This chapter surveys root anatomy in palms. Palm roots are sampled close to the base of the trunk to guarantee correct identification. This can yield samples of different ages, representing either young, newly emerged roots a short distance from their attachment, or the proximal part of an old, well-established root, long extended distally away from their stem attachment. Sampling roots at different stages of development also gives a more complete picture but suggests the need for caution in describing a single root, as structure can change with age. The discussions cover root morphology, development and terminology, surface layers (epidermis, exodermis, periderm), outer cortex, inner cortex, stele (endodermis, pericycle, vascular tissue, polystelic complexity), ideoblastic elements, vascular tissues, root regeneration, and mycorrhizal association.
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