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Imagining the PastHistorical Fiction in New Kingdom Egypt$

Colleen Manassa

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199982226

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199982226.001.0001

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(p.187) Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

(p.187) Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

Source:
Imagining the Past
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The main portion of the preserved text consists of three columns1: column x+1 contains the ends of eleven lines; column x+2 includes ten lines of mostly preserved text; column x+3 contains the beginning of ten lines, with an additional fragment belonging to this column.2 The majority of the text is written in black ink, with red ink used for section divisions, a few individual words, and supralinear dots (see pp. 104–104 above). In addition to the main text, there are two hieroglyphs representing a standing official (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, Gardiner A21) above column x+2; for this extra-textual use of hieroglyphic signs, one may compare the “frisky horses” that appear above the text in P. Sallier III.3 A two-line “jotting” that goes across the verso of col. x+2 and x+3 is written in a looser hand and a different ductus than the literary text on the recto and appears to be the fragmentary beginning of a letter.4

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

1 […] Menkheper[re], l.p.h. [… ]

2 […] Menkheperre, l.p.h.° [… ]

3 […] we go [… ]

4 […] terror(?) of my [… ]

5 […gra]ss(?).°The speech [… ]

6 […] how is it? [… ]

7 […] he […] the […]

(p.188) Transliteration and Translation (Fragment 2, Recto)

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

1 […] petitions, char[iotry(?)… ]

2 […] 7 [months] [and x] days […]

Transliteration and Translation (Fragment 3, Recto)

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

1 […] Menkheper[re] [… ]

2 […] with their […]

Transliteration (Column x+1–x+3)

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 (p.189) Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

Translation (Column x+1–x+3)

1 […] your he[art], my […]

2[…] come(?)to me!” Then he heard the […]

3[…] that which they said to me was good […]

4[…] answer, and I […]

5[…] his face, °and I shall make […]

6[…grass] for the mouth(s) of my chariot [horses]

7[…] taking up weapons.Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

8[…Paser, son of Ta]atja. °And I

9[…] Apiru. °Then […]

10[…the enemies(?)] whom you smote by means of 1,900 Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 x+1, 11 [chariots(?)]

[…] Darkness fell x+2, 1before me.°

[I]‌ found [him li]ke a bird, pinioned Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941in the grasp of a fowler,

he (the bird) being unable to hide himself.°

Now after a 2 long while, Paser, son of Taatja responded:Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

“Allow me to speak, Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941and thus you will make your heart firm, o King Menkheperre, l.p.h.°

(p.190) 3 Look, Amun-Re, king of the gods, your good father,Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 has come to you,

so that he might do for you all things that are in your heart.Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

(Thutmose III speaks:) “I found my heart courageous, my heart 4in joy.Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

all that (I) had done having succeeded.

<I was> like Montu,°

while their (chariot) spans became like Seth, great of strength,°

Baal 5 in [his] moment.

I was shooting on the right °and capturing on the left.

I acted with my (own) hand °to the south of 6Amun, king of the gods°

[…], may you cause that there come to me a rebellious wind,°

in which are three Montu-gods, °

they hiding 7[…] gold. °

Montu lord of Armant at my right [arm];°

Montu, lord of Tod, at my 8 [left arm].”

[Montu] lord of Thebes was making destruction [among] them,°

before the king Menkheperre, l.p.h. °

I found that which x+2, 9Amun-[Ra king of the gods…] did [… ]

[…] of great lions who rage [against them?]

he being overthrown together with their charix+2, 10ots.

[…King Me]nkheper[re], l.p.h., struck down the [com]mander of the female

donkey of the ruler of Kharu,

x+3, 1 as he was smiting […]x+3, 2chariot teams [… ]

[…]3great […] of Kharu […]4 army [… ]

5and they [… ]

[…]6King [Menkheperre, l.p.h….] my army [… ]

7wives […] total of the various […] of the foreign lands [… ]

[Lo] 8ok […] that which […] did for me [… ]

9Amun […flig]ht which you caused […]10do […]Amun-Re, king of the gods, the vizier who judges […]

Transliteration and Translation (Fragment 1, Verso)

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 (p.191)

1[…Amun] king of the gods, give [… ]

2[…] Re(?), king Menkheperre [l.p.h…. ]

3[…] day(?) of your oath-making [… ]

4[…] my lifetime [… ]

5[…] going forth [… ]

6[…] I was saying [… ]

7[…] lifetime(?) […]

Transliteration and Translation (Fragment 2, Verso)

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

1[…king] Menkheperre [l.p.h…. ]

2[…] likewise the […]

Text Notes

Fragment 1, recto, line 5: The lack of context here precludes any definite readings; the plant determinative (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941) in close proximity to the word Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 recalls the passage in col. x+1, ln. 6, which itself is paralleled by the feeding of chariot horses in The Capture of Joppa (see p. 79 above). However, the word Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 here may refer to speech rather than a body part.

Fragment 2, recto, line 1: The term Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 commonly describes an appeal to a god or the king (Wb. IV, 104, 5–10). Keeping with the military genre of Thutmose III in Asia, one may compare Ramesses II’s speech to his cowardly army at the Battle of Kadesh: “(For) everyone of you who requested a petition (spr.w), I said (lit. did), ‘Behold I will act on his behalf every single day!’”5 One of the countless examples of petitioning the divine may be found in another member of the LES corpus: in The Tale of the Two Brothers, Bata cries out to Re as his elder brother seeks revenge for a false offense, and Re “hears all of his petitions (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941).”6

Fragment 2, recto, line 2: The hieratic traces before the number fit an orthography of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “month”; the missing portion of the h in hrw indicates that some ink may have flaked off the sign below the lunar crescent, which can be read as a w-coil or, less likely, a sun-disk (for the “open” form of the sun-disk, compare the writing of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 in Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 in col. x+2, ln. 8). The significance of the possible restoration of “seven months” is discussed above, p. 107.

Column x+1, line 2: The alternation between first and third person pronouns suggests that the walking legs followed by the dative Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 is the end of an imperative, and the likely candidate, Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “come,” is restored here to give the overall sense of the passage, although any number of verbs of (p.192) motion could have originally been written. The next statement, Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, appears to be a contingent expression (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 + prospective Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+19417) following the imperative as direct speech;8 without additional context, further consideration of the (often difficult) differentiation between the particle Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 (from “to fall”) and the bound contingent construction Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 is unnecessary.9

Column x+1, line 5: The construction Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 appears to be a Late Egyptian use of the finalis,10 a form more commonly found in Demotic11 and Coptic.12 The use of the first person in the construction provides another rare example of such in earlier phases of Egyptian.13 The fragmentary text in column x+1 suggests that the king hears favorable reports (about troop movements?), and will take some action as a result, as expressed in the finalis.

Column x+1, line 10: The phrase Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 appears again in col. x+3, ln. 2; for a number followed by Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, compare several examples in the Kadesh Battle Poem.14 Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 2500 Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “He found 2500 chariots surrounding him on his escape route.”

Column x+2, line 1: A bird with pinioned wings is a common metaphor in ancient Egyptian texts;15 as noted above, the description of both foreigners and native Egyptians as types of birds lends flexibility and depth to the image in Thutmose III in Asia (see pp. 109–109). One of the closest parallels to the phraseology in Thutmose III in Asia appears in the Late Egyptian Miscellanies; P. Anastasi V describes the Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “the hot person”16 in the following terms:17 Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “He is as a bird pinioned in a person’s hand, he is unable to find any manner of flight.” From the realm of military texts, the use of the verb Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, “to pinion,” is ubiquitous in the records of Ramesses III. In P. Harris I, col. 76, lns. 10–11, the Shasu are pinioned (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941), brought as plunder, and presented to the Ennead as Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941-servants,18 and in col. 77, ln. 11, describing the conclusion of the Year 11 Libyan war, Ramesses III describes his captives as “pinioned (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941) like birds before my horses.”19 Similar examples abound in the hieroglyphic records of Ramesses III’s military activities, describing the pinioning of enemies from throughout the Egyptian world.20

The phrase Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 utilizes a negative aorist, the construction with Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 specifically negating ability;21 Botti, followed by Spalinger,22 translates this as “whose secret he does not know.” Yet the “secret” in question is a mystery and no parallels are forthcoming. Although the verb is written Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, Fischer-Elfert23 reads the word as a misspelling of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “to spread,” translating the passage as “Er konnte sich nicht ausbreiten”; this (p.193) emendation is well supported by examples of confused writings of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 as Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 and vice versa and fits the avian context of the passage.24 The translation offered here—“he being unable to hide himself”—does not require any emendation of the text and also works well within the context of the story, but Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “to spread” should be considered a likely alternative.

Column x+2, lines 1–2: The phrase Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “now after a long while” is one of many expressions within the corpus of LES that express the passage of time within the narrative;25 although less common than other phrases utilizing Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, the passage in Thutmose III in Asia finds a parallel in The Contendings of Horus and Seth col. 4, ln. 1.26

Column x+2, line 2: Paser’s filiation uses the Late Egyptian possessive pronoun Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “he of” rather than the more usual Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “son.”27 Previous translators have emended the first part of Paser’s speech to Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “Let me say to you.”28 Without emendation the imperative Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 can be followed by a subjunctive Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+194129 and ethical dative, which also gives a logical sense to the passage. The following Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941form is an “initial conjunctional main clause,”30 here following an imperative.31

Column x+2, line 3: The phrase Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941inAppendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 is added above the line as a correction.

Column x+2, lines 3–4: The expression Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “courageous of heart” is well attested in Egyptian documents, including Sinuhe’s praise of Senwosret I: Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941“He is courageous of heart when he sees multitudes.”32 The autobiography of Amenemhab, who fought alongside Thutmose III, provides another interesting parallel for Paser’s speech:33

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

  • He (Thutmose III) desiring that I be at his side (lit. feet34);
  • and that while he was on the battlefield,
  • his victory and strength making the heart courageous.

Column x+2, line 5: Popko has suggested that the phrase Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 refers to Thutmose III giving hand-signals to Amun, noting a parallel in the Late Egyptian Miscellanies:35

Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941

  • You are a deaf person, unable to hear,
  • to whom one “acts with the hand” (i.e. makes hand-signals).

(p.194) However, the Late Egyptian Miscellanies passage describes an idle scribe, and the claim of deafness and the need for sign language is clearly derogatory. No examples of hand-signals in combat are forthcoming, and one would expect instead a mention of standards or other more effective signaling devices.

Column x+2, line 6: The “hostile wind” (Wb. IV 89.1) finds numerous parallels in the “storminess” of the king in battle, as noted above, p. 114. Contrary winds also appear in contemporaneous funerary literature,36 such as in an annotation to four goddesses riding on serpents in the Eleventh Hour of the Book of Amduat: Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “It is from the faces of these goddesses that the hostile wind and uproarious wind come forth.”37

Column x+2, line 9: After the word Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “lion” and the adjective Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “great,” the hieratic text is broken, but the traces of a first-h may fit with a reading Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “to rage” (Wb. V 136.10–15) or Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “to harm, be violent” (Wb. V 137.2–15), verbs whose meanings can interchange in Late Egyptian.38 The king often manifests as a roaring and brave lion, a metaphor that becomes concrete in the depiction of an actual lion in Ramesses II’s camp at the Battle of Kadesh.39 However, the ink traces above the possible k-basket still do not find a satisfactory explanation.

The word at the end of line 9, beginning with the group mr, could be restored as chariot (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941) or chariot warrior (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941), but with the new placement of a fragment (see Figure 4.1), the former is now certain.

Column x+2, line 10: Between the verb Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 and the genitive “of the female donkey of the ruler of Kharu” is a single masculine noun that is determined with a striking man,40 and the noun Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “commander” (Wb. IV 218.1–3)41 should be restored, since the damaged hieratic sign before the striking man is parallel to the orthography of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 in Frag. 1, ln. 3.

Column x+3, line 2: For a parallel to Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, see the note to col. x+1, ln. 10 (p. 192).

Column x+3, line 3: The term Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 does not modify Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “foreign lands,” but appears to refer to objects that precede the word “total (Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941).”

Column x+3, line 10: Amun-Re is here called by his typical epithet “king of the gods” as well as “vizier who judges […].” As Popko has noted, two possible restorations of Amun’s epithet are possible: Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 or Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941.42 Considering the role of the gods in the judgment of enemies, such as in the Victory Stela of Merneptah (see p. 123), the latter is perhaps more likely.

Notes:

(1) The total measurements of the preserved portion of the first three columns are 36.2 cm long, and 19.5 cm high. The extant text in column x+1 is 5 cm wide; the lines of column x+2 are not of even length, ranging from 25 cm (line 1) to 27.3 cm (line 10); column x+3 is unevenly preserved, with between 1 and 3 cm of the beginning of the column, with an additional fragment (maximum height (p.271) 8.8 cm x maximum length 6.3 cm) containing additional portions of lines 6–10. I would like to thank Sara Caramello for her detailed measurements of the papyrus.

(2) Botti, JEA 41 (1955): pls. 16–18; an additional fragment was placed in column x+1, lns. 8–11 and column x+3, ln. 10, through the work of Roccati (as represented in the photograph in Eggebrecht, ed., Ägyptens Aufstieg zur Weltmach, 192).

(3) Spalinger, Transformation of an Egyptian Narrative, x.

(4) Botti, JEA 41 (1955): pl. 18: Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “The scribe of the temple, pure of arms, Montu(em)waset, (son of) Pen[…] king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Usermaatre / to the effect that I say to Amun-Re, king of the gods.”

(5) KRI II, 58, lns. 6–11.

(6) Two Brothers, col. 6, lns. 5–6 (= Gardiner, LES 15, 13); the king can also make petitions of the gods—again, among the many examples, compare the statement in the Wadi Mia inscription of Seti I (KRI I 66, l. 12): Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 … “Look god has carried out my petitions, conducting for me water upon the mountains…”.

(7) Junge, Late Egyptian Grammar, 140–141; Winand, Études de néo-égyptien 1, 231–236.

(8) For an alternate reading of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 see Popko, http://aaew.bbaw.de/tla/servlet/S02?wc=298123&db=0.

(9) On this distinction, see Vernus, Future at Issue, 66–67; note particularly his statement on p. 67, n. 46:

The situation however, is perhaps not that simple, since the Middle Egyptian message auxiliary Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 has values not always very different from those of the Late Egyptian particle Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, insofar it is a sequential marker. For L.E. Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 headed constructions and L.E. sequential forms (conjunctive; Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941) are mutually incompatible, which suggests that they belong to the same paradigmatic class.

(10) Gilula, JNES 34 (1975): 135–136.

(11) Johnson, Demotic Verbal System, 178–179.

(12) Layton, A Coptic Grammar, 283–285 (termed the “future conjunctive”); he notes that the first person form is “rare” (sect. 357).

(13) Cf. CT I 230f cited in Gilula, JNES 34 (1975): 136.

(14) P 84 (KRI II, 31, lns. 6–9); P132 (KRI II, 45, lns. 6–10); P 153 (KRI II, 51, lns. 12–16); cf. Gardiner, Kadesh Inscriptions, p. 19.

(15) Wb. V 578.8–10; Grapow, Die bildlichen Ausdrücke, 85.

(16) On this figure in ancient Egyptian texts, see Fischer-Elfert, Abseits von Maat, 148–158.

(17) Anastasi V col. 7, ln. 8–col. 8, ln. 1 (Gardiner, Late Egyptian Miscellanies, 59, lns. 6–7); parallel noted by Fischer-Elfert, SAK 27 (1999): 82.

(18) Grandet, Papyrus Harris I, vol. 2, 245, n. 922.

(19) Grandet, Papyrus Harris I, vol. 2, 252, n. 928.

(20) Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, vol. 1, pl. 11, ln. 4 (Nubians = KRI V 9, ln. 5); pl. 24, ln. 4 (Libyans = KRI V 19, ln. 3); pl. 26, ln. 12 (Libyans = KRI V 20, ln. 2); pl. 27, ln. 37 (Libyans = KRI V 23, ln. 13); pl. 28, ln. 54 (Sea Peoples); idem, Medinet Habu, vol. 2, pl. 98, ln. 6 (Amorites); most of these examples, and the P. Harris I parallels, were also noted in Fischer-Elfert, SAK 27 (1999): 82, n. 59.

(p.272) (21) Junge, Late Egyptian Grammar, p. 100; Winand, Études de néo-égyptien I, 239–240.

(22) In Lesko, ed., Egyptological Studies in Honor of Richard A. Parker, 155.

(23) SAK 27 (1999): 81–82.

(24) See the examples in Fischer-Elfert, SAK 27 (1999): 82, n. 61; for religious compositions showing the same confusion, compare the writing of Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 for Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 in the Eleventh Hour of the Book of Amduat (Manassa, Late Egyptian Underworld, 355–356, text note b).

(25) Hintze, Untersuchungen zu Stil und Sprache, 7–30; the spelling Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 also appears in The Quarrel of Apepi and Seqenenre and The Contendings of Horus and Seth.

(26) As noted in Fischer-Elfert, SAK 27 (1999): 82, n. 58.

(27) Junge, Late Egyptian Grammar, 53–54; for the Coptic descendant of this form, see Layton, Coptic Grammar, sect. 54.

(28) Botti, JEA 41 (1955): 66; Spalinger, in Lesko, ed., Egyptological Studies in Honor of Richard Parker, 155.

(29) Compare Černy and Groll, Late Egyptian Grammar, 454–457 (note particularly ex. 1240).

(30) Černy and Groll, Late Egyptian Grammar, 404–407.

(31) Sweeny, Correspondence and Dialogue, 49; for this passage, see also idem, in Hasitzka et al., eds., Das alte Ägypten und seine Nachbarn, 145.

(32) Sinuhe B58–59; see also Gardiner, Notes on the Story of Sinuhe, 35.

(33) Urk. IV 890, lns. 11–13.

(34) The ancient idiom effectively conveys the king being in the chariot, so to be at the king’s side is to be at his feet.

(35) http://aaew.bbaw.de/tla/servlet/S02?wc=298362&db=0, citing P. Koller 2,5 (= Gardiner, LEM, 117, ln. 16–18, ln. 17; Caminos, LEM, 132.

(36) For a later example of the Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941, see Rosati, in Osing and Rosati, Papiri Geroglifici e ieratici da Tebtynis, 195–196 and n. 24.

(37) Hornung, Texte zum Amduat, vol. 3, 763; for commentary to this passage, see Manassa, Late Egyptian Underworld, 356–357.

(38) Lesko, Late Egyptian Dictionary, 177.

(39) Rössler-Köhler, in III, cols. 1080–1090; van Essche, in Delvaux and Warmenbol, eds., Les divins chats d’Égypte, 32–37.

(40) Popko’s suggestion Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 (http://aaew.bbaw.de/tla/servlet/S02?wc=298462&db=0) does not fit the context of Thutmose III in Asia, particularly as the term is used in the ostraca concerning donkey-hires from Deir el-Medina—see Janssen, Donkeys at Deir el-Medina, 81–84.

(41) Typically used as a royal epithet—compare P. Harris I, col. 75, ln. 10; for Appendix 3 P. Turin 1940+1941 “organizer” as a title (used in religious contexts), see Darnell, SAK 22 (1995): 54–55.