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The Prehistory of MusicHuman Evolution, Archaeology, and the Origins of Musicality$

Iain Morley

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199234080

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199234080.001.0001

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(p.326) Appendix

(p.326) Appendix

Source:
The Prehistory of Music
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.327)

Appendix Table 1. Inventory of Palaeolithic reputed pipes and flutes

Cross-reference

Period

Origin

Described as

Material (if known)

Details of Age

Description

Status & Comments

Location (if known)

Main References

Late Middle or Early Upper Palaeolithic

Ilsenhohle, Germany

Flute

Diaphysis of a ‘mammal species’

No stratigraphic record

Originally five holes. ‘Details not known’ (Turk and Kavur, 1997)

?

Hülle, 1977;

Turk and Kavur, 1997

Swabian Alb 1

Aurignacian

Geissenklösterle, Germany

Flute

Swan radius

Upper Aurignacian; 43,150–39,370 cal BP Aurignacian II split bone points in same layer (Archaeological Horizon II)

Geissenklösterle Flute 1

Certainly sound-producer.

Würrtembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart

Hahn and Münzel 1995 Turk and Kavur, 1997; Richter et al., 2000; Goldbeck, 2001; Münzel et al., 2002; d’Errico et al., 2003; Higham et al. 2012

3 holes preserved (diameter 5.3 × 3.4 mm, 3.5 × 3.0 mm, 2.8 × 2.4 mm), distance between holes 30–40 mm. Originally 18–19 cm long; now 12 cm, with the largest bore being 8–9 mm

Reconstructed from 23 pieces excavated 1990, published 1995

Swabian Alb 2

Aurignacian

Geissenklösterle, Germany

Flute

Swan (radius?)

Upper Aurignacian; 43,150–39,370 cal BP Aurignacian II split bone points in same layer

Geissenklösterle Flute 2

Certainly sound-producer.

Würrtembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart

Hahn and Münzel, 1995 Turk and Kavur, 1997; Richter et al., 2000; Goldbeck, 2001; Münzel et al., 2002; d’Errico et al., 2003; Higham et al., 2012

1 hole remaining

Reconstructed from 7 pieces excavated 1973, published 1995

Swabian Alb 3

Aurignacian

Geissenklösterle, Germany

Flute

Mammoth ivory

Upper Aurignacian; 43,150–39,370 cal BP Archaeological Horizon II

Geissenklösterle Flute 3

Certainly a sound-producer. Complicated manufacture involving splitting ivory, hollowing, and then rebinding. Appears to replicate bird bone form.

University of Tübingen collections

Conard et al., 2004; Conard et al., 2009; Higham et al., 2012

Length: 187 mm

Numerous finely-carved notches along edges of the two halves to facilitate binding with resin

Reconstructed from 31 pieces excavated 1974–9, published 2004

Swabian Alb 4

Aurignacian

Hohle Fels, Germany

Flute

Radius of Gyps fulvus (Griffon vulture)

Basal Aurignacian deposits of Layer Vb; initial Upper Palaeolithic occupation, c.40,000 ya; certainly 〉35,000 cal BP

Hohle Fels Flute 1

Reconstructed from 12 pieces excavated 2008, published 2009

University of Tübingen collections

Conard et al., 2009

Length: 218 mm

Diameter: 8 mm

5 holes preserved.

2 V-shaped notches cut into proximal end

Proximal end of radius = proximal end of flute.

Length of unmodified radius c.340 mm

Swabian Alb 5

Aurignacian

Hohle Fels, Germany

Flute fragment

Mammoth ivory

Basal Aurignacian, Feature 10, Base of Archaeological Horizon Va

Hohle Fels Flute 2

Excavated 2008, published 2009

University of Tübingen collections

Conard et al., 2009

Length: 11.7 mm

Width: 4.2 mm

Thickness: 1.7 mm

Portion of finger hole preserved.

Striations on internal and external surfaces

Swabian Alb 6

Aurignacian

Hohle Fels, Germany

Flute fragment

Mammoth ivory

Basal Aurignacian, lowest Aurignacian unit of Archaeological Horizon Vb; initial Upper Palaeolithic occupation, c.40,000 ya; certainly >35,000 cal BP

Hohle Fels Flute 3

Excavated 2008, published 2009

University of Tübingen collections

Conard et al., 2009

Length: 21.1 mm

Width: 7.6 mm

Greater thickness and dimensions suggest not part of same object as Flute 2

Thickness: 2.5 mm

Incised lines on outer surface and 9 notches on edge

Striations on internal and external surfaces

Swabian Alb 7

Aurignacian

Vogelherd, Gemany

Flute fragment

Bird bone

From reworked contexts, but majority of finds from site are securely dated to Aurignacian; pre-date 30,000 ya (Conard et al., 2009)

Vogelherd Flute 1

Reconstructed from 3 fragments, excavated 2005, published 2006

University of Tübingen collections

Conard and Malina, 2006; Conard et al., 2009

Length: 17.5 mm

Width: 5.8 mm

Thickness: 1.8 mm

1 partly preserved finger hole, 7 small notches along edge

Swabian Alb 8

Aurignacian

Vogelherd, Germany

Flute fragment

Mammoth ivory

From reworked contexts, but majority of finds from site are securely dated to Aurignacian; pre-date 30 kya (Conard et al., 2009)

Vogelherd Flute 2

Excavated 2008, published 2009

University of Tübingen collections

Conard et al., 2009

Aurignacian

Abri Blanchard, France

Flute

Bird

Aurignacian I (?)

4 holes on front side of bone, 2 on rear

?

Harrold, 1988 (p. 177); Jelinek, 1990 (p. 18).

Aurignacian

Bukovácer Höhle, Lokve, Croatia

Flute?

Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus)

Aurignacian II

1 hole

?

Bayer, 1929; Horusitzky, 1955; Brade, 1975; Albrecht et al., 1998; Holderman and Serangeli, 1998a.

Aurignacian?

Liegloch, Austria

Flute

Juvenile cave bear tibia (Ursus spelaeus)

Aurignacian? Age uncertain

4 holes in a zigzag arrangement; distance between distal holes similar to those of Divje babe I (Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Age uncertain

?

Mottl, 1950, p. 22; Albrecht et al., 1998; Holderman and Serangeli, 1998a and b

Aurignacian

Potočka Zijalka, Slovenia

?

Cave bear femur (Ursus spelaeus)

Aurignacian II

?

?

Brodar and Bayer, 1928; Brade, 1975; Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Spy, Belgium

3 bone tubes

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Incised, 3 specimens, 52, 60, and 70 mm long

L’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (IRScN), Brussels

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Spy, Belgium

Bone tube

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Incised, 70 mm long

L’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (IRScN), Brussels

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Spy, Belgium

Bone tube

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Incised, 37 mm long

L’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (IRScN), Brussels

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

Buisson’s fig. 4.1

Aurignacian

Isturitz, France (Salle de Saint-Martin)

Pipe fragment

Right ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (distal end)

IA designates Passemard’s Layer A. This refers to Layer Aω in Salle Saint-Martin, typologically dated to Aurignacien typique

IA Sup 1921 77142

This is the oldest of the pipes from Isturitz, the only one to come from Aurignacian contexts and the only one to be found in Salle Saint-Martin (Salle Sud). This was the first pipe to be published by Passemard (in 1923), although he had excavated the Magdalenian examples from Salle d’Isturitz earlier

Collection Passemard, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Passemard, 1923; Passemard, 1944; Buisson, 1990; Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

Length: 74.0 mm

(Scothern 1)

Diameter: 15.0–20.0 mm

Bore: 14.0–15.3 mm

3 holes on anterior, diameters 5.0 × 8.0 mm and 4.0 × 8.5 mm, third hole broken.

Distal end heavily worked and may form

embouchure, proximal end broken in region of third hole. Several traces of abrasive scraping, 9 short deep parallel incisions between second and third hole

Periosteum (bone lining) still present, so not worked internally (Scothern, 1992, p. 94)

Buisson’s fig. 2(i)

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Left ulna of diurnal raptor, probably Gypaetus barbatus—bearded lammergeier/vulture

IF3α designates Passemard’s Layer F3 in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds with Saint-Périer layer IV

IF3α 1914 75252 A3

Virtually complete pipe reconstructed from two separate finds by Buisson (1990). Initial analysis and description carried out by Buisson (1990). Detailed analysis of piercings and markings, and reconstruction, carried out by Lawson and d’Errico (2002)

Collection Passemard/Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Buisson, 1990

(Scothern 16)

Buisson’s fig. 2(ii)

Gravettian (originally designated ‘Final Aurignacian (Gravettian)’ by Saint-Périers)

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ist. III 83888 designates items from Saint-Périer Layer III in Salle d’Isturitz (corresponding with Passemard Layer C, immediately above Layer F3); all recent chronologies agree Gravettian cultural horizon (see Goutas, 2004). The original designation ‘Final Aurignacian’ derived from Breuil’s typology (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Ist. III 1939 83888 (a)

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990; Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

Combined dimensions:

(Scothern 2)

Length: 212.0 mm

Diameter: 11.0–14.0 mm

Highlights stratigraphical issues associated with the site, with one part coming from a layer equivalent to Ist. IV and the other from layer Ist. III

Bore: 10.8–11.8 mm

4 holes on posterior, diameters 5.0 × 8.0 mm and 7.0 × 5.5 mm

One end finely finished and complete, the other end slightly damaged. Longitudinal abrasive scraping and numerous fine incised parallel lines perpendicular to length.

(a) designation added by IM to differentiate from items illustrated in Buisson (1990) figs. 4.7, 4.8, and 4.9 (described later)

Means of blowing possibly V-notched tongue duct (Scothern, 1992)

Buisson’s fig. 3.3

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Left ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1936 83889

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, 1952; Buisson, 1990

Length: 56.5 mm

(Scothern 10)

Diameter: 13.6–15.0 mm

Bore: 10.8–12.0 mm

2 holes on anterior, diameters 5.0 mm.

Breaks at the extremities. Traces of abrasive scraping

Buisson’s fig. 3.4

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Right ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1939 83889 (a)

(a) designation added by IM

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 67.0 mm

(Scothern 11)

Diameter: 15.0–18.0 mm

Bore: 12.3–13.0 mm

1 hole on posterior, 1 hole on anterior, diameters 4.0 × 6.0 mm.

Breaks at the extremities, one in the region of the posterior hole. Traces of abrasive scraping; fine incisions perpendicular and oblique to the longitudinal axis on the surfaces opposite the holes

Buisson’s fig. 4.3

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of small bird

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1939 83889 (b)

(b) designation added by IM.

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Buisson, 1990

Length: 91.0 mm

Unpublished before Buisson (1990)

(Scothern 17?)

Diameter: 7.0 mm

2 holes on posterior, diameter 2.5 × 3.0 mm.

Distal end heavily worked, proximal broken in the region of one of the holes. Worked end shows incisions that are traces of the removal of the distal epiphysis. Traces of abrasive scraping on surface

Buisson’s fig. 5.1(a)

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Right ulna of a diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1939 86757

Virtually complete pipe reconstructed from three separate finds by Buisson (1990). Initial

Collection Favre, earliest Saint-Périer collection, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

analysis and description carried out by Buisson (1990). Detailed analysis of piercings

Means of blowing possibly V-notched tongue duct (Scothern, 1992)

(Scothern 13)

Buisson’s fig. 5.1(b)

Pipe fragment

Ist. IV 1939 (a)

and markings, and reconstruction, carried out by Lawson and d’Errico (2002).

(a) and (b) designations added by IM. On the basis of

Buisson’s (1990), fig. 5 it would appear that the dimensions of the three component parts of the pipe are as follows:

Buisson’s fig. 5.1(c)

Pipe fragment

Ist. IV 1939 (b)

Combined dimensions:

Length: 165.0 mm

Diameter: 12.0–24.0 mm

Bore: 11.0–17.0 mm

Ist. IV 1939 86757:

L: 87 mm

4 regular holes on anterior surface, diameters 6.0 mm × 7.0 mm and 7.0 mm, hole edges polished

D: 12–14 mm

2 complete holes (d: 7 × 6 mm and 7 × 7 mm), 2 partial holes

Breaks at the extremities, one of which impinges on the body of the pipe to the region of one of the holes, the other of which affects the proximal epiphysis. The damage in the region of the hole closest to the proximal part of the bone is recent and probably caused by an excavation tool.

Ist. IV 1939 (a):

L: 44 mm

D: 4–10 mm

Bone fragment/splinter

Ist. IV 1939 (b):

L: 70 mm

D: 18–25 mm

No holes evident

Several traces of longitudinal scraping visible on diaphysis. Fine rectilinear and wavy short incised lines perpendicular to main axis on flattest surface; other clear incised lines on other surfaces

(Scothern 4?)

Buisson’s fig. 6

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Bone fragment

Detached epiphysis removed from bird ulna

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1942

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Buisson, 1990; Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

Detached epiphysis of bird bone ulna, removed by cutting a groove and then snapping off; suggests on-site manufacture of bird bone pipes (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Buisson’s fig. 3.6

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Left ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1946 83889

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

(Scothern 8)

Length: 93.0mm

Diameter: 15.0–27.0 mm

Bore: 12.0–17.0 mm

1 hole on posterior and 2 on anterior, diameters 4.0 mm, one of which very close to another.

Breaks at the extremities one of which close to the opposing holes. Traces of intense longitudinal abrasive scraping, clear fine parallel incisions perpendicular to the longitudinal axis on posterior surface.

Possibly originally block & duct (Scothern, 1992)

Buisson’s fig. 5.2

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Right ulna of large bird, possibly golden eagle (proximal end)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1946 86756

Collection Favre, earliest Saint-Périer collection, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 88.4 mm

Diameter: 10.8–20.5 mm

Bore: 8.6–13.0 mm

3 holes on posterior, diameters 4.0 × 6.0 mm and 5.0 × 6.5 mm. Both ends fractured, one break straight and in the region of a hole, the other irregular and in the region of the proximal epiphysis, due to crushing.

Traces of scraping or fine abrasion

Buisson’s fig. 3.7

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Left ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 83889 (a)

(a) designation added by IM.

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Buisson, 1990

Length: 108.0 mm

Unpublished before Buisson (1990)

Diameter: 13.0–17.0 mm

Bore: 11.0 mm

1hole on posterior, 1 hole on anterior, diameters 4.0 mm.

Breaks at the extremities, one in the region of the posterior hole. Several traces of abrasive scraping, fine parallel incisions perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, on posterior and lateral surfaces

Buisson’s fig. 4.4

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Bird bone, otherwise unidentifiable

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 83889 (b)

(b) designation added by IM.

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Buisson, 1990

Unpublished before Buisson (1990)

Length: 52.0 mm

Diameter: 7.5 mm

Bore: 6.0 mm

3 holes, one of which is quadrangular, diameter 2.0 mm, other two on opposite surface at broken ends.

Broken at both ends in the region of the holes that are on the same face; traces of abrasive scraping on surface

Buisson’s fig. 4.2

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (distal end)

IF3α designates Passemard’s Layer F3 in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Saint-Périer’s layer IV

IF3α 1914 75253 A

Collection Passemard, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Passemard, 1944; Buisson, 1990

Length: 74.5 mm

(Scothern 6)

Diameter: 14.0–15.0 mm

Bore: 12.5–13.2 mm 1 hole on posterior,

diameter 3.5 mm.

One end is heavily worked and may form embouchure, the other is broken in the region of the hole.

Numerous traces of abrasive scraping; fine incised wavy lines along length on lateral and anterior surfaces

Buisson’s fig. 4.6

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (diaphysis only)

IF3β designates Passemard’s Layer F3 in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Saint-Périer’s layer IV

IF3β 21 75253 B

Collection Passemard, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Passemard, 1944; Buisson, 1990

Length: 51.0 mm

Diameter: 13.0 mm

Bore: 12.0 mm

2 holes, one in posterior surface, one in anterior.

Broken at both ends in region of holes; several traces of abrasive scraping

(Scothern 7)

Buisson’s fig. 4.7

Gravettian (originally designated ‘Final Aurignacian (Gravettian)’ by Saint-Périers)

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Right ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (diaphysis only)

Ist. III 83888 designates items from Saint-Périer Layer III in Salle d’Isturitz (corresponding with Passemard Layer C, immediately above Layer F3); all recent chronologies agree Gravettian cultural horizon (see Goutas, 2004). The original designation ‘Final Aurignacian’ derived from Breuil’s typology (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Ist. III 1939 83888 (b)

(b) designation added by IM to differentiate from item illustrated in Buisson (1990), fig. 2 (described earlier), and figs. 4.8 and 4.9 (described later)

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 74.0 mm

Diameter: 15.0 mm

Bore: 14.0 mm

3 holes, two on anterior surface, one of which complete and has diameter 4.5 × 5.2 mm, one hole on posterior

Broken at ends in region of anterior and posterior holes. Several traces of abrasive scraping; fine short parallel incisions, perpendicular or slightly oblique to longitudinal axis appear on all surfaces

Buisson’s fig. 4.8

Gravettian (originally designated ‘Final Aurignacian (Gravettian)’ by Saint-Périers)

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Bird bone, otherwise unidentifiable

Ist. III 83888 designates items from Saint-Périer Layer III in Salle d’Isturitz (corresponding with Passemard Layer C, immediately above Layer F3); all recent chronologies agree Gravettian cultural horizon (see Goutas, 2004). The original designation ‘Final Aurignacian’ derived from Breuil’s typology (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Ist. III 1939 83888 (c)

(c) designation added by IM to differentiate from items illustrated in Buisson (1990), figs. 2 and 4.7 (described earlier), and 4.9 (described later)

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 68.4 mm

Diameter: 12.5–13.0 mm

Bore: 10.5 mm

1 hole on flattest face, diameter 5.5 mm.

Broken at the extremities, of which one break in the region of hole

Buisson’s fig. 4.9

Gravettian (originally designated ‘Final Aurignacian (Gravettian)’ by Saint-Périers)

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Bird bone, otherwise unidentifiable

Ist. III 83888 designates items from Saint-Périer Layer III in Salle d’Isturitz (corresponding with Passemard Layer C, immediately above Layer F3); all recent chronologies agree Gravettian cultural horizon (see Goutas, 2004). The original designation ‘Final Aurignacian’ derived from Breuil’s typology (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Ist. III 1939 83888 (d)

(d) designation added by IM to differentiate from items illustrated in Buisson (1990), figs. 2, 4.7, and 4.8 (described earlier)

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 104.0 mm

Diameter: 8.5 mm

Bore: 10.0 mm

2 holes, one on one surface, diameter 2.0 × 3.0 mm, the other on opposite surface, diameter 2.0 × 3.0 mm.

Broken at the extremities, of which one break is close to a hole. Several traces of intense abrasive scraping along length

Buisson’s fig. 4.5

Gravettian (originally designated ‘Final Aurignacian (Gravettian)’ by Saint-Périers)

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Bird bone, otherwise unidentifiable (ulna?)

Ist. III 83888 designates items from Saint-Périer Layer III in Salle d’Isturitz (corresponding with Passemard Layer C, immediately above Layer F3); all recent chronologies agree Gravettian cultural horizon (see Goutas, 2004). The original designation ‘Final Aurignacian’ derived from Breuil’s typology (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Ist. III 83888

Originally published (Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952)) in more complete form than now exists.

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 34.5 mm

Diameter: 7.8–8.3 mm

Bore: 6.6 mm

Complete version pictured in Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer (1952), plate IV, top left.

Scothern gives original length as 125 mm, presumably on basis of Saint-Périer plate IV

3 holes, one on one surface, diameter 3.0 mm, two on opposite surface at broken ends.

Broken at both ends in the region of the holes that are on the same

face; several traces of abrasive scraping on surface

(Scothern 5)

Buisson’s fig. 3.2

Solutrean

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (diaphysis only)

Ist. IIIa designates Saint-Périer’s layer IIIa in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Solutréen supérieur

Ist. IIIa 1939 83887 (a)

(a) designation added by IM

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 61.5 mm

Diameter: 13.0 mm

Bore: 12.3 mm

2 holes, one on posterior, diameter 4.2 mm, one on anterior at point of break.

Broken at both ends. Longitudinal abrasions

Buisson’s fig. 3.8

Solutrean

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Right ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

Ist. IIIa designates Saint-Périer’s layer IIIa in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Solutréen supérieur

Ist. IIIa 1939 83887 (b)

(b) designation added by IM

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990

Length: 74.0 mm

Diameter: 15.0–20.0 mm

Bore: 14.0–15.3 mm

1 hole on anterior surface, diameter 3.5 mm and possible additional hole on same surface evidenced by trace of cupule at one end.

Breaks at the extremities, one in the region of supposed second hole. Traces of abrasive scraping

Buisson’s fig 3.1

Magdalenian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (diaphysis only)

IEα designates Passemard’s layer Eα in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Magdalénien moyen

IEα 1914 P2 77153

Collection Passemard, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Passemard, 1944; Buisson, 1990; Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

Length: 68.0 mm

(Scothern 15?)

Diameter: 14.4 mm

Bore: 13.0 mm

2 holes, one on posterior, diameter 3.0 mm, one on anterior at point of break.

Broken at both ends. Longitudinal abrasive scraping and numerous fine incised parallel lines perpendicular to length

Buisson’s fig. 3.5

Magdalenian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Left ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (proximal end)

IEα designates Passemard’s layer Eα in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Magdalénien moyen

IEα 1914 P1 77153

Collection Passemard, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Passemard, 1944; Buisson, 1990; Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

Length: 111.0 mm

Diameter: 15.0–23.0 mm

Bore: 13.0–15.0 mm

1hole on posterior, 1 hole on anterior,

diameters 3.5 mm.

Breaks at the extremities, one in the region of the posterior hole. Several traces of intense abrasive scraping, and fine parallel incisions perpendicular and oblique to the longitudinal axis on anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces.

(Scothern 9)

Scothern 3

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Flute fragment

Bird (p. 89)

‘Final Aurignacian’ (Gravettian)

Ist SP52.

SP52 numbers are Scothern’s (1992) own, designating artefacts featured in the Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer (1952) publication but now apparently missing from the collections.

Lost

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Scothern, 1992; Turk and Kavur, 1997

[May be Lawson and d’Errico, 2002, plate L6]

Length: 52 mm

Width: 12 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 12 mm

MAY be Lawson and d’Errico (2002), plate I.6 (dimensions match closely), though this is a Passemard find so unlikely to have been published in Saint-Périer & Saint-Périer (1952) as Scothern’s label suggests

Scothern 4

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Flute fragment

Bird (p. 89)

‘Final Aurignacian’ (Gravettian)

Ist SP52A.

MAY correlate with Ist. IV 1939 (b), illustrated by Buisson as fig 5.1 (c)—part of a virtually complete pipe reconstructed by Buisson (fig. 5.1)

Lost

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Buisson, 1990; Scothern, 1992; Turk and Kavur, 1997

[May be Ist. IV 1939 (b), Buisson (1990), fig. 5.1 (c)]

Length: 76 mm.

Width 15–16 mm.

No finger holes.

Blow hole diameter: 8 mm

Scothern 12

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Flute fragment

Bird (p. 89)

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Ist SP52C.

Lost (Scothern, 1992, p.92), although in inventory Scothern lists location as Saint-Germain, Paris

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, (1952); Scothern, 1992

Length: 132 mm.

Width: 17–27 mm. Bore: 15 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 1.6 mm.

Finger hole diameter: 8 mm.

Possibly originally block & duct (Scothern, 1992)

Scothern 14

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Flute fragment

Bird (p. 89)

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Ist SP52E.

Listed in Scothern, 1992, table 7, p. 92, but not listed in Scothern’s inventory. Scothern’s text describes this as having 2 complete and 1 truncated finger hole (p. 94), whereas table 7 describes as left

Lost (Scothern, 1992, p. 92)

Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, 1952; Scothern, 1992

[Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, 1952, plate VII, bottom left]

Length: 94 mm.

Width: 12–21 mm.

Finger hole diameter: 6 mm.

Bore ? (p. 92).

Retains distal epiphysis (p. 94)

Means of blowing possibly V-notched tongue duct (Scothern, 1992)

This correlates with artefact pictured in Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer, 1952, plate VII, bottom left. This was missing also when Buisson examined the collection

Scothern 17

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Flute fragment

Bird (p. 89)

Gravettian. 28–22 kya [83889 is Saint-Périer layer IV/Passemard Layer F3]

Ist 1939.

Two items with the code Ist 1939 are listed by Scothern (1992) in inventory and table 7 (p.92). One is Ist. III 1939 83888 (see earlier), and this MAY be Ist. IV 1939 83889 (b). (Buisson, fig. 4.3).

Saint-Germain, Paris (Scothern, 1992, p. 92), although in inventory Scothern lists location as lost

Buisson, 1990; Scothern, 1992

[May be Ist. IV 1939 83889 (b), Buisson, 1990, fig. 4.3]

Length: 89 mm.

Width: 9–10 mm.

3 finger holes, diameters: 6 mm, 7 mm, 8 mm

Different width and finger hole diameters given in Scothern’s table 7, p. 92: 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm, and 0.8 cm

+

Gravettian?

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (distal end)

From Passemard 75252 collection (catalogued in 1929) so probably from the same excavation and context as IF3α 1914 75252 A3, i.e. Passemard’s Layer F3 in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian.

75252 A1

MAY be Scothern’s Ist. SP52 (Scothern 3) (dimensions match closely), though this is a Passemard find not a Saint-Périer and Saint-Périer (1952) find as Scothern’s label implies

Collection Passemard, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

(Lawson and d’Errico, 2002, plate I.6)

Worked bird-bone tube fragment not published by Buisson (1990) (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002)

Length: c.50 mm

Diameter: c.8.5–11.5 mm

(On basis of Lawson and d’Errico, 2002, plate I.6)

+

Gravettian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Pipe fragment

Ulna of diurnal raptor, probably vulture (diaphysis only)

Ist. IV designates Saint-Périer’s layer IV in Salle d’Isturitz, typologically dated to Gravettian. Corresponds to Passemard’s Layer F3

Ist. IV 1935

Collection Saint-Périer, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris

Lawson and d’Errico, 2002

(Lawson and d’Errico, 2002, plate I.7)

Worked bird-bone tube fragment not published by Buisson (1990) (Lawson and d’Errico, 2002).

Length: c.22.5 mm

Diameter: c.10 mm

(On basis of Lawson and d’Errico, 2002, plate I.7)

Gravettian/Perigordian

Goyet, Belgium

Whistle

Bird (p. 89)

Perigordian. 28–22 kya

Length: 105 mm.

L’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (IRScN), Brussels

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

Central, crescent-shaped sound hole Reconstruction produces B.

Has definite sound-window, still intact (Scothern, 1992, p. 87)

Gravettian/Perigordian

Lespaux, Gironde, France

Flute fragment

Bird bone (p. 99)

Perigordian. 28–22 kya

Length: 60 mm.

Inconsistently with the text (Scothern, 1992, p. 99), as left, Scothern’s inventory describes this artefact as having 2 finger holes, one with 20 mm diameter, other fragmentary. However, a 20 mm hole seems unlikely to be a functional finger hole

Krtolitza Collection, Bordeaux

Couste and Krtolitza, 1961, 1965; Roussot, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Width: 10 mm.

1 intact central finger hole, diameter: 4 × 4.5 mm.

2 incomplete holes at proximal and distal ends of the bone (p. 99).

All holes show clear evidence of tool use (Scothern, 1992).

Gravettian/Perigordian

Maisieres Canal, Belgium

Bone pipe/whistle?

?

Perigordian. 28–22 kya

Length: 42 mm

Questioned in Scothern’s (1992) inventory, although in text, Scothern says this is ‘more likely’ to be an intentional sound-producer

L’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (IRScN), Brussels

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pair-non-Pair, Gironde, France

Flute

?

Upper Perigordian/Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Length: 127 mm

Daleau Collection, Musée d’Aquitaine, Bordeaux

Daleau, 1884–5, 1885, 1896; Seewald, 1934; Malvesin-Fabre, 1946; Pequart and Pequart, 1960; Cheynier, 1963; Bourdier, 1967; Roussot, 1970; Scothern, 1992.

Width: 107–24 mm.

3 finger holes, 2 intact, diameters: 4.5 and 6 mm diameters, the other damaged

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pair-non-Pair, Gironde, France

Whistle?

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Questioned

?

Da Veiga Ferreira and Cardosa, 1975; Scothern, 1992.

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

2 pipes/whistles?

Bird epiphyses

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

2 specimens.

?

Absolon, 1936; Scothern, 1992.

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

Whistle

?

Upper Palaeolithic/Gravettian? 28–22 kya?

Length: 140 mm.

?

Absolon, 1936; Buchner, 1956; Scothern, 1992.

Produces pitch A.

Solutrean

Le Placard, France

?

?

Solutrean. 21–19 kya

Several examples from various levels

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

Solutrean?

Liceia, Barcarena, Portugal

Flute fragment

?

Solutrean? 21–19 kya?

Length: 83 mm.

Age questioned

?

Da Veiga Ferreira and Cardosa, 1975; Scothern, 1992

Width: 13 mm.

2 finger holes, diameters: 3 and 6 mm

Upper Palaeolithic

Grubgraben bei Kammern, Austria

Flute

Medium ungulate right tibia

c.19 kya

Broken distally and proximally.

Einwögerer and Käfer, 1998; Käfer and Einwögerer, 2002

Length: 165.3 mm.

3 perforations, diameters: 51–5 mm

Scothern 18

Magdalenian

Isturitz, France (Salle d’Isturitz)

Flute fragment

Bird ulna (Scothern, 1992, p. 124)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Ist SP52F.

Capable of being a sound-producer.

Lost

Saint-Périer, 1947; Scothern, 1992

Length: 175 mm.

Appears not to feature in Buisson’s analysis, perhaps because no finger holes

Width: 10–15 mm.

Notch diameter: 9x2 mm (although inventory says ‘blow hole, 0.2 cm diameter’). Bore ?

Magdalenian?

Bolinkoba, Vizcaya, Spain

Whistle

?

Magdalenian?

Not in inventory, though mentioned in text (Scothern, 1992, p. 114). Central blow hole. Resembles other later whistles (Scothern, 1992, p. 114)

Age questioned; may be as late as Neolithic

?

Barandiaran, 1973; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Fontarnaud, Gironde, France

Pipe

Bird

Final Magdalenian

Length: 70 mm

Shows definite cut-marks. Not demonstrably a sound producer (Scothern, 1992)

Ferrier Collection

Roussot and Ferrier, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Garrigue, France

Flute

?

Magdalenian Superior

Length: 68 mm.

Musée d’Aquitaine, Bordeaux

Vircoulon and Deffarge, 1977; Scothern, 1992

Width: 13–18 mm.

2 finger holes, diameters: 5 mm.

Fragmentary. Very worn. No indication of mode of sound production. Holes tapered, however, characteristic of burin-type tool

Magdalenian

Gudenushöhle, Austria

Whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

No. 22.387.

Natural History Museum, Vienna

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

Length: 40 mm.

Width: 12 mm.

Central hole

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Notched whistle-flute

Eagle

Magdalenian IV–VI, 15,000–13,000 BP

LP.1. (Scothern’s own denomination).

‘Undoubtedly a sound-producer’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 125)

Originally in Piette collection, Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint- Germain, Paris. Now in Poitiers University

Piette, 1874, 1875, 1907; Seewald, 1934; Marshack, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Length: 140 mm.

Width: 15–25 mm.

Blow hole notch on posterior, diameter: 15 × 3 mm.

Engraved, series of parallel striations creating arced lines.

Similar to next entry, same date

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Whistle-flute

Eagle

Magdalenian IV–VI, 15,000–13,000 BP

LP.2. (Scothern’s own denomination).

Lacks notch or sound window. Marshack (1970) considers it too fragile to be functional. However, typologically very similar to previous entry, and lack of sound window/notch may be due only to fragmentary nature

Originally in Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint- Germain, Paris, now in Poitiers University

Piette, 1907; Seewald, 1934; Marshack, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Length: 110 mm.

Fragmentary. Engraved same as previous entry

Magdalenian?

La Placard, France

Notched whistle-flute

?

Magdalenian? 18–12 kya? ‘Also [as above examples] dated to mid-Magdalenian’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 126)

LP.3 (Scothern’s own denomination).

Age questioned. (Not questioned in text, only in inventory, see left)

? Location unknown

Piette, 1907; Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

Exact dimensions unknown

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Notched whistle-flute

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya (Mid-Magdalenian)

54931.

Saint-Germain

Scothern (1992) (previously unpublished)

Length: 72 mm.

Width: 10 mm.

Bore: 8 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 7 mm.

Deeply engraved

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Flute fragment

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

54931PL.

‘Resemblant of Isturitz bones’ of the Gravettian (Scothern, 1992, p. 124), although ‘The significance of this artefact remains uncertain’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 129)

Saint-Germain

Scothern, 1992

Length: 84 mm.

Width: 14 mm.

Bore: 10 mm.

Two finger holes, diameters: 4 mm and 5 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 15 mm

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Notched whistle-flute

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya (Mid-Magdalenian)

54967.

Saint-Germain

Scothern (1992) (previously unpublished)

Length: 80 mm

Width: 14–15 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 6 mm.

Deeply engraved.

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Notched whistle-flute

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya (Mid-Magdalenian)

54967PL.

Scothern’s (1992) inventory lists an artefact 54964PL; it seems likely that this is a typographical error, and refers to this artefact, as there is no 54964PL in the text (p. 124) or table 12 (p. 125), only 54967PL, and the dimensions described are identical in each case

Saint-Germain

Scothern (1992) (previously unpublished)

Length: 110 mm.

Width: 13–15 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 8 mm.

Deeply engraved

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Notched whistle-flute

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya (Mid-Magdalenian)

55185.

Saint-Germain

Scothern (1992) (previously unpublished)

Length: 94 mm.

Width: 20–5 mm.

Bore: 13 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 10 mm.

Deeply engraved

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Flute fragment

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

IFB321.

‘Fragmentary…with little indication of sound-production’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 124). Scothern’s (1992) inventory lists an artefact IFB312; it seems likely that this is a typographical error, and refers to this artefact, as there is no IFB312 in the text (p. 124) or table 12 (p. 125), only IFB321

Saint-Germain

Scothern, 1992

Length: 73 mm.

Width: 14–15 mm.

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

4 bone pipes

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

4 unequal lengths of bone pipe. ‘Possibly Pan pipes’ (Mortillet, 1906; Scothern, 1992)

Age uncertain. This entry refers to four of the above specimens with matching decoration and features of design. Which four is not specified, in inventory, but most likely 54931, 54967, 54967PL and 55185, judging by text (p. 130). The bones show no remaining traces of having been attached to each other, so ‘pan pipe’ interpretation is unsupported, although they are typologically similar

?

Mortillet, 1906; Megaw, 1968; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Le Roc de Marcamps, Gironde, France

Bone pipe

Bird

Magdalenian V–VI

Length: 70 mm.

Position and form of the sound-holes suggests a block and duct or tongue duct principle of sound production (Scothern, 1992, p. 133). However, Scothern (1992) goes on to say that ‘the Marcamps pipes…are difficult to reconstruct using modern tools due to their small dimensions, which almost rules out the possibility of being interpreted as effective, functional sound producers’ (p. 134). She then goes on to say, though, that ‘the Marcamps whistles…are the earliest notched whistles to be found as a series of multi-stopped pipes’ (p. 135)

Collection Maziaud, Musée de l’Aquitaine, Bordeaux

Roussot, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Width: 10 mm.

Bore: 7 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 7 mm (although inventory says 0.3cm notch in upper bone)

Magdalenian

Le Roc de Marcamps, Gironde, France

Bone pipe

Bird

Magdalenian V–VI

Length: 49 mm.

Collection Maziaud, Musée de l’Aquitaine, Bordeaux

Roussot, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Width: 9–11 mm.

Bore: 8 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 7 mm (although inventory says 0.3cm notch in upper bone)

Magdalenian

Le Roc de Marcamps, Gironde, France

Bone pipe

Bird

Magdalenian V–VI

Length: 43 mm.

Collection Maziaud, Musée de l’Aquitaine, Bordeaux

Roussot, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Width: 6–7 mm.

Bore: 6 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 5 mm (although inventory says 0.3 cm notch in upper bone).

Magdalenian

Le Roc de Marcamps, Gironde, France

Bone pipe

Bird

Magdalenian V–VI

Length: 37 mm.

Collection Maziaud, Musée de l’Aquitaine, Bordeaux

Roussot, 1970; Scothern, 1992

Width: 7–9 mm.

Bore: 6.5.00 mm.

Blow hole diameter: 6 mm (although inventory says 0.3cm notch in upper bone)

Magdalenian

Les Roches, Sergeac, Dordogne, France

Flute fragment

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Length: 115 mm.

British Museum, London

Collins, 1975; Scothern, 1992

Width: 19 mm.

2 finger holes, diameters: 4 mm and 5 mm, centrally located on posterior.

No mouthpiece/blow hole.

No remaining evidence of mode of sound production, although holes ‘definitely worked’ deliberately (Scothern, 1992, p. 119)

Magdalenian

Lussac, France

Flute fragment

?

Magdalenian Superior

No.38–23–37008.

Musée de l’Ho mme, Paris

Scothern, 1992

Length: 59 mm.

Width: 19 mm.

Upper section of artefact only remaining

Magdalenian

Mas-d’Azil, France

Notched flute

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Length: 85 mm.

May be too small to produce sound (Scothern, 1992, p. 123)

?

Pequart and Pequart, 1960; Scothern, 1992

Width: 5–8 mm.

Notch diameter: 2 × 3 mm

Magdalenian

Padtberg, Munzingen, Germany

Signal pipe?

Alpine hare

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Pas du Moir, France

Flute

A limb bone

Magdalenian, 18–12 kya

4 holes on the foreside, 2 on rear. Possibly bored. Ends sawn or cut and broken off straight. Notched mouthpiece- type opening (Marshack, 1990, quoted in Turk and Kavur, 1997)

?

Marshack, 1990; Turk and Kavur, 1997

Magdalenian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

Whistle

Bird bone with sawn holes

(Magdalenian?) C14 dated to 12,940 ± 250 or 12,670 ± 80 BP (Svoboda et al., 1994, quoted in Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Length: 70 mm

Brno

Buchner, 1956; Scothern, 1992; Svoboda et al., 1994

Magdalenian

Peyrat, Près de Terrason, Dordogne, France

Flute

?

Magdalenian IV

Fragmentary.

‘Possible transverse flute’ though difficult to confirm (Scothern, 1992)

?

Cheynier, n.d.; Fages and Mourer-Chauviré, 1983; Scothern, 1992

Length: 60 mm.

4 holes, diameters: 5–6 mm, 2 of which at ends of bone fragmentary

Magdalenian

Raymonden, France

4 bone fragments

Bird

Magdalenian IV–VI

Lengths: 39 mm, 41 mm, 132 mm, and 147 mm

Show definite cut-marks. Not demonstrably sound producers (Scothern, 1992, p. 121)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Rond du Barry, France

Whistle flute

Radius of whooper swan

‘Final Magdalenian’

Median section missing. Signs of polishing at both ends. Engraved with ‘fine striae and hatched oval designs’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 121)

There remains no actual evidence of sound production, though clearly deliberately worked

?

de Bayle des Hermens, 1974 Bergounioux and Glory, 1952; Fages and Mourer-Chauviré, 1983; Scothern, 1992.

‘Middle or Upper Palaeolithic’

Goyet, Belgium

‘Flute’

‘Limb bone’

Undated

Goyet 132.

No stratigraphic information; typology of lithics from site suggests Middle or Upper Palaeolithic date for artefact (McComb, 1989)

?

McComb, 1989; Turk and Kavur, 1997

Both epiphyses sawn off; 2 holes, 1 at end of one side, 1 near centre of other. Latter made by ‘sawing the compact bone tissue’ (Turk and Kavur, 1997).

‘Late Upper Palaeolithic’

Csaklya, Hungary

Whistle

?

Unspecified

Length: 60 mm.

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

Central hole

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Dolni-Vestonice, Moravia

Whistle

Lion’s tooth

Unspecified

Pierced with stone

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Dolni-Vestonice, Moravia

Four bone pipes

Red deer metacarpal

Unspecified

4 specimens, varying lengths, 1 with resin plug still in place. ‘Block and duct principle within Pan pipes?’ (Scothern, 1992)

?

Megaw, 1968; Scothern, 1992

‘Late Upper Palaeolithic’

Gourdan, France

Bone pipe

?

Unspecified

Shows definite cut-marks. Not demonstrably a sound producer (Scothern, 1992, p. 121)

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Horodnica, Poland

Flute fragment

?

Unspecified

Single hole in proximal end

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

‘Late Upper Palaeolithic’

Kesslerloch bei Thayngen, Switzerland

Flute fragment?

Swan bone

Unspecified

Questioned

Lost

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Laugerie-Basse, France

Flute/whistle fragment?

?

Unspecified

Show definite cut-marks. Not demonstrably a sound producer (Scothern, 1992, p. 121)

Lost

Piette, 1907; Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Roque-Saint-Christophe, Périgord, France

Flute

Bird bone

Unspecified

4 holes on one surface, 2 holes on the opposite surface; extremities badly preserved

British Museum

Masset & Perlès, 1978; Brade, 1982; Fages and Mourer-Chauviré, 1983

Appendix Table 1 presents items that have been reputed to be possible flute-type sound-producers. It does not include objects that have, since original publication, and on the basis of further analysis, been subsequently deemed unlikely to be sound-producers (these are listed in Appendix Table 2). Note that not all of the objects listed here have been subjected to further analysis since original publication and may, on such future analysis, also be deemed unlikely. Where comments about their status are available, these are noted. Appendix Table 1 features 105 items.

(p.328) (p.329) (p.330) (p.331) (p.332) (p.333) (p.334) (p.335) (p.336) (p.337) (p.338) (p.339) (p.340) (p.341) (p.342) (p.343) (p.344) (p.345) (p.346) (p.347) (p.348) (p.349) (p.350) (p.351) (p.352) (p.353) (p.354) (p.355) (p.356) (p.357) (p.358) (p.359) (p.360) (p.361) (p.362) (p.363) (p.364) (p.365) (p.366) (p.367) (p.368) (p.369)

Appendix Table 2. Inventory of Palaeolithic objects originally reputed to be pipes and flutes but since deemed unlikely

Number

Period

Origin

Described as

Material (if known)

Details of Age

Description

Status & Comments

Location (if known)

Main References

Mousterian

Divje babe I, Slovenia

Flute

Femur of juvenile cave bear (Ursus spelaeus)

C14 date of layer 8, 43,100 ± 700 BP (Nelson, 1997)

Length of diaphysis: 113.6 mm. 2 complete holes on posterior side, diameters: 9.7 and 9.0 mm. Distance between the centres of the holes, 35 mm

Debated. Much contention regarding origins of the 2 complete holes (carnivore v. human agency), and original total number of holes. Despite complicated taphonomy carnivore origin remains most likely explanation

National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana

Turk (ed.), 1997; Nelson, 1997 (in Turk (ed.), 1997); Kunej and Turk, 2000; Morley, 2006; numerous other papers

Middle Stone Age

Haua Fteah, Libya

Whistle

?

80,000–60,000 BP?

Fragment

Dubious. Uncertainty about stratigraphy; may be disturbed, from succeeding layer, dated to 34,000 ± 2,800 (Scothern, 1992, p. 71) Chemically damaged surface. Hole may be due to carnivore tooth damage (d’Errico and Villa, 1997; Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

McBurney, 1967 Davidson, 1991; Scothern, 1992; Turk and Kavur, 1997; D’Errico and Villa, 1997

Length: 28 mm. 1 central perforation, possible remains of second and possible mouthpiece. Diameter of perforation: 34 mm. Distance from ‘mouthpiece’ to perforation, 8 mm, to second ‘perforation’, 17.5 mm. (Scothern, 1992, quoting McBurney, 1967)

Mousterian

Kent’s Cavern, Britain

?

Hare bone

?

Three large holes, three small

Unlikely to be a sound-producer (Scothern, 1992)

?

Seewald, 1934; Megaw, 1960; Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Bukovácer Höhle, Lokve, Croatia

Flute?

Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) rib

Aurignacian II

Curved, 3 finger-holes on one side

More likely the product of natural processes than human agency (Scothern, 1992). Does not contain a cavity (Albrecht et al., 2001) so distinctly unlikely

?

Bayer, 1929; Megaw, 1960; Brade, 1975; Fages and Mourer-Chauviré, 1983; Collins, 1986; Scothern, 1992; Rottländer, 1996; Albrecht et al., 1998; Holderman and Serangeli, 1998a

Aurignacian

Cro-Magnon, France

Flute/whistle

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Bone pipe/flute?

Questionable (Scothern, 1992).

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Istállóskö, Hungary

Multi-pitch whistle

Juvenile cave bear femur diaphysis (Ursus spelaeus)

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya. Layer in which it was found C14 dated to Upper Aurignacian; 31.540 ± 660 BP and 30,900 ± 600 (Allsworth-Jones, 1986, quoted in Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Fragmentary.

Animals contributed to the making of at least two of the three holes (Albrecht, Holderman, and Serangeli, 2001)

?

Horusitzky, 1955; Vértes, 1955; Brade, 1982; Soproni, 1985; Allsworth-Jones, 1986; Scothern, 1992; Turk and Kavur, 1997. Albrecht et al., 1998. Holderman and Serangeli, 1998a and 1998b Albrecht, Holderman and Serangeli, 2001

Length: 107 mm. Three holes, diameters: 7 mm, 6 mm and 10–13 mm, the former on the posterior side, the latter pair on the anterior, and separated by 65 mm.

All holes appear punched, although the first appears to be hollowed or chiselled too. Also possibly chewed by rodents. (Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Reconstruction produces A, B flat, B, E

Aurignacian

Les Bernoux, France

Whistle/paint tube?

Bird

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux, France

Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Les Bernoux, France

Whistle?

Bird

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux, France

Scothern, 1992

Aurignacian

Potočka Zijalka, Slovenia

Pierced mandible/flute?

Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), sub-adult or adult (Turk and Kavur, 1997)

‘Upper Aurignacian’. No C14 date available (Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Three holes, diameters 5–6 mm, 5 mm and 5 mm. Centre-centre distances 19 mm and 24 mm, punched or pierced.

More likely the product of natural processes than human agency (Scothern, 1992). At least eight other lower jaws from the site have similar holes (plus other bones); only the number of holes leads to attribution of flute (Brodar and Brodar, 1983; Albrecht et al., 2001)

?

Brodar and Bayer, 1928; Seewald, 1934; Brodar and Brodar, 1983. Scothern, 1992; Hahn and Munzel, 1995; Albrecht et al., 1998; Holderman and Serangeli, 1998a and b; Albrecht et al., 2001

Several nearby signs of carnivore damage

Aurignacian

Saint-Avil-S énieur, Vallée de la Couze, France

Pipe

Bird

Aurignacian

Length: 33 mm.

More likely the product of natural processes than human agency (Scothern, 1992)

?

? (Described in Scothern, 1992, p. 85; not in inventory)

Notched engraving down either side

Aurignacian

Spy, Belgium

2 whistles?

Bird diaphyses

Aurignacian, 32–17 kya

2 specimens

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

Carpentier Collection, University of Liège?

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

Lengths: 39 and 58 mm

Gravettian/Perigordian

Mammutova, Poland

Whistle?

Bird

Gravettian. 28–22 kya.

Engraved. 8 cm long.

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Otte, 1981; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian?

Molodova, Ukraine

Flute

?

Gravettian? 28–22 kya?

Accidental finger holes?

Age and function questioned by Scothern, 1992

?

Cernys, 1955, 1956; Fages and Mourer-Chauviré, 1983; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pair-non-Pair, Gironde, France

Pierced epiphysis/whistle?

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Length: 80 mm

Possible haft (Scothern, 1992)

?

Daleau, 1881; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

Whistle?

Chamois

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Absolon, 1936; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

Whistle?

Reindeer metatarsal (Rangifer tarandus)

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Absolon, 1936; Scothern, 1992.

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

6 pipes/whistles?

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

6 specimens, subjected to acoustic analysis

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Absolon, 1936; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

Whistle?

Ulna of Greylag goose, hollow

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

‘unlikely to be musical’ (Scothern, 1992)

?

Absolon, 1936; Scothern, 1992

Gravettian/Perigordian

Wildschauer, Germany

Bone tube/whistle?

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Engraved.

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Otte, 1981; Scothern, 1992

Length: 104 mm

‘Comparable to Spy examples’ Scothern, 1992

Solutrean

Badegoule, France

Flute?

Reindeer radius (Rangifer tarandus)

Solutrean. 21–19 kya

Hole on ventral surface, two intentionally bored holes on proximal and distal epiphyses

‘Unlikely to be capable of producing sound’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 115). Distal hole too close to the ‘blow hole’; other is arbitrarily placed.

?

Cheynier, 1949; Brade, 1975; Brade, 1982; Scothern, 1992

Solutrean

Badegoule, France

Flute?

Reindeer radius (Rangifer tarandus)

Solutrean. 21–19 kya

Fragmentary. One hole at distal end. Found in same level as above specimen

‘Must be similarly rejected’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 115)

?

Cheynier, n.d.; Scothern, 1992

Solutrean

Badegoule, France

2 pipes

?

Solutrean. 21–19 kya

Questioned. ‘May simply be a series of unrelated bone fragments’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 115)

?

Da Veiga Ferreira and Cardosa, 1975; Scothern, 1992

Solutrean

La Riera cave, Spain

Whistle?

Red deer tibia

Upper terminal Solutrean, C14 dated to 16,900 ± 200

Artefact no. 76

Questioned, though possibly originally able to function as small block and duct whistle (Scothern, 1992, p. 111)

?

Scothern, 1992

Not in inventory Worked tibia of red deer, fragmentary, broken lengthways, only half of bone remains (Scothern, 1992, pp. 110–11)

Magdalenian

La Paloma, Asturias, Spain

?

?

Magdalenian? 18–12 kya?

Perforated bone. Very narrow bore, and perforated through both surfaces. Uncertainty over date; may be as late as Neolithic

Unlikely, due to narrowness of bore and perforation through both sides of the bone (Scothern, 1992, p. 114)

?

Barandiaran, 1973; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Liege Hohle, Enns Valley, Austria

Flute?

?

‘Final Palaeolithic’

4 holes, 2 at either end

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Horusitzky, 1955; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Mas-d’Azil, France

Pierced whistle/haft?

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Length: 45 mm

Musical function questioned. Possibly bone haft rather than sound-producer (Scothern, 1992, p. 121)

?

Pequart and Pequart, 1960; Scothern, 1992

Magdalenian

Molodova V, Ukraine

Flute, horn

Elk horn. Or reindeer antler (Lucius, 1970) or moose antler (Megaw, 1968)

Magdalenian. C14 dated to 17,000 ± 1,400 BP (Hoffecker, 1988)

Length: 210 mm. 4 holes on anterior surface, 2 on posterior, diameters: 5 mm × 2 mm, 6 mm × 3 mm, 2 mm × 2 mm and 2 mm × 4 mm on front, and 1.5-2 mm for the two on rear (Hahn annd Münzel, 1995; Turk and Kavur, 1997)

Lengthwise perforation only reaches as far as the fourth opening (Scothern, 1992, p. 120; Brade, 1982, p. 140); also, holes very small, so probably not functional (Megaw, 1968; Turk and Kavur, 1997), too randomly placed on posterior and too close together on anterior to influence sound (Scothern, 1992, p. 120). Very unlikely to have been intended as a sound-producer

?

Hausler, 1960; Megaw, 1960; Megaw, 1968; Lucius, 1970; Bibikov, 1978; Hoffecker, 1988; Scothern, 1992; Hahn and Münzel, 1995; Brade 1982

Magdalenian?

Molodova V, Ukraine

Flute?

?

‘Late Magdalenian?’ C14 dated to 11,900 ± 238 or 12,300 ± 140 BP (quoted in Turk and Kavur, 1997, probably from Hoffecker, 1988)

7 holes on one side and 2 on rear, hole diameter 2 mm

Age and functionality questioned by Scothern, 1992

?

Megaw, 1968; Scothern, 1992

Hole diameter too small for functionality (Scothern, 1992)

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Bukovace Hohle, Croatia

Bone with bored hole

Bear

Unspecified

Single bored hole

‘No human agency can be conclusively demonstrated other than for the purposes of marrow extraction’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 86)

?

Kormos, 1912; Brade, 1975; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Mammuthohle bei Wiezchowie, Poland

Flute?

?

Unspecified

‘Similar to La Placard’ (Scothern, 1992)

Questionable (Scothern, 1992)

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

2 Whistles?

Bird bone epiphyses

Unspecified

2 specimens. ‘Refuse from needle manufacture’ (Scothern, 1992)

Doubtful musical function (Scothern, 1992)

?

Absolon, 1936; Scothern, 1992

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Salzhofen, Toten Gebirge, Austria

Flute?

Bear upper thigh bone

Unspecified

‘Bored through dorsal surface for purpose of marrow extraction’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 86)

Doubtful musical function (Scothern, 1992)

?

Seewald, 1934; Mottl, 1950; Scothern, 1992

Appendix Table 2 presents items that have, at various times, been reputed to be possible flute-type sound-producers, but which have, since original publication, on the basis of further analysis, been subsequently deemed unlikely to be sound-producers. Appendix Table 2 features forty items.

(p.370) (p.371) (p.372) (p.373) (p.374) (p.375) (p.376) (p.377) (p.378)

Appendix Table 3. Inventory of Palaeolithic reputed phalangeal whistles

Number

Period

Origin

Type

Material

Details of Age

Description

Status & Comments

Location

Reference

W001-x M

Mousterian

La Quina, France

Phalangeal whistles?

Reindeer phalanges (Rangifer tarandus)

?

Numerous examples (‘over twenty’ from Mousterian layers, Scothern, 1992, p. 58) from Mousterian onwards. Pressure punctured, often with accompanying toothmarks

Doubtful—natural damage or carnivore activity more likely (Scothern, 1992, p. 58)

Some La Quina specimens in Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge

Martin, 1906, 1909; Seewald, 1934; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W002-x M

Mousterian

Prolom II, Crimea

Phalangeal whistles

Saiga tartarica

Mousterian, dated by lithic association

74 examples of pierced phalanges (41 from layer 2 represent 55.4% of total), Stepanchuk, 1993, p. 33

?

Stepanchuk, 1993

W003 A

Aurignacian

Aurignac, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

?

Lartet and Christy, 1910; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W004-x A

Aurignacian

Bockstein Im Lonetal, Germany

Phalangeal whistle

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Several examples, late/Final Aurignacian and Magdalenian

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W005 A

Aurignacian

Bourdeilles, Dordogne, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W006–007 A

Aurignacian

Castel-Merle, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

2 examples, including one fragment

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux, France

Scothern, 1992

W008 A

Aurignacian

Gorge d’Enfer B, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W009 A

Aurignacian

Istállóskö, Hungary

Phalangeal whistle

Two reindeer phalanges (Rangifer tarandus)

Aurignacian II

?

Megaw, 1960;Scothern, 1992

W010–011 A

Aurignacian

Les Roches, France

2 phalangeal whistles

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W012 A

Aurignacian

Saint-Jean-de-Verges, French Pyrenees

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

Piercing appears man-made (cf. Dauvois, 1989, fig. 1, p. 6)

?

Dauvois, 1989

W013-x A

Aurignacian

Sirgenstein, Switzerland

Phalangeal whistles

Reindeer phalanges (Rangifer tarandus)

Late Aurignacian, Final Aurignacian, and Proto-Solutrean

Various specimens

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W014 A

Aurignacian

Spy, Belgium

Perforated phalange/whistle?

?

Aurignacian. 32–17 kya

4.5 cm long

Questioned

Carpentier Collection, University of Liege?

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

W015–017 A

Aurignacian

Trou du Sureau, Montaigle, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Mid-Aurignacian

Three examples

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W018–019 G/P

Gravettian/Perigordian

Dolni Vestinice, Moravia, Czech Republic

Phalangeal whistle

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Two examples

?

Scothern, 1992

W020 G/P

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pair-non-Pair, Gironde, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Upper Perigordian/Gravettian. 28–22 kya

?

Daleau, 1881; Scothern, 1992

W021–026 G/P

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pavlov, Moravia, Czech Republic

6 phalangeal whistles

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

6 specimens, 5 of which produce a clear tone

?

Megaw, 1968; Scothern, 1992

W027 G/P

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

Phalangeal whistle

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Pierced by 2 holes; produces C and G pitches

Fragmentary and ‘likely to be the product of natural agencies’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 61)

?

Absolon, 1936; Buchner, 1956; Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W028–029 G/P

Gravettian/Perigordian

Pekarna, Moravia, Czech Republic

2 phalangeal whistles

?

Gravettian. 28–22 kya

Secondary damage such that difficult to identify agency responsible for piercing (Harrison, 1978)

?

Absolon, 1936; Buchner, 1956; Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W030 G/P

Perigordian

Les Eyzies, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

‘from a “Perigordian” layer’ (Harrison, 1978, p. 16). Listed by Scothern (1992) with W083 UP

‘neatly made, circular hole in the distal end of anterior surface’ (Harrison, 1978). This is unusual location for hole and not possible through natural damage

Almost certainly an artefact (Harrison, 1978); Hole NOT natural damage

Musée Nationale de Prehistoire, Les Eyzies

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W031 G/P

Perigordian

Petit Puyrouseau, Dordogne, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

From and ‘Upper Perigordian’ layer (Harrison, 1978)

Museum code: F534

Damage identical to that of experimentally naturally pierced example

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Harrison, 1978

W032 S

Solutrean

Le Mazarat, Dordogne, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

‘From a Solutrean level’ (Harrison, 1978)

4.7 cm long. Small hole in lateral aspect of shaft (Harrison, 1978)

Almost certainly an artefact (Harrison, 1978); Hole NOT natural damage

?

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W033–035 Ma

Magdalenian

Castel Merle, France

3 phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

3 examples, perforated

Highly worn, holes ill-defined, and irregular in shape (Scothern, 1992, p. 61)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Scothern, 1992

W036–037 Ma

Magdalenian

Castel Merle, France

2 phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

2 examples, perforated

Have regular circular holes with V-shaped profile resulting from burin-type tool (p. 61)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Scothern, 1992

W038–039 Ma

Magdalenian

Gourdan, Haute-Garonne, France

2 phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W040 Ma

Magdalenian

Goyet, Belgium

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W041 Ma

Magdalenian

Grotte de l’Homme, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W042 Ma

Magdalenian

Isturitz, French Pyrenees

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

2 specimens

Dauvois, 1989

W043 Ma

Magdalenian

Jankovich Cave, Hungary

Phalangeal whistle.

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W044 Ma

Magdalenian

La Madeleine, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Large hole (38.5 sq. mm) in distal end of posterior surface Audible with 100% reliability over 1.25 km (Harrison, 1978)

Feature ‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992 p. 61). At least one of these examples is considered to be ‘undoubtedly man-made’ (though damaged after deposition) by Scothern (1992, p. 60). Almost certainly artefacts (Harrrison, 1978)

British Museum, London

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W045 Ma

Magdalenian

La Madeleine, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Small circular hole in mid-shaft position (Harrison, 1978)

British Museum, London

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W046–048 Ma

Magdalenian

La Madeleine, France

3 phalangeal whistles

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

3 specimens

Feature ‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992 p. 61)

?

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W049–051 Ma

Magdalenian

La Madeleine, France

3 phalangeal whistles

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

3 specimens (one of them is artefact 1938.34.271; Harrison, 1978)

Feature ‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992 p. 61). Artefact 1938.34.271 has ‘uneven, though obviously man-made’ hole, with a tapered edge (Harisson, 1978)

Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford

Harrison, 1978; Megaw, 1960; Scothern, 1992

W052 Ma

Magdalenian

Laugerie-Basse, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Pitt Rivers Mus. 1938.34.272 (Harrison, 1978)

‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 61) ‘Uneven but obviously man-made hole’ with tapered edge (Harrison, 1978, p. 14)

Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford (Harrison, 1978)

Harrison, 1978; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W053 Ma

Magdalenian

Laugerie-Basse, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Pitt Rivers Mus. 1909.4.1 (Harrison, 1978)

‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 61). ‘Extremely well-preserved’, edges of hole cut at right-angles to bone surface (Harrison, 1978, p. 14)

Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford (Harrison, 1978)

Harrison, 1978; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W054–055 Ma

Magdalenian

Laugerie-Basse, France

2 phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

2 specimens. 4.9 cm and 5.2 cm long

‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 61)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W056 Ma

Magdalenian

Laugerie-Basse, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Smith (1911) suggested it was possible that the hole was made by a hyaena. Harrison (1978) suggests that the damage is depositional, as phalange unlikely to survive the attentions of hyaena

British Museum, London

Smith, 1911; Harrison, 1978; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W057 Ma

Magdalenian

Laugerie-Haute, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Phalanx fragment, 3.3 cm long

Clearly an intentionally produced hole (cf. Dauvois, 1989, fig. 2, p. 9)

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W058 Ma

Magdalenian

Le Chaffaud, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W059-x Ma

Magdalenian

Le Placard, France

Phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian I, II, III

Several examples

?

Seewald, 1934; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W060 Ma

Magdalenian

Les Eyzies, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Feature ‘regularly-shaped and definite blow-holes’ (Scothern, 1992, p. 61)

British Museum, London

Scothern, 1992

W061 Ma

Magdalenian

Lussac-les-Châteaux, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Dubious-looking piercing; appears natural (cf. Dauvois, 1989)

?

Dauvois, 1989

W062 Ma

Magdalenian

Mâcon, France

Phalangeal whistle

Horse and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W063 Ma

Magdalenian

Mas-d’Azil, France

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

?

Seewald, 1934; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W064–066 Ma

Magdalenian

Petersfels, Germany

3 phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

3 specimens

?

Seewald, 1934 Scothern, 1992

W067-x Ma

Magdalenian

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Phalangeal whistles and pipes

Various, including horse and fox

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Several specimens

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W068-x Ma

Magdalenian

Schussenreid, Genrmany

Phalangeal whistles

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya

Several specimens

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W069-x Ma

Magdalenian

Hohler Stein bei Kallenhardt, Germany

Phalangeal whistles

?

Magdalenian. 18–12 kya, and Tardenoisian.

Several specimens

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W070 UP

Late Upper Palaeolithic

Sun Hole, Somerset, England

Phalangeal whistle

?

15–8.3 kya

Damaged

Hole damage typical of piercing occurring after deposition (Harrison, 1978)

University of Bristol Spelaeological Society Collection

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W071 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Abri Blanchard, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Unspecified

?

Harrison, 1978; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W072 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Banwell Hole Cave, England

Phalangeal whistle

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

‘Pleistocene’

Produces tone with fundamental freq. 3586 ±18Hz Would produce 2nd and 3rd harmonics of 10,759 and 17,900 Hz respectively (Harrison, 1978)

Piercing almost certainly the product of natural depositional process

University of Bristol Spelaeological Society Collection

Harrison, 1978

W073 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Bruniquel, Tarn-et-Garonne, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Unspecified

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W074 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Bruniquel, Tarn-et-Garonne, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Unspecified

?

Harrison, 1978; Dauvois, 1989; Scothern, 1992

W075–079 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Castel Merle, France

5 phalangeal whistles

?

Unspecified

5 perforated specimens, one with 2 holes

Musée du Périgord, Périgueux

Scothern, 1992

W080 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Croze de Tayac, Périgord, France

Phalangeal whistle

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

?

Dauvois, 1989

W081 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Gargas, Pyrenees

Phalangeal whistle

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Fragmentary

?

Dauvois, 1989

W082 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Laugerie-Basse, France

Phalangeal whistle

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

?

Dauvois, 1989

W083 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Les Eyzies, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Unspecified

?

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W084–085 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Maisières Canal, Belgium

2 phalangeal whistles

?

Unspecified

I.R.Sc.N.

Otte, 1979; Scothern, 1992

W086–87 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Mas-d’Azil, Pyrenees

2 phalangeal whistles

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

2 specimens

?

Dauvois, 1989

W088–092 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Périgord, France

5 phalangeal whistles

?

Unspecified

5 specimens, few details given

?

Engel, 1874; Scothern, 1992

W093 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Petersfels, Germany

Phalangeal whistle

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

Small circular hole in mid-shaft position (Harrison, 1978)

Almost certainly an artefact (Harrison, 1978)

?

Coles and Higgs, 1969; Harrison, 1978

W094 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Petit Puyrousseau, France

Phalangeal whistle

?

Unspecified

?

Harrison, 1978; Scothern, 1992

W095 UP

‘Upper Palaeolithic’

Salzhofen, Toten gebirge, Austria

Phalangeal whistle

?

Unspecified

?

Seewald, 1934; Scothern, 1992

W096 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Solutré, France

Phalangeal whistle

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

?

Dauvois, 1989

W097 UP

Upper Palaeolithic

Trilobite, France

Phalangeal whistle

Not specified

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

?

Dauvois, 1989

Appendix Table 3 presents items that have, in various reports, been reputed to be possible phalangeal whistle sound-producers; where comments about their likely status are available in the literature, these are noted. More than 186 examples are recorded (several entries are reported as ‘multiple examples’).

(p.379) (p.380) (p.381) (p.382) (p.383) (p.384) (p.385) (p.386) (p.387) (p.388)