The blood–brain barrier and perivascular cells
This chapter discusses the blood-brain (BBB) barrier and perivascular cells. The BBB is a dynamic and complex interface between blood and brain enabling an optimal internal environment for neurons and glial cells. It is uncertain if cytokines enter the brain from the blood. Whatever the signaling mechanisms, it is clear that peripheral cytokines can influence the brain and that cytokines can be released by microglia and other cells, including brain endothelial cells, thereby enhancing passage of leukocytes and macrophages into the brain. The role of neutrophils and macrophages in the pathomechanism of the BBB alteration, edema formation, and cell damage in meningitis, trauma, and vascular lesions needs further evaluation.
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