The subfamily Nypoideae is represented by the mangrove palm, Nypa fruticans, which is naturally distributed from Sri Lanka, throughout southeast Asia to northern Australia, and many of the western Pacific Islands. Nypa occupies estuarine mud in conditions where there is limited wave action and its clonal spread can produce extensive pure stands. It represents one extreme of the considerable ecological spectrum exhibited by palms. Nypa represents one of the earliest-diverging lineages of palms, sister to a clade containing subfamilies Coryphoideae, Ceroxyloideae, and Arecoideae. This chapter discusses the anatomical features of Nypa covering the leaf, stem, root, vascular elements, and cell inclusions.
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