The Coryphoideae constitute the second largest subfamily of Arecaceae with respect to the number of genera and the third with regard to number of species. Within Coryphoideae, anatomical data is of greatest systematic significance among the tribal clades and within less inclusive levels of hierarchy. There are no unequivocal anatomical synapomorphies that support the relationships among the major clades. Analyses of most characters reveal substantially homoplasious histories, but nevertheless they allow for the discovery of synapomorphies for many clades. This chapter highlights the characters of greatest systematic significance within each major clade. It discusses the anatomical features of the tribes Sabaleae, Cryosophileae, Phoeniceae, Trachycarpeae, Chuniophoeniceae, Caryoteae, Corypheae, and Borasseae.
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