Arecoideae is the largest subfamily of Arecaceae, containing about 1300 spp. within 107 genera. The group includes the great majority of arborescent palms with reduplicately pinnate leaves, as well as many palms of low stature (also reduplicately pinnate) that are important components of rainforest understorey vegetation. The distribution of the subfamily is primarily concentrated in the wet tropics of the New World and southeast Asia to the South Pacific. This chapter discusses the anatomical features of the tribes Iriarteeae, Chamaedoreeae, Podococceae, Oranieae, Sclerospermeae, Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae, Cocoseae, Manicarieae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Pelagodoxeae, and Areceae. It also provides a summary of major Leaf anatomical characters and states that contribute to an understanding of the systematics of Arecoideae at the intertribal level.
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