Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Murder in the CourtroomThe Cognitive Neuroscience of Violence$

Brigitte Vallabhajosula

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199995721

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199995721.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

Chapter 5. The Etiology and Neurobiology of Violence

Chapter 5. The Etiology and Neurobiology of Violence

Murder in the Courtroom
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Afifi, A. K., & Bergman, R. A. (2005). Functional neuroanatomy: Text and atlas (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Aharoni, E., Vincent, G. M., Harenski, C. L., Calhoun, V. D., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., Gazzaniga, M.S., & Kiehl, K. A. (2013). Neuroprediction of future rearrest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(15), 6223–6228.

Alvarez, J. A., & Emory, E. (2006). Executive function and the frontal lobes: A meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology Review, 16(1), 17–42.

Amen, D. G., Hanks, C., Prunella, J. R., & Green, A. (2007). Regional cerebral blood flow in impulsive murderers. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 19, 304–309.

(p.285) American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic criteria for 301.7 Antisocial Personality Disorder. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://behavenet.com/node/21650

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, N. E., & Kiehl, K. A. (2012). The psychopath magnetized: Insights from brain imaging. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(1), 52–60.

Aycicegi, A., Dinn, W. M., Harris, C. L., & Erkman, H. (2005). Neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Effects of comorbid conditions on task performance. European Psychiatry, 18(5), 241–248.

Ballard, C., & Corbett, A. (2013). Agitation and aggression in people with Alzheimer’s disease. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 26(3), 252–259.

Barkataki, I., Kumari, V., Das, M., Hill, M., Morris, R., O’Connell, P., . . . Sharma, T. (2005). A neuropsychological investigation into violence and mental illness. Schizophrenia Research, 74(1), 1–13.

Bearden, C. E., Hoffman, K. M., & Cannon, T. D. (2001). The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: A critical review. Bipolar Disorder, 3, 106–150.

Blair, R. J. R. (2002). Neurocognitive models of acquired sociopathy and developmental psychopathy. In J. Glickson (Ed.), The neurobiology of criminal behavior (pp. 157–186). Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Blair, J., Mitchell, D., & Blair, K. (2005). The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Blum, K., Chen, A. L. C., Giordano, J., Borsten, J., Chen, T. J., Hauser, M., . . . Barh, D. (2012). The addictive brain: All roads lead to dopamine. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44(2), 134–143.

Bremner, J. D.,Vithilingham, M., Vermetten, E., Nazeer, A., Adil, J., . . . Charney, D. S. (2001). Reduced volume of orbitofrontal cortex in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 273–279.

Broomhall, L. (2005). Acquired sociopathy: A neuropsychological study of executive dysfunction in violent offenders. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 12(2), 367–387.

Brower, M. C., & Price, B. H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behavior: A critical review. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 71, 720–726.

Bufkin, J. L., & Luttrell, V. R. (2005). Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: Current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 6(2), 176–191.

Burns, A., Gallagley, A., & Byrne J. (2004). Delirium. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 75, 362–367.

Cardenas, V. A., Samuelson, K., Lenoci, M., Studholme, C., Neylan, T. C., Marmar, C.R., . . . Weiner, M. W. (2011). Changes in brain anatomy during the course of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research, 193(2), 93–100.

Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, W., . . . Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.

(p.286) Catafau, A. M. (2001). Brain SPECT in clinical practice. Part I: Perfusion. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 42, 259–271.

Christopher, P. P., McCabe, P. J, & Fisher, W. H. (2012). Prevalence of involvement in the criminal justice system during severe mania and associated symptomatology. Psychiatric Services, 63(1), 33–39.

Clark, W. R., & Grunstein, M. (2004). The role of neurotransmitters in human behavior. In Are we hardwired? The role of genes in human behavior (pp. 136–157). New York: Oxford University Press.

Coccaro, E. F., Beresford, B., Minar, P., Kaskow, J., & Geracioti, T. (2007). CSF testosterone: Relationship to aggression, impulsivity, and venturesomeness in adult males with personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 41, 488–492.

Cope, L. M., Shane, M. S., Segall, J. M., Nyalakanti, P. K., Stevens, M. C., Pearlson, G.D., . . . Kiehl, K. A. (2012). Examining the effect of psychopathic traits on gray matter volume in a community substance abuse sample. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 204, 91–100.

Crowell, T. A., Kieffer, K. M., Kugeares, S., & Vanderplog, R. D. (2003). Executive and nonexecutive neuropsychological functioning in antisocial personality disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 16(2), 100–109.

Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation—A possible prelude to violence. Science, 289(5479), 591–594.

Davis, M., & Whalen, P. J. (2001). The amygdala: Vigilance and emotion. Molecular Psychiatry, 6, 13–34.

De Brito, S. A., & Hodgins, S. (2009). Executive functions of persistent violent offenders: A critical review of the literature. In S. Hodgins, E. Viding, & A. Plodowski (Eds.), Persistent violent offenders: Neurobiology and rehabilitation (pp. 167–199). Oxford: Oxford University Press,.

Declercq, F., & Audenaert, K. (2011). Predatory violence aiming at relief in a case of mass murder: Meloy’s criteria for applied forensic practice. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 29, 578–591.

de Oliveira-Souza, R., Hare, R. D., Bramati, I. E., Garrido, G. J., Azevedo Ignacio, F., Tovar-Moll, F., & Moll, J. (2008). Psychopathy as a disorder of the moral brain: Fronto-temporo-limbic grey matter reductions demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage, 40(3), 1202–1213.

Eisenberg, D., & Berma, K. (2010). Executive function, neural circuitry, and genetic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 258–277.

Eisenegger, C., Naef, M., Snozzi, R., Heinrichs, M., & Fehr, E. (2010). Prejudice and truth about the effect of testosterone on human bargaining behavior. Nature, 463, 356–359.

Eldreth, D. A., Matochik, J. A., Cadet, J. L., & Bolla, K. I. (2004). Abnormal brain activity in prefrontal brain regions in abstinent marijuana users. NeuroImage, 23, 914–920.

Elliott, F. A. (1992). Violence—The neurologic contribution: An overview. Archives of Neurology, 49, 595–603.

Engelborghs, S., Vloeberghs, E., Le Bastard, N., Van Buggenhout, M., Mariën, P., Somers, N., . . . De Deyn, P. P. (2008). The dopaminergic neurotransmitter (p.287) system is associated with aggression and agitation in frontotemporal dementia. Neurochemistry International, 52(6), 1052–1060.

Ersche, K. D., Fletcher, P. C., Roiser, J.P., Fryer, T. D., London, M., Robbins, T. W., & Sahakian, B. J. (2006). Differences in orbitofrontal activation during decision-making between methadone-maintained opiate users, heroin users and healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 188, 364–373.

Fazel, S., Lichtenstein, P., Grann, M., Goodwin, G. M., & Långström, N. (2010). Bipolar disorder and violent crime: New evidence from population-based longitudinal studies and systematic review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 931–938.

Fazel, S., Philipson, J., Gardiner, L., Merritt, R., & Grann, M. (2009). Neurological disorders and violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis with a focus on epilepsy and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, 256, 1591–1602.

Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Genetic contributions to antisocial personality and behavior: A meta- analytic review from an evolutionary perspective. Journal of Social Psychology, 150(2), 160–180.

Ferguson, C. J., Averill, P. M., Rhoades, H., Rocha, D., Gruber, N. P., & Gummattira, P. (2005). Social isolation, impulsivity and depression as predictors of aggression in a psychiatric inpatient population. Psychiatric Quarterly, 76(2), 123–137.

Filley, C. M., Price, B. H., Nell, V., Antoinett, T., Morgan, A. S., Bresnahan, J. F., . . . Kelly, J. P. (2001). Toward an understanding of violence: Neurobehavioral aspects of unwarranted physical aggression. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 14, 1–4.

Fischer, M., Barkley, R. A., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). Young adult follow-up of hyperactive children: Self-reported psychiatric disorders, co- morbidity, and the role of childhood conduct problems and teen CD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 463–475.

Fishbein, D. (2000). Neuropsychological function, drug abuse, and violence: A conceptual framework. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(2), 139–159.

Flaks, M. K., Malta, S. M., Almeida, P. P., Bueno, O. F., Pupo, M. C., Andreoli, S. B., . . . Bressan, R. A. (2014). Attentional and executive functions are differentially affected by post-traumatic stress disorder and trauma. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 48(1), 32–39.

Fowler, J. S., Volkow, N. D., Kassed, C. A., & Chang, L. (2007, April). Imaging the addicted human brain. Science & Practice Perspectives, 4–16.

Franklin, T. R., Acton, P. D., Maldjian, J. A., Gray, J. D., Croft, J. R., Dackis, C. A., . . . Childress, A. R. (2002). Decreased gray matter concentration in the insular, orbitofrontal, cingulate, and temporal cortices of cocaine patients. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 134–142.

Friedel, R. O. (2004). Dopamine dysfunction in borderline personality disorder: A hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 1029–1039.

Fujiwara, E., Brand, M., Borsutzky, S., Steingass, H., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2008). Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoffs syndrome patients remains stable over two years. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(5), 576–587.

Fuster, J. (1997). The prefrontal cortex. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.

(p.288) Galani, V. J., & Rana, D. G. (2011). Depression and antidepressants with dopamine hypothesis: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Frontier Research, 1(2), 45–60.

Gerra, G., Avanzini, P., Zaimovic, A., Fertonani, G., Caccavari, R., Delsignore, R., . . . Brambilla, F. (1996). Neurotransmitter and endocrine modulation of aggressive behavior and its components in normal humans. Behavioral Brain Research, 81, 19–24.

Gerra, G., Zaimovic, A., Avanzini, P., Chittolini, B., Giucastro, G., Caccavari, R., . . . Brambilla, F. (1997). Neurotransmitter neuroendocrine responses to experimentally induced aggression in humans: Influence of personality variable. Psychiatry Research, 66, 33–43.

Glenn, A. L., Raine, A., & Schug, R. A. (2009). The neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(1), 5–6.

Goethals, I., Audenaert, K., Jacobs, F., Van den Eynde, F., Bernagie, K., Kolindou, A., . . . Van Herringen, C. (2005). Brain perfusion SPECT in impulsivity-related personality disorders. Behavioral Brain Research, 157, 187–192.

Goldberg, E. (2001). The executive brain: Frontal lobes and the civilized mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

Golden, C. J., Peterson-Rohne, A., & Gontkovsky, S. T. (1996). Neuropsychological correlates of violence and aggression: A review of the clinical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1(1), 3–25.

Goldsmith, D., & Bartusiak, M. (2006). E = Einstein: His life, his thought and his influence on our culture. New York: Sterling.

Goldstein, R. Z., & Volkow, N. D. (2002). Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: Neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 1642–1652.

Goodman, M., & New, A. (2000). Impulsive aggression in borderline personality disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 2, 56–61.

Grant, S., Contoreggi, C., & London, E. D. (2000). Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision making. Neuropsychologia, 38, 1180–1187.

Graz, C., Etschel, E., Schoech, H., & Soyka, M. (2009). Criminal behaviour and violent crimes in former in-patients with affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 117(1–2), 98–103.

Gregory, S., Ffytche, D., Simmons, A., Kumari, V., Howard, M., Hodgins, S., Blackwood, N. (2012). The antisocial brain: psychopathy matters: A structural MRI investigation of antisocial male violent offenders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(9), 962–972.

Hanlon, R. E., Brook, M., Stratton, J., Jensen, M., Leah H., & Rubin, L. H. (2013). Neuropsychological and intellectual differences between types of murderers: Affective/impulsive versus predatory/ instrumental (premeditated) homicide. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0093854813479779

Hawkins, K. A. & Trobst, K. K. (2000). Frontal lobe dysfunction and aggression: Conceptual issues and research findings. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5(2), 147–157

Hayempour, B. J., Cohen, S., Newberg, A., & Alavi, A. (2013). Neuromolecular imaging instrumentation demonstrating dysfunctional brain function in (p.289) schizophrenic patients. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinsonism, 3, 114.

Herholz, K., Langen K. J., Schiepers C., & Mountz J. M. (2012). Brain tumors. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, 42, 356–370.

Hermann, D., Sartorius, A., Welzel, H., Walter, S., Skopp, G., Ende, G., & Mann, K. (2007). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users. Biological Psychiatry, 61(11), 1281–1289.

Herrero, O., Escorial, S., & Colom, R. (2010). Basic executive processes in incarcerated offenders. Personality & Individual Differences, 48(2), 133–137.

Herrmann, N., Lanctôt, K. L., & Khan, L. R. (2004). The role of norepinephrine in the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 16, 261–276.

Ito, M., Okazaki, M., Takahashi, S., Muramatsu, R., Kato, M., & Onuma, T. (2007). Subacute postictal aggression in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behavior, 10, 611–614.

Jacobs, A. H., Winkler, A., Castro, M. G., & Lowenstein, P. (2005). Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 32, S358–S383.

Jones, S. H., & Bentall, R. P. (2006). The psychology of bipolar disorder. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Josephs, K. A., Whitwell, J. L., Weigand, S. D., Senjem, M. L., Boeve, B. F., Knopman, C. R., . . . Petersen, R. C. (2011). Predicting functional decline in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Brain, 134(2), 432–448.

Kalechstein, A. D., Newton, T. F., & Green, M. (2003). Methamphetamine dependence is associated with neurocognitive impairment in the initial phases of abstinence. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 15, 215–220.

Kanahara, N., Sekine, Y., Haraguchi, T., Uchida, Y., Hashimoto, K., Shimizu, E., & Iyo, M. (2013). Orbitofrontal cortex abnormality and deficit schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 143, 246–252.

Kandel, E. R., & Freed, D. (1989). Frontal-lobe dysfunction and antisocial behavior: A review. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(3), 404–413.

Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., & Jessell, T. M. (2000). Principles of neural science (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Karl, A., Schaefer, M., Malta, L. S., Dorfel, D., Rohleder, N., & Werner, A. (2006). A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 1004–1031.

Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.

Ketter, T. A., Kimbrell, T. A., George, M. S., Dunn, R.T., Speer, A. M., Benson, B. E., . . . Post, R. M. (2001). Effects of mood and subtype on cerebral glucose metabolism in treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 97–109.

Kim, S. J., Lyoo, I. K., Hwang, J., Chung, A., Hoon, S. Y, Kim, J., . . . Renshaw, P. F. (2006). Prefrontal grey-matter changes in short-term and (p.290) long-term abstinent methamphetamine abusers. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 9, 221–228.

Krakowski, M. (2003). Violence and serotonin: Influence of impulse control, affect regulation, and social functioning. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 15(3), 294–305.

Kwentus, J. A., Hart, R. P. Peck, E. T., & Kornstein, S. (1985). Psychiatric complications of closed head trauma. Psychosomatics, 26(1), 8–17.

Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Burke, J. D., & Applegate, B. (2005). Predicting future antisocial personality disorder in males from a clinical assessment in childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 389–399.

Langevin, R., & Curnoe, S. (2008). Are mentally retarded and learning disordered overrepresented among sex offenders and paraphilics? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(4), 401–415.

León-Carrión, J., & Ramos, F. J. (2003). Blows to the head during development can predispose to violent criminal behaviour: Rehabilitation of consequences of head injury is a measure for crime prevention. Brain Injury, 17(3), 207–216.

Leung D. K., & Van Heertum, R. L (2009). Interventional nuclear brain imaging. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, 39, 195–203.

Lezak, M. D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lichter, D. G., & Cummings, J. L. (Eds.). (2001). Frontal-subcortical circuits in psychiatric and neurological disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Linnoila, M., Virkkunen, M., Scheinin, M., Nuutila, A., Rimon, R., & Goodwin, F. K. (1983). Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from nonimpulsive violent behavior. Life Sciences, 33, 2609–2614.

Manning, V., Wanigaratne, S., Best, D., Hill, R. G., Reed, L. J., Ball, D., . . . Strang, J. (2008). Changes in neuropsychological functioning during alcohol detoxification. European Addiction Research, 14(4), 226–233.

Marsh, L., & Krauss, G. L. (2000). Aggression and violence in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behavior, 1(3), 160–168.

Marsh, N. V., & Martinovich, W. M. (2006). Executive dysfunction and domestic violence. Brain Injury, 20(1), 61–66.

Martino, D. J., Bucay, D., Butman, J. T., & Allegri, R.F. (2007). Neuropsychological frontal impairments and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 152(2–3), 121–128.

Martins, S., & Fernandes, L. (2012). Delirium in elderly people: A review. Frontiers in Neurology, 3(101), 1–12.

McCloskey, M. S., Berman, M. E., Noblett, K. L., & Coccaro, E. F. (2006). Intermittent explosive disorder-integrated research diagnostic criteria: Convergent and discriminant validity, Journal of Psychiatry Research, 40, 231–242.

McClosky, M. S., Phan, K. L., & Coccaro, E. (2005). Neuroimaging and personality disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 7, 65–72.

McDonald, C. R., Swartz, B. E., Halgren, E., Patell, A., Daimes, R., & Mandelkern, M. (2006). The relationship of regional frontal hypometabolism to executive function: A resting fluorodeoxyglucose PET study of patients with epilepsy and healthy controls. Epilepsy & Behavior, 9, 58–67.

(p.291) Meagher, D. (2001). Delirium: the role of psychiatry. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, 433–442.

Meloy, J. R. (2006). Empirical basis and forensic application of affective and predatory violence. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 539–547.

Mendez, M. F., & Kremen, S. A. (2012). Delirium. In R. Daroff, G. Fenichel, J. Jankovic, & J. Mazziotta (Eds.), Bradley’s neurology in clinical practice (6th ed.,pp. 26–37). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.

Mesulam, M. M. (2002). The human frontal lobes: Transcending the default mode through contingent encoding. In D. T. Stuss & R. T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 8–30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Buckholtz, J. W., Kolachana, B., Hariri, A., Pezawas, L., Blasi, G., . . . Weinberger, D. R. (2006). Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 103, 6269–6274.

Middleton, F. A., & Strick, P. L. (2002). Basal-ganglia projections to the prefrontal cortex of the primate. Cerebral Cortex, 12(9), 926–935.

Minzenberg. M. J., Fan, J., New, A. S., Tang, C. Y., & Siever, L. J. (2007). Fronto-limbic dysfunction in response to facial emotion in borderline personality disorder: an event- related fMRI study. Psychiatry Research, 155, 231–243.

Morgan, A. B., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(1), 113–136.

Motzkin, J. C., Newman, J. P., Kiehl, K. A., & Koenigs, M. (2011). Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 17348–17357.

Müeller, J. L., Gänssbauer, S., Sommer, M., Döhnel, K., Weber, T., Schmidt-Wilcke, T., &, Hajak, G. (2008). Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths: Evidence from voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 163(3), 213–222.

Narayan, V. M., Narr, K. L., Kumari, V., Woods, R. P., Thompson, P. M., Toga, A.W., & Sharma, T. (2007). Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1418–1427.

Neary D., Snowden, J. S., & Mann, D. M. (2000). Classification and description of frontotemporal dementias. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 920, 46–51.

Newton, P. (2009, January 29). The anatomy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mouse-man/200901/the-anatomy-post-traumatic-stress-disorder

Ogilvie, J. M., Stewart, A. L., Chan, R. C. K., & Shum, D. H. K. (2011). Neuropsychological measures of executive function and antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 49, 1063–1107.

Passingham, R. E. & Wise, S. P. (2012). The neurobiology of the prefrontal cortex: Anatomy, evolution, and the origin of insight. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pennington, B. F., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(1), 51–87.

(p.292) Petrides, M., & Pandya, D. N. (2002). Association pathways of the prefrontal cortex and functional observations. In D.T. Stuss & R. T. (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 31–50). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Potkin, S. G., Alva, G., Fleming, K., Anand, R., Keator, D., Carreon, D., . . . Fallon, J. H. (2002). A PET study of the pathophysiology of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 227–237.

Pradhan, B. K., Chakrabarti, S., Nehra, R., & Mankotia, A. (2008). Cognitive functions in bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia: Comparison. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(5), 515–525.

Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., & Colletti, P. (2000). Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(2), 119–127.

Raine, A., Meloy, J., Bihrie, J, Stoddard, L., La Casse, L., & Buchsbaum, M. (1998). Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in affective and predatory murderers. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 329–332.

Raine, A., & Yang, Y. (2006). Neural foundations to moral reasoning and antisocial behavior. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 1(3), 203–213.

Rosen, H. J., Gorno-Tempini, M. L., Goldman, W. P., Perry, R. J., Schuff, N., Weiner, M., . . . Miller, B. L. (2002). Patterns of brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia. Neurology, 58(2), 198–208.

Rosen, H. J., Hartikainen, K. M., Jagust, W., Kramer, J. H., Reed, B. R., Cummings, J. L., . . . Miller, B. L. (2002). Utility of clinical criteria in differentiating frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) from AD. Neurology, 58, 1608–1615.

Roth, R., Koven, N., Randolph, J., Flashman, L., Pixley, H., Ricketts, S., . . . Saykin, A. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of executive control in bipolar disorder. Neuroreport, 17(11), 1085–1089.

Rylands, A. J., Hinz, R., Jones, M., Holmes, S. E., Feldmann, M., Brown, G., . . . Talbot, P. S. (2012). Pre- and postsynaptic serotonergic differences in males with extreme levels of impulsive aggression without callous unemotional traits: A positron emission tomography study using 11C-DASB and 11C-MDL100907. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 1004–1011.

Samuelson, K. W., Neylan, T. C., Lenoci, M., Metzler, T. J., Cardenas, V., Weiner, M. W., & Marmar, C. R. (2009). Longitudinal effects of PTSD on memory functioning. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15, 853–861.

Sansone, R. A., & Sansone, L. A. (2009). Borderline personality and criminality. Psychiatry (Edgemont), 6, 16–20.

Sapolsky, R. M., Gunn, J. A., Gunn, C., Siegel, A., Grafman, A., Blake, P., . . . Schmidle, R. E. (2013). Topics in the neurobiology of aggression: Implications to deterrence. Washington, DC: Pentagon Press.

Schuff, N., Neylan, T. C., Fox-Bosetti, S., Lenoci, M., Samuelson, K. W., Studholme, C., . . . Weiner, M. W. (2008). Abnormal N-acetylaspartate in hippocampus and anterior cingulate in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research, 162, 147–157.

Seethalakshmi, R., Parkar, S. R., Nair, N., Batra, S. A., Pandit, A. G., Adarkar, S. A., . . . Moghe, S. H. (2007). Regional brain metabolism in (p.293) schizophrenia: The influence of antipsychotics. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 53, 241–246.

Seo, D., Patrick, C. J., & Kennealy, P. J. (2008). Role of serotonin and dopamine system interactions in the neurobiology of impulsive aggression and its comorbidity with other clinical disorders. Aggressive and Violent Behavior, 13(5), 383–395.

Siegel, A. (2005). The neurobiology of aggression and rage. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Siever, L. J. (2008). Neurobiology of aggression and violence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 429–442.

Soloff, P. H., Meltzer, C. C., Becker, C., Greer, P. J., Kelly, T. M., & Constantine, D. (2003). Impulsivity and prefrontal hypometabolism in borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 123, 153–163.

Spaletta, G., Troisi, A., Alimenti, S., diMichele, F., Pau, F., Pasini, A., & Caltagironi, C. (2001). Reduced prefrontal cognitive activation associated with aggression in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 50(1–2), 134–135.

Stein, D. J., Trestman, R. L., Mitropoulou, V., Coccaro, E. F., Hollander, E., & Siever, L. J. (1996). Impulsivity and serotonergic function in compulsive personality disorder. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 8(4), 393–398.

Stevens, M. C., Kaplan, R. F., & Hesselbrock, V. M. (2003). Executive-cognitive functioning in the development of antisocial personality disorder. Addictive Behaviors, 28(2), 285–300.

Storandt, M. (2008). Cognitive deficits in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(3), 198–202.

Swann, A. C., Lijffijt, M., Lane, S. D., Cox, B., Steinberg, J. L., & Moeller, F. G. (2013). Norepinephrine and impulsivity: effects of acute yohimbine. Psychopharmacology, 6, 229(1), 83–94.

Swann, A. C. (2003). Neuroreceptor mechanisms of aggression and its treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(4), 26–35.

Tateno, A., Jorge, R. E., & Robinson, R. G. (2003). Clinical correlates of aggressive behavior after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 15, 155–160.

Taylor, W. D., Steffens, D. C., McQuoid, D. R., Payne, M. E., Lee, S.H., Lai, T.J., & Krishnan, K. R. (2003). Smaller orbital frontal cortex volumes associated with functional disability in depressed elders. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 144–149.

Teten, A. L., Sharp, C., Stanford, M. S., Lake, S. L., Raine, A. & Kent, T. A. (2011). Correspondence of aggressive behavior classifications among young adults using the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 279–285.

Tremblay, R. E., Hartup, W. W., & Archer, J. (Eds.). (2005). Developmental origins of aggression. New York: Guilford Press.

van den Heuvel, O. A., Veltman, D. J., Groenewegen, H. J., Cath, D. C., van Balkom, A. J., van Hartskamp, J., . . . van Dyck, R. (2005). Frontal-striatal dysfunction during planning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(3), 301–310.

(p.294) van Elst, L. T., Hesslinger, B., Thiel, T., Geiger, E., Haegele, K., Lemieux, L., . . . Ebert, D. (2003). Frontolimbic brain abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: A volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 163–171.

Vassos, E., Collier, D. A., & Fazel, S. (2013). Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies of violence and aggression. Molecular Psychiatry. Advance online publication. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23546171

Verdejo-García, A., & Pérez-García, M. (2007). Profile of executive deficits in cocaine and heroin polysubstance users: common and differential effects on separate executive components, Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 190, 517–530.

Villano, J. L., Mlinarevich, N., Watson, K. S., Engelhard, H. H., & Anderson-Shaw, L. (2009). Aggression in a patient with primary brain tumor: Ethical implications for best management. Journal of Neurooncology, 94(2), 293–296.

Volkow, N. D., Wang, G.-J., Franceschi, D., Fowler, J. S., Thanos, P. K., Maynard, L., . . ., Li, T. K. (2006). Low doses of alcohol substantially decrease glucose metabolism in the human brain. NeuroImage, 29, 295–301.

Watson, D. B. (1996). Opening the door—looking back to move forward. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 543–548.

Weinshenker, N. J., & Siegel, A. (2002). Bimodal classification of aggression: Affective defense and predatory attack. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(3), 237–250.

Weniger, G., Lange, C., Sachsse, U., & Irle, E. (2008). Amygdala and hippocampal volumes and cognition in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118, 281–290.

Wenk, G. L. (2003). Neuropathologic changes in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(9), 7–10.

Williams, W. H., Mewse, A. J., Tonks, J., Mills, S., Burgess, C. N., & Cordan, G. (2010). Traumatic brain injury in a prison population: Prevalence and risk for re-offending. Brain Injury, 24, 1184–1188.

Wortzel, H. S., & Arciniegas, D. B. (2010). Combat veterans and the death penalty: A forensic neuropsychiatric perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 38, 407–414.

Yang, Y., Raine, A., Colletti, P., Toga, A. W., & Narr, K. L. (2009). Abnormal temporal and prefrontal cortical gray matter thinning in psychopaths. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(6), 561–562.

Yehuda, R., Tischler, L., Golier, J. A., Grossman, R., Brand, S. R., Kaufman, S., & Harvey, P. D. (2006). Longitudinal assessment of cognitive performance in Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 714–721.