Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection$

Peter Godfrey-Smith

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199552047

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199552047.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.185) Bibliography

(p.185) Bibliography

Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abrams, J. and Eickwort, G. C. (1981). “Nest Switching and Guarding by the Communal Sweat Bee Agapostemon virescens (Hymenoptera, Halictidae).” Insectes Sociaux 28: 105–16.

Adelson, G. (forthcoming). “Naming Evolutionary Patterns and Processes: Continuing the Campaign Against Essentialism.”

Amundson, R. (1989). “The Trials and Tribulations of Selectionist Explanations,” in K. Hahlweg and C. A. Hooker (ed.), Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 413–32.

Anderson, C. and McShea, D. W. (2001). “Individual versus Social Complexity, with Particular Reference to Ant Colonies.” Biological Review 76: 211–37.

Ariew, A. (2008). “Population Thinking,” in M. Ruse (ed.), Handbook of Philosophy of Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 64–86.

—— and Lewontin, R. C. (2004). “The Confusions of Fitness.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55: 347–63.

Avital, E. and Jablonka, E. (2000). Animal Traditions: Behavioral Inheritance in Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Axelrod, R. and Hamilton, W. D. (1981). “The Evolution of Cooperation.” Science 211: 1390–6.

Bateson, P. (1978). “Book Review: The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins.” Animal Behaviour 26: 316–18.

—— (2006). “The Nest’s Tale. A reply to Richard Dawkins.” Biology and Philosophy 21: 553–8.

Beatty, J. (1984). “Chance and Natural Selection.” Philosophy of Science 51: 183–211.

—— and Finsen, S. (1989). “Rethinking the Propensity Interpretation: A Peek Inside Pandora’s Box,” in M Ruse (ed.), What the Philosophy of Biology is: Essays for David Hull. Dordecht: Kluwer, 17–31.

Benirshke, K., Anderson, J. M., and E., Brownhill L. (1962). “Marrow Chimerism in Marmosets,” Science 138: 513–15.

Bergman, A. and Feldman, M. W. (1995). “On the Evolution of Learning: Representation of a Stochastic Environment.” Theoretical Population Biology 48: 251–76.

Bishop, C.D., Erezyilmaz, D. F., Flatt, T., et al. (2006). “What is Metamorphosis?” Integrative and Comparative Biology 46: 655–61.

(p.186) Blute, M. (2007). “The Evolution of Replication.” Biological Theory 2: 10–22.

Bonner, J. T. (1959). The Cellular Slime Molds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (1974). On Development: The Biology of Form. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Boss, P. K. and Thomas, M. R. (2002). “Association of Dwarfism and Floral Induction with a Grape ‘Green Revolution’ Mutation.” Nature 416: 847–50.

Bouchard, F. (forthcoming). “Causal Processes, Fitness and the Differential Persistence of Lineages.” Philosophy of Science, PSA 2006 Proceedings.

Bourke, A. F. (1888). “Worker Reproduction in the Higher Eusocial Hymenoptera.” Quarterly Review of Biology 63: 291–311.

Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (2003). “The Origins of Human Cooperation,” in P. Hammerstein (ed.), The Genetic and Cultural Origins of Cooperation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 429–44.

Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. (1985). Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Brandon, R. N. (1978). “Adaptation and Evolutionary Theory.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 9: 181–206.

—— (1988). “The Levels of Selection: A Hierarchy of Interactors,” in H. C. Plotkin (ed.), The Role of Behavior in Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 51–72.

—— (unpublished). “Inheritance Biases and the Insufficiency of Darwin’s Three Conditions.”

Buller, D. J. (ed.), (1999). Function, Selection, and Design. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Burian, R. M. (1992). “Adaptation: Historical Perspectives,” in E. A. Lloyd and E. Fox Keller (eds.), Keywords in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 7–12.

Burt, A. and Trivers, R. (2006). Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Buss, L. W. (1987). The Evolution of Individuality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Calcott, B. (2008). “The Other Cooperation Problem: Generating Benefit,” Biology and Philosophy 23: 179–203.

Campbell, D. T. (1974). “Evolutionary Epistemology,” in P. A. Schillp (ed.), The Philosophy of Karl Popper. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 413–63.

Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. and Feldman, M. W. (1981). Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UniversityPress.

Charlesworth, B. (1994). Evolution in Age-Structured Populations (2nd edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(p.187) —— and Giesel, J. T. (1972). “Selection in Populations with Overlapping Generations II: Relations between Gene Frequency and Demographic Variables.” American Naturalist 106: 388–401.

Cook, R. E. (1980). “Reproduction by Duplication.” Natural History 89: 88–93.

Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (1992). “Cognitive Adaptations for Social Exchange,” in J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby (eds.), The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 163–228.

Crespi, B. J. and Yanega, D. (1995). “The Definition of Eusociality.” Behavioural Ecology, 6, 109–15.

Crow, J. F. (1986). Basic Concepts in Population, Quantitative, and Evolutionary Genetics. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

Damuth, J. and Heisler, I. L. (1988). “Alternative Formulations of Multilevel Selection.” Biology and Philosophy 3: 407–30.

Darden, L. and Cain, J. A. (1989). “Selection Type Theories.” Philosophy of Science 56: 106–29.

Darwin, C. (1859/1964). On the Origin of Species (Facsimile of the 1st edn.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (1978). “Replicator Selection and the Extended Phenotype,” reprinted in E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984, 125–41.

—— (1982a). The Extended Phenotype: The Gene as the Unit of Selection. Oxford: W. H. Freeman.

—— (1982b). “Replicators and Vehicles,” in King’s College Sociobiology Group (ed.), Current Problems in Sociobiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 45–64.

—— (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. New York, NY: Norton.

—— (1989). “The Evolution of Evolvability,” in C. Langton (ed.), Artificial Life VI. California: Addison-Wesley, 201–20.

—— (2006). The God Delusion. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Day, T. and Otto, S. P. (2001). “Fitness.” Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences: Nature Publishing Group. <http://www.els.net>

Dempster, E. R. (1955). “Maintenance of Genetic Heterogeneity.” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 20: 25–32.

Dennett, D. C. (1974). “Why the Law of Effect Won’t Go Away,” reprinted in Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press, 71–89.

—— (1991). Consciousness Explained. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

—— (1995). Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

(p.188) Dennett, D. C. (2001). “The Evolution of Evaluators,” in A. Nicita and U. Pagano (eds.), The Evolution of Economic Diversity. London: Routledge, 66–81.

—— (2006). Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. New York, NY: Viking.

Downes, S. M. (2007). “Heredity and Heritability,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2007 Edition) <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2007/entries/heredity/>.

Drake, J. W., Charlesworth, B., Charlesworth, D., and Crow, J. F. (1998). “Rates of Spontaneous Mutation.” Genetics 148: 1667–86.

Duffy, J. E. (1996). “Eusociality in a Coral Reef Shrimp.” Nature 381: 512–14.

Dugatkin, L. A. (2002). “Cooperation in Animals: An Evolutionary Overview.” Biology and Philosophy 17: 459–76.

Dumais, J. and Kwiatkowska, D. (2001). “Analysis of Surface Growth in Shoot Apices.” The Plant Journal 31: 229–41.

Dupre, J. (2002), Humans and Other Animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Durham, W. H. (1991). Coevolution: Genes, Culture and Human Diversity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Eigen, M. and Schuster, P. (1979). The Hypercycle: A Principle of Natural Self-Organization. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Eldredge, N. (1985). Unfinished Synthesis: Biological Hierarchies and Modern Evolutionary Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Endler, J. A. (1986). Natural Selection in the Wild. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Eshel, I. and Cavalli-Sforza, L. (1982). “Assortment of Encounters and Evolution of Cooperativeness.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 79: 1331–15.

Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Fletcher, J. A. and Zwick, M. (2006). “Unifying the Theories of Inclusive Fitness and Reciprocal Altruism.” American Naturalist 168: 252–62.

Forber, P. (2005). “On the Explanatory Roles of Natural Selection.” Biology and Philosophy 20: 329–42.

Fracchia, J. and Lewontin, R. C. (1999). “Does Culture Evolve?” History and Theory 38: 52–78.

Francis, R. C. (2004). Why Men Won’t Ask for Directions: The Seductions of Sociobiology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Frank, S. A. (1995). “George Price’s Contributions to Evolutionary Genetics.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 175: 373–88.

—— (1998). Foundations of Social Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

—— (2007). Dynamics of Cancer: Incidence, Inheritance, and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

(p.189) —— and Slatkin, M. (1990). “Evolution in a Variable Environment.” American Naturalist 136: 244–60.

Franklin, L. R. (2007). “Bacteria, Sex, and Systematics.” Philosophy of Science 74: 69–95.

Franks, T., Botta, R., Thomas, M. R., and Franks, J. (2002). “Chimerismin Grapevines: Implications for Cultivar Identity, Ancestry and Genetic Improvement.” Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104: 192–9.

Froissart R., Roze D., Uzest M., Galibert L., Blanc S., and Michalakis, Y. (2005). “Recombination Every Day: Abundant Recombination in a Virus during a Single Multi-Cellular Host Infection.” Public Library of Science: Biology 3: e89.

Frumkin, D., Wasserstrom, A., Kaplan, S., Feige, U., and Shapiro, E. (2005). “Genomic Variability within an Organism Exposes Its Cell Lineage Tree.” Public Library of Science: Computational Biology 1: 382–94.

Futuyma, D. J. (1986). Evolutionary Biology (2nd edn.) Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.

Gannett, L. (2003). “Making Populations: Bounding Genes in Space and in Time.” Philosophy of Science 70: 989–1001.

Gavrilets, S. (2004). Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Ghiselin, M. T. (1974). “A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.” Systematic Zoology 23: 536–44.

Giere, R. N. (1988). Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gill, D. E., Chao, L., Perkins, S. L., and Wolf, J. B. (1995). “Genetic Mosaicism in Plants and Clonal Animals.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26: 423–44.

Gillespie, J. H. (1972). “The Effects of Stochastic Environments on Allele Frequencies in Natural Populations.” Theoretical Population Biology 3: 241–8.

Godfrey-Smith, P. (1996). Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (2000). “The Replicator in Retrospect.” Biology and Philosophy 15: 403–23.

—— (2006). “The Strategy of Model-Based Science.” Biology and Philosophy 21: 725–40.

—— (2007a), “Conditions for Evolution by Natural Selection.” The Journal of Philosophy 104: 489–516.

—— (2007b). “Information in Biology,” in D. L. Hull and M. Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 103–19.

—— (2008). “Varieties of Population Structure and the Levels of Selection.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59: 25–50.

Gould, S. J. (1976). “Darwin’s Untimely Burial.” Natural History 85: 24–30.

—— (1985). “A Most Ingenious Paradox,” in The Flamingo’s Smile. New York, NY: Norton, 78–98.

(p.190) Gould, S. J. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gould, S. J. and Eldredge, N. (1977). “Punctuated Equilibria: The Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered.” Paleobiology 3: 115–51.

Grafen, A. (1985). “A Geometric View of Relatedness.” Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 2: 28–90.

—— (2007). “The Formal Darwinism Project: A Mid-Term Report.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 1243–54.

Gray, R. D. and Atkinson, Q. D. (2003). “Language-Tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo-European Origin.” Nature 426: 435–39.

—— Greenhill, S. J., and Ross, R. M. (forthcoming). “The Pleasures and Perils of Darwinizing Culture (with Phylogenies).” Biological Theory.

Griesemer, J. (2000). “The Units of Evolutionary Transition.” Selection 1: 67–80.

—— (2005). “The Informational Gene and the Substantial Body: On the Generalization of Evolutionary Theory by Abstraction,” in M. Jones and N. Cartwright (eds.), Idealization XII: Correcting the Model, Idealization and Abstraction in the Sciences. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 59–115.

—— and Wade, M. (2000). “Populational Heritability: Extending Punnett Square Concepts to Evolution at the Metapopulation Level.” Biology and Philosophy 15: 1–17.

Griffiths, P. E. (2002). “What is Innateness?” The Monist 85: 70–85.

—— and Gray, R. D. (1994). “Developmental Systems and Evolutionary Explanation.” The Journal of Philosophy 91: 277–304.

—— and M. Neumann-Held (1999). “The Many Faces of the Gene.” BioScience 49: 656–62.

—— and Stotz, K. (2006). “Genes in the Postgenomic Era?” Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27: 499–521.

Grimes, G. (1982). “Nongenic Inheritance: A Determinant of Cellular Architecture.” BioScience 32: 279–80.

Grosberg, R. and Strathman, R. (1998). “One Cell, Two Cell, Red Cell, Blue Cell: The Persistence of a Unicellular Stage in Multicellular Life Histories.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 112–16.

Haag-Liautard, C., Dorris, M., Maside, X., Macaskill, S., Halligan, D. L., Charlesworth, B., and Keightley, P. D. (2007). “Direct Estimation of Per Nucleotide and Genomic Deleterious Mutation Rates in Drosophila.” Nature 445: 82–5.

Haber, M. H. and Hamilton, A. (2005). “Coherence, Consistency, and Cohesion: Clade Selection in Okasha and Beyond.” Philosophy of Science 72: 1026–40.

Haig, D. (1997). “The Social Gene,” in J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies (eds.), Behavioural Ecology (4th edn.). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 284–304.

—— (1999), “What is a Marmoset?” American Journal of Primatology, 49, 285–96.

(p.191) —— and Grafen, A. (1991). “Genetic Scrambling as a Defence Against Meiotic Drive.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 153: 531–58.

Haldane, J. B. S. (1996). “The Negative Heritability of Neonatal Jaundice.” Annals of Human Genetics 60: 3–5.

Hamilton, W. D. (1964). “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour, I.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 1–16.

—— (1975). “Innate Social Aptitudes of Man: An Approach from Evolutionary Genetics.” Reprinted in Narrow Roads of Gene Land, Vol 1. Oxford: W. H. Freeman, 1997, 133–53.

Hardin, G. (1968). “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science 162: 1243–8.

Harper, J. L. (1977). Population Biology of Plants. London: Academic Press.

—— and Bell, A. D. (1979), “The Population Dynamics of Growth Form in Organisms with Modular Construction’” in R. M. Anderson, B. D. Turner, and L. R. Taylor (eds.), Population Dynamics: The 20th Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Oxford: Blackwell, 29–52.

Henrich, J. and Boyd, R. (1998). “The Evolution of Conformist Transmission and the Emergence of Between-Group Differences.” Evolution and Human Behavior 19: 215–42.

—— —— (2002). “On Modeling Cognition and Culture: Why Cultural Evolution does not Require Replication of Representations.” Journal of Cognition and Culture 2: 87–112.

Herron, M. and Michod, R. (2008). “Evolution of Complexity in the Volcocine Algae: Transitions in Individuality through Darwin’s Eye.” Evolution 62: 436–51.

Heywood, J. S. (2005). “An Exact Form of the Breeder’s Equation for the Evolution of a Quantitative Trait under Natural Selection.” Evolution 59: 2287–98.

Hocquigny, S., Pelsy, F., Dumas, V., Kindt, S., Heloir, M-C., and Merdinoglu, D. (2004). “Diversification within Grapevine Cultivars goes through Chimeric States.” Genome 47: 579–89.

Hodge, M. J. S. (1987). “Natural Selection as a Causal, Empirical, and Probabilistic Theory,” in L. Krüger (ed.), The Probabilistic Revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 233–70.

Hodgson, G. and Knudson, T. (2006). “The Nature and Units of Social Selection.” Journal of Evolutionary Economics 16: 477–89.

Hollick J., Dorweiler J., and Chandler V., (1997). “Paramutation and Related Allelic Interactions.” Trends in Genetics 13: 302–8.

Hull, D. (1978). “A Matter of Individuality.” Philosophy of Science 45: 335–60.

—— (1980). “Individuality and Selection.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 311–32.

—— (1988). Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

(p.192) Hull, D., Langman, R. and Glenn, S., (2001). “A General Analysis of Selection.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 511–73.

Hutchings, M. J. and Booth, D. (2004). “Much Ado About Nothing … So Far?” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 1184–6.

Huxley, T. H. (1852). “Upon Animal Individuality.” Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 1: 184–9.

Jablonka, E. and Lamb, M. J. (1995). Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution: The Lamarckian Dimension. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

—— —— (2005). Evolution in Four Dimensions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jackson, J.B.C. (1985). “Distribution and Ecology of Clonal and Aclonal Benthic Invertebtrates,” in Jackson, Buss, and Cook (1985), 297–356.

—— and Coates, A. G. (1986). “Life Cycles and Evolution of Clonal (Modular) Animals.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 313: 7–22.

—— Buss, L., and R. Cook, (eds.) (1985). Population Biology and Evolution of Clonal Organisms. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Jacquard, A. (1983). “Heritability: One Word, Three Concepts.” Biometrics 39: 465–77.

Janzen, D. H. (1977). “What are Dandelions and Aphids?” American Naturalist 111: 586–9.

Jenkin, F. (1867). “The Origin of Species.” The North British Review 46 (92): 151–171.

Keller, L. (ed.) (1999). Levels of Selection in Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kerr, B. (2007). “Niche Construction and Cognitive Evolution.” Biological Theory 2: 250–62.

—— and Godfrey-Smith, P. (2002a). “Individualist and Multi-Level Perspectives on Selection in Structured Populations.” Biology and Philosophy 17: 477–517.

—— —— (2002b). “On Price’s Equation and Average Fitness.” Biology and Philosophy 17: 551–65.

—— —— (forthcoming). “Generalization of the Price Equation for Evolutionary Change.” To appear in Evolution.

—— Neuhauser, C, Bohannan, B., and Dean, A. (2006). “Local Migration Promotes Competitive Restraint in a Host-Pathogen ‘Tragedy of the Commons’.” Nature 442: 75–8.

Kirk, D. L. (1998). Volvox: Molecular-Genetic Origins of Multicellularity and Cellular Differentiation. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

—— (2005). “A Twelve-Step Program for Evolving Multicellularity and a Division of Labor.” Bioessays 27: 299–310.

(p.193) Kirschner, M. and Gerhart, J. (1998). “Evolvability.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 95: 8420–7

Kitcher, P. S. (1985). Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Klekowski, E. J. (1988). Mutation, Developmental Selection, and Plant Evolution. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Krimbas, C. (2004). “On Fitness.” Biology and Philosophy 19: 185–203.

Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Kukuk, P. F. and Sage, G. K. (1994). “Reproductivity and Relatedness in a Communal Halictine Bee Lasioglossum (Chilalictus) hemichalceum.” Insectes Sociaux 41: 443–55.

Kutschera, U. and Niklas, K. J. (2005). “Endosymbiosis, Cell Evolution, and Speciation.” Theory in Biosciences 124: 1–24.

Lane, N. (2005). Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Langton, R. and D. K. Lewis (1998). “Defining ‘Intrinsic’.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58: 333–45.

Lehmann, L. and Keller, L. (2006). “The Evolution of Cooperation and Altruism: A General Framework and a Classification of Models.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 1365–76.

Lennox, J. (2006). “Aristotle’s Biology.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2006 Edition) <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2006/entries/aristotle-biology/> .

Levy, A. (forthcoming). “Source-Based Learning and the Evolution of Morality.”

Lewens, T. (2007). Darwin. London: Routledge.

Lewontin, R. C. (1955). “The Effects of Population Density and Composition on Viability in Drosophila melanogaster.” Evolution 9: 27–41.

—— (1970). “The Units of Selection.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1: 1–18.

—— (1985). “Adaptation,” in R. Levins and R. C. Lewontin (eds.), The Dialectical Biologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 65–84.

Lloyd, E. (1988). The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.

—— (2001). “Units and Levels of Selection: An Anatomy of the Units of Selection Debates,” in R. Singh, C. Krimbas, D. Paul, and J. Beatty (eds.), Thinking about Evolution: Historical, Philosophical, and Political Perspectives. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 267–91.

—— and Gould, S. J. (1993). “Species Selection on Variability.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 90: 595–9.

(p.194) Lombrozo, T., Shtulman, A., and Weisberg, M. (2006). “The Intelligent Design Controversy: Lessons from Psychology and Education.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10: 56–7.

Loux, M. (2002). Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction. London: Routledge.

Loxdale, H. D. and Lushai, G. (2003). “Rapid Changes in Clonal Lines: The Death of a ‘Sacred Cow’.” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 3–16.

McLaughlin, B. and Bennett, K. (2005). “Supervenience.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2005/entries/supervenience/> .

McShea, D. W. (2002). “A Complexity Drain on Cells in the Evolution of Multicellularity.” Evolution 56: 441–52.

Mameli, M. (2004). “Nongenetic Selection and Nongenetic Inheritance.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55: 35–71.

Margulis, L. (1970). Origin of Eukaryotic Cells: Evidence and Research Implications for a Theory of the Origin and Evolution of Microbial, Plant, and Animal Cells on the Precambrian Earth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Matessi, C. and Jayakar, S. D. (1976). “Conditions for the Evolution of Altruism under Darwinian Selection.” Theoretical Population Biology 9: 360–87.

Maynard-Smith, J. (1976), “Group Selection.” Quarterly Review of Biology 61: 277–83.

—— (1987). “Reply to Sober,” in John Dupré (ed.), The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 147–50.

—— (1988). “Evolutionary Progress and Levels of Selection,” in M. H. Nitecki (ed.), Evolutionary Progress. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 219–30.

—— (1998). “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393: 639.

—— and Szathmary, E. (1995). The Major Transitions in Evolution. Oxford: W. H. Freeman.

Mayr, E. (1976). “Typological versus Population Thinking,” in Evolution and the Diversity of Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 26–9. Reprinted in E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology (2nd edn.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994, 157–60.

—— (1963). Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Medin, D. and Atran, S. (eds.) (1999). Folkbiology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A., and Laland, K. (2004). “Perspective: Is Human Cultural Evolution Darwinian? Evidence Reviewed from the Perspective of the Origin of Species.” Evolution 58: 1–11.

Michener, C. D. (1974). The Social Behavior of the Bees: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Michod, R. E. (1999). Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

(p.195) —— (2006). “The Group Covariance Effect and Fitness Trade-offs during Evolutionary Transitions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 103: 9113–17.

—— and Roze, D. (2001). “Cooperation and Conflict in the Evolution of Multicellularity.” Heredity 81: 1–7.

—— and Sanderson, M. (1985). “Behavioural Structure and the Evolution of Social Behavior,” in P. J. Greenwood and M. Slatkin (eds.), Evolution: Essays in Honour of John Maynard Smith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 95–104.

——Nedelcu, A. M., and Roze, D. (2003). “Cooperation and Conflict in the Evolution of Individuality IV: Conflict Mediation and Evolvability in Volvox carteri.” BioSystems 69: 95–114.

Mills, S. K. and Beatty, J. H. (1979). “The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness.” Philosophy of Science 46: 263–86.

Millstein, R. (2002). “Are Random Drift and Natural Selection Conceptually Distinct?” Biology and Philosophy 17: 33–53.

—— (2006). “Natural Selection as a Population-Level Causal Process.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57: 627–53.

Mitton, J. B. and Grant, M. C. (1996). “Genetic Variation and the Natural History of Quaking Aspen.” BioScience 46: 25–31.

Molinier J., Ries G., Zipfel C., and Hohn B. (2006). “Transgeneration Memory of Stress in Plants.” Nature 442: 1046–9.

Moss, L. (2003). What Genes Can’t Do. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Muller, H. J. (1932). “Some Genetic Aspects of Sex.” American Naturalist 66: 118–38.

Nanay, B. (2002). “The Return of the Replicator: What is Philosophically Significant in a General Account of Replication and Selection? Biology and Philosophy 17: 109–21.

—— (2005). “Can Cumulative Selection Explain Adaptation?” Philosophy of Science 72: 1099–112.

—— (forthcoming). “Trope Nominalism and Anti-Essentialism about Biological Kinds.”

Neander, K. (1995). “Pruning the Tree of Life.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46: 59–80.

Nowak, M. A. (2006). Evolutionary Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nunney, L. (1985). “Group Selection, Altruism, and Structured-Deme Models.” American Naturalist 126: 212–30.

O’Malley, M. and Dupré, J. (2007). “Size Doesn’t Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology.” Biology and Philosophy 22: 155–91.

Oborny, B. and Kun, A. (2002). “Fragmentation of Clones: How does it Influence Dispersal and Competitive Ability?” Evolutionary Ecology 15: 319–46.

(p.196) Odling-Smee, F. J., Laland, K. N., and Feldman, M. W. (2003). Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Okasha, S. (2003a). “The Concept of Group Heritability.” Biology and Philosophy 18: 445–61.

—— (2003b). “Does the Concept of ‘Clade Selection ’ Make Sense? ” Philosophy of Science 70: 739–51.

—— (2006). Evolution and the Levels of Selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Otto, S. P. and Hastings, I. M. (1998). “Mutation and Selection Within the Individual”, Genetic, 102/103: 507–24.

Oyama, S. (1985). The Ontogeny of Information, Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pearse, A-M. and Swift, K. (2006). “Allograft Theory: Transmission of Devil Facial-Tumour Disease”. Nature 439: 549.

Pennock, R. T. (ed.), (2001). Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Pigliucci, M. and Kaplan, J. (2006). Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Biology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Pineda-Krch, M. and Lehtilä, K. (2004). “Costs and Benefits of Genetic Heterogeneity within Organisms.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 1167–77.

Poincare, H. (1905/1952). Science and Hypothesis. New York: Dover.

Pollan, M. (2002). The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World. New York, NY: Random House.

Potochnik, A. (2007). “Evolution, Explanation and Unity of Science.” PhD dissertation, Stanford University.

Preston, K. and Ackerly. D. (2004). “The Evolution of Allometry in Modular Organisms,” in M. Pigliucci and K. Preston (eds.), Phenotypic Integration. Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 80–106.

Price, G. R. (1970). “Selection and Covariance.” Nature 227: 520–1.

—— (1972). “Extension of Covariance Selection Mathematics.” Annals of Human Genetics 35: 485–90.

—— (1995). “The Nature of Selection.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 175: 389–96.

Prusiner, S. B. (1998). “Prions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 95: 13363–83.

Queller, D. C. (1985). “Kinship, Reciprocity and Synergism in the Evolution of Social Behaviour.” Nature 318: 366–7.

—— (1997). “Cooperators Since Life Began (Review of The Major Transitions in Evolution, by J. Maynard Smith and E. Szathmáryry).” Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 184–8.

(p.197) —— and Strassmann, J. E. (2002). “The Many Selves of Social Insects.” Science 296: 311–13.

Reisman, K. (2005). “Conceptual Foundations of Cultural Evolution”. PhD dissertation, Stanford University.

—— and Forber, P. (2005). “Manipulation and the Causes of Evolution.” Philosophy of Science 72: 1113–23.

Rice, S. H. (2004), Evolutionary Theory: Mathematical and Conceptual Foundations. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.

Richerson, P. J. and Boyd, R. (2005). Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ridley, M. (1996). Evolution (2nd edn.). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

—— (2000). Mendel’s Demon: Gene Justice and the Complexity of Life. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Rinkevich, B. (2004). “Will Two Walk Together, Except They Have Agreed? Amos 3:3.”Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 1178–9.

Rogers, D. and Ehrlich, P. (2008). “Natural Selection and Cultural Rates of Change.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105: 3416–20.

Rosenberg, A. (1994). Instrumental Biology, Or the Disunity of Science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ross, C. N., French, J. A., and Orti, G. (2007). “Germ-line Chimerism and Paternal Care in Marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).’” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 104: 6278–82.

Roughgarden, J. (1979). Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: An Introduction. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Rutherford, S. (2000). “From Genotype to Phenotype: Buffering Mechanisms and the Storage of Genetic Information.” Bioessays 22: 1095–105.

Sachs, J. L., Mueller, U. G., Wilcox, T. P., and Bull, J. J. (2004). “The Evolution of Cooperation.” Quarterly Review of Biology 79: 135–60.

Salipante, S. J. and Horwitz, M. S. (2006). “Phylogenetic Fate Mapping.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 103: 5448–53.

Santelices, B. (1999). “How Many Kinds of Individual are There?” Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14: 152–5.

Schlichting, C. D. and Pigliucci, M. (1998). Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.

Schlosser, G. and Wagner, G. P. (eds.) (2004). Modularity in Development and Evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Scriven, M. (1959). “Explanation and Prediction in Evolutionary Theory.” Science 130: 477–82.

Shtulman, A. (2006). “Qualitative Differences between Naïve and Scientific Theories of Evolution. ” Cognitive Psychology 52: 170–94.

(p.198) Skyrms, B. (1994). “Darwin Meets The Logic of Decision.” Philosophy of Science 61: 503–28.

—— (2003). The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sober, E. (1980). “Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism.” Philosophy of Science. 47: 350–83.

—— (1984). The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

—— (1992). “The Evolution of Altruism: Correlation, Cost, and Benefit.” Biology and Philosophy 7: 177–88.

—— (1995). “Natural Selection and Distributive Explanation: A Reply to Neander.” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46: 384–97.

—— and Lewontin, R. C. (1982). “Artifact, Cause and Genic Selection.” Philosophy of Science 49: 157–80.

—— and Wilson, D. S. (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Spencer, H. (1871). Principles of Psychology (2nd edn.) New York, NY: Appleton.

Sperber, D. (1996). Explaining Culture: A Naturalistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell.

—— (2000). “An Objection to the Memetic Approach to Culture,” in Robert Aunger (ed.), Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 163–73.

Stegmann, U. (forthcoming). “Selection and the Explanation of Traits.”

Stephens, C. (2004) “Selection, Drift, and the ‘Forces ’ of Evolution.” Philosophy of Science 71: 550–70.

Stephens, D. (1991). “Change, Regularity and Value in the Evolution of Animal Learning”. Behavioral Ecology 2: 77–89.

Sterelny, K. (2001). “Niche Construction, Developmental Systems and the Extended Replicator,” in R. Gray, P. Griffiths, and S. Oyama (eds.), Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 333–49.

—— (2003). Thought in a Hostile World. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

—— (2006). “Memes Revisited.” British Journal for Philosophy of Science 57: 145–65.

—— (forthcoming). “The Evolution and Evolvability of Culture.” Mind and Language.

—— and Calcott, B. (eds.) (forthcoming). Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. Altenberg: Konrad Lorenz Institute.

(p.199) —— and Griffiths, P. E. (1999). Sex and Death: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Biology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

—— and Kitcher, P. (1988). “The Return of the Gene.” Journal of Philosophy 85: 339–61.

——Smith, K., and Dickison, M. (1996). “The Extended Replicator.” Biology and Philosophy 11: 377–403.

Strevens, M. (1998). “Inferring Probabilities From Symmetries.” Noûs 32: 231–46.

Taylor, P. and Jonker, L. (1978). “Evolutionarily Stable Strategies and Game Dynamics”. Mathematical Biosciences 40: 145–56.

Templeton, A. R. (1989). “The Meaning of Species and Speciation: A Genetic Perspective,” in D. Otte and J. A. Endler (eds.), Speciation and its Consequences. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 3–27.

Thompson, M. (1995). “The Representation of Life,” in R. Hursthouse, G. Lawrence, and W. Quinn (eds.), Virtues and Reasons. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 247–97.

Tomasello, M. (1999). The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Trivers, R. L. (1971). “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism.” Quarterly Review of Biology 46: 35–57.

Tuomi, J. and Vuorisalo, T. (1989a). “What Are the Units of Selection in Modular Organisms?” Oikos 54: 227–33.

—— —— (1989b). “Hierarchical Selection in Modular Organisms.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4: 209–13.

Turner, J. S. (2000), The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Uyenoyama, M. and Feldman, M. W. (1980). “Theories of Kin and Group Selection: A Population Genetics Perspective.” Theoretical Population Biology 17: 380–414.

Vuorisalo, T. and Tuomi, J. (1986). “Unitary and Modular Organisms: Criteria for Ecological Division.” Oikos 47: 382–5.

Wade, M. J. (1978). “A Critical Review of the Models of Group Selection.” Quarterly Review of Biology 53: 101–14.

—— (1985). “Soft Selection, Hard Selection, Kin Selection, and Group Selection.” American Naturalist 125: 61–73.

Walsh, D. M., Lewens, T., and Ariew, A. (2002), “The Trials of Life: Natural Selection and Random Drift.” Philosophy of Science 69: 452–73.

Weatherson, B. (2005). “Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Properties.” Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/intrinsic-extrinsic/>.

(p.200) Weisberg, M. (2007). “Who is a Modeler?” British Journal for Philosophy of Science 58: 207–33.

Weismann, A. (1896). On Germinal Selection. (Trans. by T. McCormack). Chicago, IL: Open Court.

Weismann, A. (1909). “The Selection Theory,” in A. C. Seward (ed.), Darwin and Modern Science: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 23–86.

West-Eberhard, M. J. (2003). Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.

White, J. (1979). “The Plant as a Metapopulation.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10: 109–45.

Whitham, T. G. and Slobodchikoff, C. N. (1981). “Evolution by Individuals, Plant–Herbivore Interactions, and Mosaics of Genetic Variability: The Adaptive Significance of Somatic Mutations in Plants.” Oecologia 49: 287–92.

Wilkins, J. S. (2003). “How to be a Chaste Species Pluralist-Realist: The Origins of Species Modes and the Synapomorphic Species Concept.” Biology and Philosophy 18: 621–38.

Williams, G. C. (1966), Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of some Current Evolutionary Thought. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

—— (1992). Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, D. S. (1975). “A Theory of Group Selection.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72: 143–6.

—— (1980). The Natural Selection of Populations and Communities. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings.

Wilson, E. O. (1971). The Insect Societies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wilson, R. A. (2005). Genes and the Agents of Life: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (2007). “The Biological Notion of Individual.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2007/entries/biology-individual/>.

Wimsatt, W. (1980). “Reductionist Research Strategies and their Biases in the Units of Selection Controversy”, in T. Nickles (ed.), Scientific Discovery: Case Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel, 213–59.

Winther, R. G. (2006). “Fisherian and Wrightian Perspectives in Evolutionary Genetics and Model-Mediated Imposition of Theoretical Assumptions.” Journal of Theoretical Biology, 240: 218–32.

Woese, C. (2002). “On the Evolution of Cells.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 99: 8742–7.

Wolpert, L. and Szathmáry, E. (2002). “Multicellularity: Evolution and the Egg.” Nature 420: 745.

(p.201) Wright, S. (1932). “The Roles of Mutation, Inbreeding, Crossbreeding and Selection in Evolution.” Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics 1: 257–66.

Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962). Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. (p.202)