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Rwanda Before the GenocideCatholic Politics and Ethnic Discourse in the Late Colonial Era$

J.J. Carney

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199982271

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199982271.001.0001

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(p.325) Bibliography

(p.325) Bibliography

Rwanda Before the Genocide
Oxford University Press

archival and primary sources

I conducted my primary archival work in the General Archives of the Missionaries of Africa in Rome (abbreviated A.G.M.Afr. in footnotes). In Rwanda, I undertook research in the archives of the Diocese of Kabgayi (abbreviated A.D.K.); the Bibliothèque du Centre Missionaire Lavigerie (abbreviated C.M.L.), the White Fathers’ local archives in Kigali, Rwanda; and the library of Nyakibanda Major Seminary. These archives provided the vast majority of diocesan reports, missionary correspondence, political analyses, United Nations reports, and other key Belgian colonial documents. In addition, I consulted many pastoral letters, newspaper articles, and other primary sources in Vénuste Linguyeneza’s online archive, http://www.cier-be.info. Although this website was taken down in 2011, most pastoral statements can be found in Linguyeneza’s Vérité, justice, charité: lettres pastorales et autres déclarations des évèques catholiques du Rwanda, 1956-1962 (Waterloo, Belgium, 2001). Many of Linguyeneza’s other primary sources can be consulted in the Diocese of Kabgayi archives in Rwanda. I am grateful to the Missionaries of Africa and the Diocese of Kabgayi for offering me such extensive access to archival material, especially considering the sensitivity of this history.

Newspaper and media sources include the Bujumbura-based Temps Nouveaux d’Afrique, the White Fathers’ biweekly newspaper for Rwanda, Burundi, and Eastern Congo between 1954 and 1962; L’Ami: La revue des elites de l’Est de la Colonie, an influential White Father monthly for Catholic lay elites in the early 1950s; Grands Lacs, the White Fathers’ international journal between the 1930s and the mid-1950s; and Vivant Univers, the White Fathers’ successor to Grands Lacs in the late 1950s and 1960s. I also reviewed late 1950s issues of the Catholic Kinyarwanda weekly Kinyamateka. Several diocesan journals proved invaluable, (p.326) such as the academic journals Théologie et Pastorale au Rwanda and its successor Théologie et Pastorale au Rwanda et Burundi; Kabgayi’s diocesan newspaper Trait d’Union; and Nyundo’s diocesan newspaper Civitas Mariae. On the 1963–1964 Gikongoro massacres, I located a range of contemporary articles from the international Catholic press in the University of Notre Dame’s Hesburgh library.

Finally, Fidele Nkundabagenzi’s Rwanda Politique 19581960 (Brussels: Centre de Recherche et d’Information Sociopolitique (CRISP): 1962) collects over 400 pages of primary sources from the period, focusing mostly on political documents from colonial officials and indigenous political leaders.

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