “The Distribution of Wealth and the Pace of Development.” Working Paper No. 3, Social Development and Poverty Elimination Division, United Nations Development Programme, New York.

Grootaert, C., and R. Kanbur (1995). “The Lucky Few Amidst Economic Decline: Distributional Change in Cote d’Ivoire as seen through Panel Data Sets, 1985–88.” Journal of Development Studies, 31 (4): 603–19.

Gupta, Indrani, and Arup Mitra. (2004). “Economic Growth, Health and Poverty: An Exploratory Study for India.” Development Policy Review, 22 (2): 193–206.

Hacker, Jacob. (2006). The Great Risk Shift. New York: Oxford University Press.

Haddad, Lawrence, and Akhter Ahmed. (2003). “Chronic and Transitory Poverty: Evidence from Egypt, 1997–99.” World Development, 31 (1): 71–85.

——— Ravi Kanbur. (1990). “How Serious is the Neglect of Intra-household Inequality?” Working Paper No. 296, Policy, Planning, and Research, World Bank, Washington, DC.

——— Christine Pena, Chizuru Nishida, Agnes Quisumbing, and Alison Slack. (1996). “Food Security and Nutrition Implications of Intrahousehold Bias: A Review of the Literature.” Discussion Paper 19, Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. (p.206)

Hall, Peter A., and David Soskice, eds. (2001). Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Handa, Sudhanshu, and Benjamin Davis. (2006). “The Experience of Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Development Policy Review, 24 (5): 513–36.

Hannum, Emily, and Claudia Buchmann. (2005). “Global Educational Expansion and Socio-economic Development: An Assessment of Findings from the Social Sciences.” World Development, 33 (3): 333–54.

Harriss-White, Barbara. (2007). “Destitution in India and Peru.” In Frances Stewart, Ruhi Saith, and Barbara Harriss-White, eds., Defining Poverty in the Developing World, pp. 198–216. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Himmelstein, David, Elizabeth Warren, Deborah Thorne, and Steffie Woolhandler. (2005). “Illness and Injury as Contributors to Bankruptcy.” Health Affairs, February 2.

Hirway, Indira. (2000). “Dynamics of Development in Gujarat: Some Issues.” Economic and Political Weekly, August 26: 3106–20.

Hout, Michael. (2006). “Economic Change and Social Mobility.” In Göran Therborn, ed., Inequalities of the World: New Theoretical Frameworks, Multiple Empirical Approaches, pp. 119–35. London: Verso.

——— Thomas DiPrete. (2006). “What Have We Learned: RC28’s Contribution to Knowledge about Social Stratification.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 24: 1–20.

Hulme, David, and Andrew Shepherd. (2003). “Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty.” World Development, 31 (3): 403–24.

Iliffe, J. (1987). The African Poor: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ILO (International Labor Office). (2002a). Decent Work and the Informal Economy. Geneva: ILO. Available at <www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc90/pdf/rep-vi.pdf>.

——— (2002b). Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture. Geneva: Employment Sector, ILO.

Iyer, Aditi, Gita Sen, and Asha George. (2007). “The Dynamics of Gender and Class in Access to Health Care: Evidence from Rural Karnataka, India.” International Journal of Health Services, 37 (3): 537–54.

Jacoby, H., and F. Skoufias. (1997). “Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country.” Review of Economic Studies, 64 (3): 311–36.

Jalan, Jyotsna, and Martin Ravallion. (1998). “Geographic Poverty Traps? A Micro Model of Consumption Growth in Rural China.” Available at <http://www.gdnet.org/pdf/580_Jalan.pdf>.

——— (2000). “Is Transient Poverty Different? Evidence for Rural China.” Journal of Development Studies, 36 (6): 82–99.

Jantti, Markus, Bernt Bratsberg, Knut Roed, et al. (2005). “American Exceptionalism in a New Light: A Comparison of Intergenerational Earnings Mobility in the Nordic (p.207) Countries, the United Kingdom, and the United States.” Available at <papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=878675>.

Jayne, T. S., T. Yamano, M. Weber, et al. (2003). “Smallholder Income and Land Distribution in Africa: Implications for Poverty Reduction Strategies.” Food Policy, 28: 253–73.

Jeffrey, Craig, Patricia Jeffery, and Roger Jeffery. (2008). Degrees without Freedom: Education, Masculinities, and Unemployment in North India. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Jencks, Christopher, and Laura Tach. (2005). “Would Equal Opportunity Mean More Mobility?” KSG Working Paper No. RWP05-037, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Available at <papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=779507>.

Jodha, Narpat S. (1988). “Poverty Debate in India: A Minority View.” Economic and Political Weekly, Bombay, November: 2421–8.

Johnson, Deb. (2002). “Insights on Poverty.” Development in Practice, 12 (2): 127–37.

Kabeer, Naila. (2005). “Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal.” Gender and Development, 13 (1): 13–24.

Kakwani, Nanak, and Hyun H. Son. (2006). “New Global Poverty Counts.” Working Paper No. 29, International Poverty Center, United Nations Development Programme. Available at <www.undp.org/povertycentre/pub/IPCWorkingPaper29.pdf>.

Kanbur, Ravi. (2001). “Economic Policy, Distribution and Poverty: The Nature of Disagreements.” World Development, 29 (6): 1083–94.

——— ed. (2003). Q-Squared: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Poverty Appraisal. Delhi: Permanent Black.

——— Lyn Squire. (1999). “The Evolution of Thinking About Poverty: Exploring the Interactions.” Available at <www.worldbank.org/prem/poverty/wdrpoverty/evolut.htm>.

Kangas, Olli, and Joakim Palme. (2005). “Coming Late—Catching Up: The Formation of a ‘Nordic Model.’” In Olli Kangas and Joakim Palme, eds., Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries, pp. 17–59. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kappel, R., J. Lay, and S. Steiner. (2005). “Uganda: No more Pro-poor Growth? Development Policy Review, 23 (1): 27–53.

Karshenas, Massoud. (2003). “Global Poverty: National Account Based versus Survey Based Estimates.” Development and Change, 34 (4): 683–712.

Kasza, Gregory, J. (2006). One World of Welfare: Japan in Comparative Perspective. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Kenjiro, Y. (2005). “Why Illness Causes More Serious Economic Damage than Crop Failure in Rural Cambodia.” Development and Change 36(4): 759–83. (p.208)

Khan, Azizur Rahman, and Carl Riskin. (2001). Inequality and Poverty in China in the Age of Globalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Klitgaard, Robert. (1997). “Unanticipated Consequences in Anti-Poverty Programs.” World Development, 25 (12): 1963–72.

Kochar, Anjini. (1995). “Expanding Household Vulnerability to Idiosyncratic Income Shocks.” AEA Papers and Proceedings, 85 (92): 159–64.

Kohli, Atul. (2004). State-directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kozel, Valerie, and Barbara Parker. (2007). “Poverty and Vulnerability in Zambia: Perspectives on Policy Challenges.” Paper presented at Q-Squared in Policy: A Conference on the Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Poverty Analysis in Decision-making. Hanoi, July 7–8.

Kremer, M., N. Chaudhury, F. Rogers, K. Muralidharan, and J. Hammer. (2004). “Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot.” Journal of the European Economic Association, 3 (2–3): 658–67.

Krishna, Anirudh. (2002). Active Social Capital: Tracing the Roots of Development and Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.

——— (2003). “Falling into Poverty: The Other Side of Poverty Reduction.” Economic and Political Weekly, Bombay, India, February 8.

——— (2004). “Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor: Who Gains, Who Loses, and Why? People’s Assessments of Stability and Change in 35 North Indian Villages.” World Development, 32 (1): 121–36.

——— (2006). “Pathways Out of and Into Poverty in 36 Villages of Andhra Pradesh, India.” World Development, 34 (2): 271–88.

——— (2007a). “For Reducing Poverty Faster: Target Reasons before People.” World Development, 35 (11): 1947–60.

——— (2007b). “Poverty and Health: Defeating Poverty by Reducing Its Creation.” Development, 50th Anniversary Special Issue, 50 (2): 63–9.

——— (2007c). “The Conundrum of Services: Why Services are Crucial for Making Service Provision Better.” In Shantayanan Devarajan and Ingrid Widlund, eds., The Politics of Service Delivery in Democracies: Better Access for the Poor, pp. 11–24. Stockholm: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Sweden.

——— (2007d). “Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor in Three States of India, with Additional Evidence from Kenya, Uganda, and Peru.” In Deepa Narayan and Patti Petesch, eds., Moving Out of Poverty: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Mobility, pp. 165–98. Washington, DC: World Bank; and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

——— (2007e). The Dynamics of Poverty: Why Don’t ‘The Poor’ Act Collectively? 2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, DC: IFPRI. Available at <http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/beijingbrief_krishna.pdf>. (p.209)

——— (2007f). “The Stages-of-progress Methodology and Results from Five Countries.” In Caroline Moser, ed., Reducing Global Poverty: The Case for Asset Accumulation, pp. 62–79. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

——— (2007g). “Why Don’t ‘the Poor’ Have a Louder Voice When they are Many?” Paper presented at 2020 Seminar Series: Action for the World’s Poorest and Hungry, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC. Available at <http://www.ifpri.org/event/why-dont-poor-have-louder-voice-when-they-are-many>.

——— (2009). “Why Don’t ‘the Poor’ Make Common Cause? The Importance of Subgroups.” Journal of Development Studies, 45 (6): 1–19.

——— Vijay Brihmadesam. (2006). “What Does it Take to Become a Software Engineer? Educated Parents, Information Networks, and Upward Mobility in India.” Economic and Political Weekly, Bombay, India, July 29.

——— Jesse Lecy. (2008). “The Balance of All Things: Explaining Household Poverty Dynamics in 50 Villages of Gujarat, India.” International Journal of Multiple Research Methods, 2 (2): 160–75.

——— Jan Nederveen Pieterse. (2008). “Hierarchical Integration: The Dollar Economy and the Rupee Economy.” Development and Change, 39 (2): 219–37.

——— Norman Uphoff, and Milton Esman. (1997). Reasons for Hope: Instructive Experiences in Rural Development. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

——— Patricia Kristjanson, Maren Radeny, and Wilson Nindo. (2004). “Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor in Twenty Kenyan Villages.” Journal of Human Development, 5 (2): 211–26.

——— Mahesh Kapila, Mahendra Porwal, and Veerpal Singh. (2005). “Why Growth is Not Enough: Household Poverty Dynamics in Northeast Gujarat, India.” Journal of Development Studies, 41 (7): 1163–92.

——— Christina Gibson-Davis, Liz Clasen, Milissa Markiewicz, and Nicolas Perez. (2006). “Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor in Thirteen Communities in Rural North Carolina.” Working Paper, Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University. Available at <www.pubpol.duke.edu/krishna>.

——— Judith Kuan, et al. (2006). “Fixing the Hole in the Bucket: Household Poverty Dynamics in Forty Communities of the Peruvian Andes.” Development and Change, 37 (5): 997–1021.

——— Daniel Lumonya, Milissa Markiewicz, et al. (2006). “Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor in 36 Villages of Central and Western Uganda.” Journal of Development Studies, 42 (2): 346–70.

Kristjanson, Patricia, Anirudh Krishna, Maren Radeny, et al. (2007). “Poverty Dynamics and the Role of Livestock in the Peruvian Andes.” Agricultural Systems, 94: 294–308.

——— Nelson Mango, Anirudh Krishna, Maren Radeny, and Nancy Johnson. (2009). “Understanding Poverty Dynamics in Kenya.” Journal of International Development. In press. (p.210)

Kundu, Amitabh. (2000). “Globalizing Gujarat: Urbanization, Employment and Poverty.” Economic and Political Weekly, August 26: 3172–81.

Kwon, Soonwon, ed. (1998). “National Profile of Poverty.” Combating Poverty: The Korean Experience, pp. 29–60. Seoul: United Nations Development Programme.

Labonte, Ronald, and Ted Schrecker. (2007). “Globalization and Social Determinants of Health.” Part 1: Globalization and Health, 3 (5): 1–10; Part 2, Globalization and Health, 3 (6): 1–17; Part 3, Globalization and Health, 3 (7): 1–15.

Laderchi, C., R. Saith, and F. Stewart. (2003). “Does it Matter that We Don’t Agree on the Definition of Poverty? A Comparison of Four Approaches.” Queen Elizabeth House (QEH) Working Paper Series 107, QEH, Oxford, UK.

Landes, David S. (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. New York: Norton.

Lanjouw, Jean Olson. (1998). “Demystifying Poverty Lines.” Available at <www.undp.org/poverty/publications/pov_red/Demystifying_Poverty_Lines.pdf>.

Lanjouw, Peter, and Nicholas Stern. (1991). “Poverty in Palanpur.” World Bank Economic Review, 5 (1): 23–55.

Lawson, David. (2004). “Uganda: The Influence of Health on Chronic and Transitory Poverty.” CPRC Working Paper 41, Chronic Poverty Research Centre, Manchester, UK. Available at <www.chronicpoverty.org>.

Lecomte, Bernard, and Anirudh Krishna. (1997). “Six-S: Building upon Traditional Social Organizations in Francophone West Africa.” In Anirudh Krishna, Norman Uphoff, and Milton Esman, eds., Reasons for Hope: Instructive Experiences in Rural Development, pp. 75–90. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Leonard, David. (1991). African Successes: Four Public Managers of Kenyan Rural Development. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lipton, Michael. (1997). “Editorial: Poverty—Are There Holes in the Consensus?” World Development, 25 (7): 1003–7.

——— Martin Ravallion. (1995). “Poverty and Policy.” In J. Behrman and T. N. Srinivasan, eds., Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. III, pp. 2551–657. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Litvack, Jennie, Junaid Ahmad, and Richard Bird. (1998). Rethinking Decentralization in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Lok-Desallien, Renata. (1999). “Review of Poverty Concepts and Indicators.” Available at <www.undp.org/poverty/publications/pov_red/Review_of_Concepts.pdf>.

Lwanga-Ntale, Charles, and Kimberley McClean. (2003). “The Face of Chronic Poverty in Uganda as seen by the Poor Themselves.” CPRC Working Paper, Chronic Poverty Research Centre, Manchester, UK.

Macinko, James, Leiyu Shi, and Barbara Starfield. (2004). “Wage Inequality, the Health System, and Infant Mortality in Wealthy Industrialized Countries, 1970–1996.” Social Science and Medicine, (58): 279–92.

Macleod, Jay. (1995). Ain’t No Makin’ It: Aspirations and Attainment in a Low-income Neighborhood. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (p.211)

Manor, James. (1999). The Political Economy of Democratic Decentralization. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Matin, Imran, and Shantana R. Halder. (2002). “Combining Targeting Methodologies for the Better Targeting of the Extreme Poor: Some Preliminary Findings from BRAC’s CFPR/TUP Programme.” CRPR/TUP Working Paper 1, Research and Evaluation Division, Dhaka: BRAC.

Mayer, Susan E. (1997). What Money Can’t Buy: Family Incomes and Children’s Life Chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mazumdar, Bhashkar. (2005). “Fortunate Sons: New Estimates of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States using Social Security Earnings Data.” Review of Economics and Statistics, 87 (2): 235–55.

McGee, Rosemary. (2004). “Constructing Poverty Trends in Uganda: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.” Development and Change, 35 (3): 499–523.

McIntyre, Diane, Michael Thiede, Goran Dahlgren, and Margaret Whitehead. (2006). “What are the Economic Consequences for Households of Illness and of Paying for Health Care in Low- and Middle-income Country Contexts?” Social Science and Medicine, 62: 858–65.

McKernan, S., and C. Ratcliffe. (2002). “Transition Events in the Dynamics of Poverty.” Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Available at <www.urban.org>.

Mehta, Aasha Kapur, and Amita Shah. (2003). “Chronic Poverty in India: Incidence, Causes and Policies.” World Development, 31 (3): 491–511.

Mellor, J. W. (1999). “Pro-poor Growth: The Relation between Growth in Agriculture and Poverty Reduction.” Report prepared for USAID, Washington, DC.

Milanovic, Branko. (2005). Worlds Apart: Measuring International and Global Inequality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Milly, Deborah, J. (1999). Poverty, Equality, and Growth: The Politics of Economic Need in Postwar Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Molyneux, Maxine and Shahra Razavi. (2005). “Beijing plus Ten: An Ambivalent Record on Gender Justice.” Development and Change, 36 (6): 983–1010.

Moore, Mick, Madhulika Choudhary, and Neelam Singh. (1998). “How Can We Know What They Want? Understanding Local Perceptions of Poverty and Ill-being in Asia.” IDS (Institute of Development Studies) Working Paper 80, IDS, Brighton, UK.

Morduch, Jonathan. (2000). “Sibling Rivalry in Africa.” American Economic Review, 90 (2): 405–9.

——— (2005). “Consumption Smoothing Across Space: Testing Theories of Risk-Sharing in the ICRISAT Study Region of South India.” In Stefan Dercon, ed., Insurance against Poverty, pp. 38–58. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

——— (2006). “Micro-insurance: The Next Revolution?” In Abhijit Banerjee, Roland Benabou, and Dilip Mookherjee, eds., Understanding Poverty, pp. 337–56. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (p.212)

Morgan, Stephen L. (2006). “Past Themes and Future Prospects for Research on Social and Economic Mobility.” In Stephen L. Morgan, David B. Grusky, and Gary S. Fields, eds., Mobility and Inequality, pp. 3–22. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Moser, Caroline. (1998). “The Asset-vulnerability Framework: Reassessing Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies.” World Development, 26 (1): 1–19.

——— Andrew Felton. (2007). “Intergenerational Asset Accumulation and Poverty Reduction in Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1978–2004.” In Caroline Moser, ed., Reducing Global Poverty: The Case for Asset Accumulation, pp. 15–50. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Muller, Edward N. (1988). “Democracy, Economic Development, and Income Inequality.” American Sociological Review 53: 50–68.

Munshi, Kaivan, and Mark Rosenzweig. (2005). “Traditional Institutions Meet the Modern World: Caste, Gender and Schooling Choice in a Globalizing Economy.” Available at <www.econ.brown.edu/fac/Kaivan_Munshi/bombay12.pdf>.

Narayan, D., R. Chambers, M. Shah, and P. Petesh. (2000). Voices of the Poor: Crying Out for Change. New York: Oxford University Press.

——— Patel, R., K. Schafft, A. Rademacher, and S. Koch-Schulte. (2000). Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? New York: Oxford University Press.

——— Pritchett, L., and S. Kapoor. (2009). Moving Out of Poverty Volume 2: Success from the Bottom Up. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Naschold, Felix, and Christopher Barrett. (2007). “Do Short-term Observed Income Changes Overstate Structural Economic Mobility?” Working Paper, Cornell University. Available at <aem.cornell.edu/faculty_sites/cbb2/Papers/Mobility%20_Naschold%20&%20Barrett_%20Dec%202007.pdf>.

Newman, Katherine S. (1988). Falling from Grace: Downward Mobility in the Age of Affluence. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Noponen, Helzi. (1991). “The Dynamics of Work and Survival for the Urban Poor: A Gender Analysis of Panel Data from Madras.” Development and Change, 22: 233–60.

North, Douglass C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Obama, Barack. (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Random House.

O’Connor, Alice. (2001). Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in 20th Century US History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

OECD. (2001). “When Money is Tight: Poverty Dynamics in OECD Countries.” Available at <www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/55/2079296.pdf>.

Oldenburg, Veena T. (2002). Dowry Murder: The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime. New York: Oxford University Press. (p.213)

Olson, Mancur. (2000). Power and Prosperity: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships. New York: Basic Books.

Ostrom, Elinor. (1996). “Crossing the Great Divide: Coproduction, Synergy, and Development.” World Development, 24 (6): 1073–87.

——— (2001). “Vulnerability and Polycentric Governance Systems.” IHDP (International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change) Newsletter UPDATE, 3(1): 3–4.

——— Larry Schroeder, and Susan Wynne. (1993). Institutional Incentives and Sustainable Development: Infrastructure Policies in Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Palmer-Jones, Richard, and Kunal Sen. (2001). “On India’s Poverty Puzzles and the Statistics of Poverty.” Economic and Political Weekly, January 20: 211–17.

Paxson, Christina, and Norbert Schady. (2005). “Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health and Parenting.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series 3605, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Pei, Minxin. (2006). “The Dark Side of China’s Rise.” Foreign Policy, March/April: 32–40.

Pender, J., P. Jagger, E. Nkonya, and D. Sserunkuuma. (2004). “Development Pathways and Land Management in Uganda.” World Development, 32 (5): 767–92.

Perlman, Janice. (2007). “Elusive Pathways Out of Poverty: Intra- and Intergenerational Mobility in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro.” In Deepa Narayan and Patti Petesch, eds., Moving Out of Poverty: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives, pp. 227–72. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Prahalad, C. K. (2005). The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty through Profits. Singapore: Pearson Education, Inc.

Preker, Alexander S., Guy Carrin, David Dror, et al. (2002). “Effectiveness of Community Health Financing in Meeting the Cost of Illness.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80 (2): 143–50.

Pritchett, Lant, and Michael Woolcock. (2004). “Solutions When the Solution Is the Problem: Arraying the Disarray in Development.” World Development, 32 (5): 191–212.

Pryer, J., S. Rogers, and A. Rahman (2003). “Work, Disabling Illness, and Coping Strategies in Dhaka Slums, Bangladesh.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Staying Poor: Chronic Poverty and Devleopment Policy, Manchester, April 7–9, 2003. Available at <http://idpm.man.ac.uk/cprc/Conference/conferencepapers/Pryer%20Jane%20Workdisab28.02.03.pdf>.

Quisumbing, Agnes R. (2006). “Investments, Bequests, and Public Policy: Intergenerational Transfers and the Escape from Poverty.” CPRC Working Paper. Available at <www.chronicpoverty.org/pdfs/2006ConceptsConferencePapers/Quisumbing-CPRC2006-Draft.pdf>. (p.214)

Quisumbing, Agnes R. (2007). “Poverty Transitions, Shocks, and Consumption in Rural Bangladesh: Preliminary Results from a Longitudinal Household Survey.” CPRC Working Paper 105. Chronic Poverty Research Centre, Manchester, UK.

Rajasekhar, D. (2008). “Social Security for Unorganized Workers in India: Status and Issues.” India Economy Review, V: 125–31.

Ranis, Gustav, and Frances Stewart. (2001). “Growth and Human Development: Comparative Latin American Experiences.” The Developing Economies, 39 (4): 333–65.

Ravallion, Martin. (2001). “Growth, Inequality and Poverty: Looking Beyond Averages.” World Development, 29 (1): 1803–15.

——— (2007). “Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Do Poor Countries Need to Worry about Inequality?” 2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, DC: IFPRI.

——— Shaohua Chen. (2004). “China’s (Uneven) Progress Against Poverty.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3408, World Bank, Washington, DC.

——— Gaurav Datt. (1996). “How Important to India’s Poor is the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth?” World Bank Economic Review, 10 (1).

Ravnborg, H. M., J. Boesen, and A. Sorensen. (2004). “Gendered District Poverty Profiles and Poverty Monitoring: Kabarole, Masaka, Pallisa, Rakai and Tororo Districts, Uganda.” DIIS Working Paper 2004: 1, Danish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen.

Ray, Debraj. (2006). “Aspirations, Poverty, and Economic Change.” In Abhijit Banerjee, Roland Benabou, and Dilip Mookherjee, eds., Understanding Poverty, pp. 409–21. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reddy, Sanjay G. (2008). “The New Global Poverty Estimates—Digging Deeper into a Hole.” Available at <http://www.undp-povertycentre.org/pub/IPCOnePager65.pdf>.

——— Camelia Minoiu. (2007). “Has World Poverty Really Fallen?” Review of Income and Wealth, 53 (3): 484–502.

——— Thomas W. Pogge. (2002). “How Not To Count the Poor.” Available at <www.socialanalysis.org>.

Reid, T. R. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Press.

Robinson, Marguerite S. (2001). The Microfinance Revolution. New York: Open Society Institute.

Rodgers, Harrell R., Jr. (2000). American Poverty in a New Era of Reform. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Rodrik, Dani. (2000). “Institutions for High-Quality Growth: What They Are and How to Acquire Them.” Studies in Comparative International Development, (35) 3: 3–31.

——— (2002). “Growth and Poverty Reduction: What are the Real Questions?” Finance and Development, 37 (4). (p.215)

——— (2007). One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

——— Francisco Rodríguez. (2001). “Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-national Evidence.” In Ben Bernanke and Kenneth S. Rogoff, eds., Macroeconomics Annual 2000. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press for NBER.

Roemer, John E. (1998). Equality of Opportunity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

——— (2000). “Equality of Opportunity.” In Kenneth Arrow, Samuel Bowles, and Steven Durlauf, eds., Meritocracy and Economic Inequality, pp. 17–32. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

——— (2004). “Equal Opportunity and Intergenerational Mobility: Going Beyond Intergenerational Income Transition Matrices.” In Miles Corak, ed., Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe, pp. 48–57. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rondinelli, Dennis A., James S. McCullough, and Ronald W. Johnson. (1989). “Analyzing Decentralization Policies in Developing Countries: a Political-economy Framework.” Development and Change, (20): 57–87.

Root, Hilton, L. (2006). Capital and Collusion: The Political Logic of Global Economic Development. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rothschild, Michael, and Joseph Stiglitz. (1976). “Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 90 (4): 629–49.

Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Evelyne Huber Stephens, and John D. Stephens. (1992). Capitalist Development and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Russell, Steven. (2004). “The Economic Burden of Illness for Households in Developing Countries: A Review of Studies Focusing on Malaria, Tuberculosis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71 (Suppl. 2): 147–55.

Sachs, Jeffrey, D. (2005). The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Times. New York: Penguin Press.

Sahlins, Marshall. (1972). Stone Age Economics. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

Sahn, David E., and David C. Stifel. (2003). “Progress Toward the Millennium Development Goals in Africa.” World Development, 31 (1): 23–52.

Saith, Aswani. (2005). “Poverty Lines versus the Poor: Method versus Meaning.” Economic and Political Weekly, October 22.

Salmen, Lawrence. (1987). Listen to the People: Participant-Observer Evaluation of Development Projects. New York: Oxford University Press.

Salonen, Tapio. (2001). “Sweden: Between Model and Reality.” In Pete Alcock and Gary Craig, eds., International Social Policy, pp. 143–60. New York: Palgrave.

Samoff, Joel. (1990). “Decentralization: The Politics of Interventionism.” Development and Change, 21: 513–30. (p.216)

Sandbrook, Richard, Marc Edelman, Patrick Heller, and Judith Teichman. (2007). Social Democracy in the Global Periphery: Origins, Challenges, Prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sawhill, Isabel V. (1988). “Poverty in the US: Why Is It So Persistent?” Journal of Economic Literature, 26: 1073–119.

Schelzig, Karen. (2001). “Escaping Poverty: Behind the Numbers.” Public Administration and Development, 21: 259–69.

Schönwälder, Gerd. (1997). “New Democratic Spaces at the Grassroots? Popular Participation in Latin American Local Governments.” Development and Change, 28: 753–70.

Schubert, Bernd, and Rachel Slater. (2006). “Social Cash Transfers in Low-income African Countries: Conditional or Unconditional?” Development Policy Review, 24 (5): 571–8.

Scott, Christopher. (2000). “Mixed Fortunes: A Study of Poverty Mobility Among Small Farm Households in Chile, 1968–86.” Journal of Development Studies, 36 (6): 155–80.

——— Julie A. Litchfield. (1994). “Inequality, Mobility and the Determinants of Income among the Rural Poor in Chile, 1968–1986.” Development Economics Research Programme Discussion Paper 53, STICERD, London School of Economics, London.

Scott, James, C. (1999). Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Scruggs, L., and J. P. Allan. (2006). “The Material Consequences of Welfare States: Benefit Generosity and Absolute Poverty in 16 OECD Countries.” Comparative Political Studies, 39 (97): 880–904.

Sen, Abhijit, and Himanshu. (2004). “Poverty and Inequality in India—I and II,” Economic and Political Weekly, September 18: 4247–63; and September 25: 4361–75.

Sen, Amartya. (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

——— (1984). Resources, Values and Development. Oxford: Blackwell.

——— (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Random House.

——— (2002). “Globalization, Inequality and Global Protest.” Development, 45 (2): 11–16.

Sen, Binayak. (2003). “Drivers of Escape and Descent: Changing Household Fortunes in Rural Bangladesh.” World Development, 31 (3): 513–34.

Sen, G., A. Iyer, and A. George. (2002). “Structural Reforms and Health Equity: A Comparison of NSS Surveys, 1986–87 and 1995–96.” Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, April 6.

Sewell, William H., Jr. (1992). “A Theory of Structure: Duality, Agency, and Transformation.” American Journal of Sociology, 98 (1): 1–29.

Shavit, Yossi, and H. P. Blossfeld. (1993). Persistent Inequality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (p.217)

Sherraden, Michael. (1991). Assets and the Poor: A New American Welfare Policy. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

——— (2001). “Assets and the Poor: Implications for Individual Accounts and Social Security.” Invited Testimony to the President’s Commission on Social Security. Washington, DC, October 18. Available at <www.csss.gov/meetings/Sherraden_Testimony.pdf>.

Shourie, Arun. (2006). Falling Over Backwards. New Delhi: Rupa Publications.

Sinha, Saurabh, and Michael Lipton. (1999). “Damaging Fluctuations, Risk and Poverty: An Overview.” Background paper for the World Development Report 2000/2001. Poverty Research Unit, University of Sussex. Available at <www1.worldbank.org/prem/poverty/wdrpoverty/background/sinhaliptn.pdf>.

Smeeding, Timothy, M. (2005). “Public Policy, Economic Inequality, and Poverty: The United States in Comparative Perspective.” Social Science Quarterly, 86 (Suppl.): 955–83.

Smith, B. C. (1985). Decentralization. London: George Allen & Unwin Pulishers.

Smoke, Paul, and Blane D. Lewis. (1996). “Fiscal Decentralization in Indonesia: A New Approach to an Old Idea.” World Development, 24 (8): 1281–99.

Solon, Gary. M. (2002). “Cross-country Differences in Intergenerational Earnings Mobility.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16(3): 59–66.

Srinivasan, T. N. (2004). “The Unsatisfactory State of Global Poverty Estimation.” Available at <www.undp-povertycentre.org/newsletters/infocus4sep04eng.pdf>.

Stevens, Ann Huff. (1999). “Climbing Out of Poverty, Falling Back In: Measuring the Persistence of Poverty Over Multiple Spells.” Journal of Human Resources, 34 (3): 557–88.

Stewart, Frances, Caterina R. Laderchi, and Ruhi Saith. (2007). “Introduction: Four Approaches to Defining and Measuring Poverty.” In Frances Stewart, Ruhi Saith, and Barbara Harriss-White, eds., Defining Poverty in the Developing World, pp. 1–35. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2000). “The Contributions of the Economics of Information to Twentieth Century Economics.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115 (4): 1441–78.

——— (2001). “Information and the Change in the Paradigm in Economics,” Nobel Prize Lecture. Available at <nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2001/stiglitz-lecture.pdf>.

——— (2002). Globalization and its Discontents. New York: Norton.

Strauss, J., and Thomas, D. (1998). “Health, Nutrition and Economic Development.” Journal of Economic Literature, 36: 766–817.

Tendler, Judith. (1997). Good Government in the Tropics. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Therkildsen, Öle. (2000). “Contextual Issues in Decentralization of Primary Education in Tanzania.” International Journal of Educational Development, 20: 407–21. (p.218)

Timmer, Peter C. (1997). “How Well do the Poor Connect to the Growth Process?” CAER Discussion Paper No. 178, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA.

Townsend, R. (1995). “Consumption Insurance: An Evaluation of Risk-bearing Systems in Low-income Economies.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9: 83–102.

Toye, John. (1999). “Nationalising the Anti-poverty Agenda.” IDS Bulletin, 30 (2): 6–12.

Trzcinski, Eileen, and Susan Randolph. (1991). “Human Capital Investments and Relative Earnings Mobility: The Role of Education, Training, Migration, and Job Search.” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 40 (1): 153–69.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2000). Overcoming Human Poverty. New York: UNDP.

——— (2005). Human Development Report, 2005. New York: UNDP.

United Nations. (2005). The Inequality Predicament: Report on the World Social Situation, 2005. New York: United Nations, Department of Social and Economic Affairs. Available at <www.ilo.org/public/english/region/ampro/cinterfor/news/inf_05.pdf>.

Uphoff, Norman, Milton Esman, and Anirudh Krishna. (1998). Reasons for Success: Learning from Instructive Experiences in Rural Development. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

USAID (United States Agency for International Development). (2000). “Decentralization and Democratic Local Governance Programming Handbook.” Washington, DC: USAID, Center for Democracy and Governance.

Vaidyanathan, A. (2001). “Poverty and Development Policy.” Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, May 26.

Valdivia, M., and J. Escobal. (2004). “Hacia Una Estrategia de Desarrollo para la Sierra Rural.” Available at <www.grade.org.pe>.

Van der Gaag, Jacques. (2007). “Health Care for the World’s Poorest: Is Voluntary (Private) Health Insurance an Option?” 2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People. Washington, DC: IFPRI.

Van Schendel, W. (1981). Peasant Mobility: The Odds of Life in Rural Bangladesh. Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum.

Visaria, Pravin. (1999). “Poverty in India during 1994–98.” Working Paper, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi.

Wade, Robert H. (2002). “Globalization, Poverty and Income Distribution: Does the Liberal Argument Hold?” Working Paper No. 02-33, Development Studies Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, London.

——— (2004). “Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?” World Development, 32 (4): 567–89.

Wadley, Susan. (1994). Struggling with Destiny in Karimpur, 1925–1984. Berkeley and London: University of California Press. (p.219)

Walker, T., and Ryan, J. (1990). Village and Household Economies in India’s Semi-arid Tropics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wang, Hong, Yanfeng Ge, and Sen Gong. (2007). “Regulating Medical Services in China.” Report co-published by the Milbank Memorial Fund and the Department of Social Development, Development Research Center (DRC), the State Council of P.R. China. Available at <www.milbank.org/reports/0704china/0704china.html>.

Weiner, Myron. (1990). The Child and the State in India: Child Labor and Education Policy in Comparative Perspective. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Whalley, J., and X. Yue. (2006). “Rural Income Volatility and Inequality in China.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 12779.

Whang, In-Joung. (1981). Management of Rural Change in Korea. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

Whitehead, A. (2000). “Continuities and Discontinuities in Political Constructions of the Working Man in Sub-Saharan Africa: The ‘Lazy Man’ in African Agriculture.” European Journal of Development Research, 12 (2): 23–52.

Whitehead, Margaret, Goran Dahlgren, and Timothy Evans. (2001). “Equity and Health Sector Reforms: Can Low-income Countries Escape the Medical Poverty Trap?” The Lancet, September 8: 833–6.

Wiggins, Steve. (2000). “Interpreting Change from the 1970s to the 1990s in African Agriculture through Village Studies.” World Development, 28 (4): 631–62.

World Bank. (2006). World Development Report, 2006: Equity and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

——— (2008). World Development Report, 2008: Agriculture for Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Xiaojian, Fan. (2007). “China’s Poverty Alleviation and Development: Review and Outlook.” Keynote Speech at Conference on Taking Action for the World’s Poor and Hungry People by the Deputy Chief, Chinese State Council Leading Group of Poverty Alleviation and Development, Beijing, October 17.

Xu, Ke, David B. Evans, Kei Kawabata, et al. (2003). “Household Catastrophic Health Expenditure: A Multi-country Analysis.” The Lancet, July 12: 111–17.

Yates, Jenny, Ros Cooper, and Jeremy Holland. (2006). “Social Protection and Health: Experiences in Uganda.” Development Policy Review, 24 (3): 339–56.

Yunus, Muhammad. (1997). “The Grameen Bank Story: Rural Credit in Bangladesh.” In Anirudh Krishna, Norman Uphoff, and Milton Esman, eds., Reasons for Hope: Instructive Experiences in Rural Development, pp. 9–24. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Zhao, Zhongwei. (2006). “Income Inequality, Unequal Health Care Access, and Mortality in China.” Population and Development Review, 32 (3): 461–83. (p.220)